Common childhood rashes | Pregnancy Birth and Baby
Most children experience a rash at one time or another, and many disappear without treatment. Others may be accompanied by fever, itchiness and other symptoms. Here is a guide to some common rashes in kids.
If you think your child might have meningitis rash, go to the nearest emergency department immediately. You can read more about serious childhood rashes here.
Rashes with no fever or itching
Milia (blocked oil glands)
Up to half of newborn babies develop small white spots called milia on their face, especially on the nose. These are just blocked pores, and they’re not itchy or contagious. They usually clear up without treatment within a few weeks.
Many newborns develop a blotchy red skin reaction called erythema toxicum, which can appear between 2 days and 2 weeks after birth. Flat, red patches or small bumps often first appear on the face and spread to the body and limbs. The rash is harmless, not contagious, and will clear after a few days or a week.
Some babies get acne on their cheeks and nose in the first few months of life. These pimples normally clear up without any treatment, usually in a few months, but sometimes it can take a year.
Nappy rash is an inflammation of the skin in the nappy area that looks red, sore and inflamed. Nappy rash is caused by a number of things, including urine or poo irritating the baby’s skin.
To avoid nappy rash, keep the nappy area clean and dry with frequent nappy changes and nappy-free time. You can help protect the skin by putting on a barrier cream such as zinc or soft white paraffin at each nappy change.
Persistent nappy rash can be treated with a medicated cream. Don’t use talcum powder or antiseptics to treat nappy rash. If your baby’s skin has developed a fungal infection, you’ll need to use an antifungal ointment. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for advice.
Erythema multiforme is a rash triggered by an infection, medication or an illness. Red spots develop on the hands or feet before spreading across both sides of the body (over a day or so). The spots are not usually itchy, but might become raised or blistered.
Your baby might feel unwell or have a mild fever before the rash appears. Erythema multiforme is not contagious, and usually clears up without treatment in 3 to 6 weeks.
Keratosis pilaris (‘chicken skin’)
Keratosis pilaris is a harmless condition where the skin becomes rough and bumpy, as if permanently covered in goose pimples. These bumps most commonly occur on the upper arms and thighs. You can try several things to help the rash to clear up.
Rashes that might be itchy
Eczema causes the skin to become itchy, red, dry and cracked, especially in the creases at the knees and elbows. It is usually treated with corticosteroid creams to reduce inflammation, and moisturisers to stop the skin from drying out.
Eczema is a long-term condition that can show up when babies are only a few months old. Certain triggers, such as viral infections, soap and pool chlorine, can cause symptoms to appear.
Ringworm is a contagious, mild skin infection that causes a ring-like red rash with a clear centre. It can occur almost anywhere on the body, although the most common areas are the baby’s scalp, feet and groin.
Ringworm is caused by a fungus, not a worm, and is usually treated with over-the-counter antifungal creams. You should keep your child home from childcare or school until a day after you have started treatment to prevent spreading the infection.
Prickly heat (heat rash)
Heat rash might appear if your baby gets hot in a humid environment. The rash shows as tiny red bumps or blisters on the skin, which can be very itchy. Cooling your baby down and avoiding humidity is the best way to counteract heat rash, which usually clears within 2 to 3 days without treatment.
Impetigo (school sores)
Impetigo is a highly contagious bacterial infection of the skin. It causes red sores and blisters that form a yellow crust. It is very common in children aged 2 to 6, for whom it is not usually serious, but it can be dangerous for newborn babies. It is common in children who have scabies.
If your child has impetigo, you should see your doctor, who might prescribe an antibiotic cream, ointment or tablet. This should clear the infection within 7 to 10 days. You should keep your child home from childcare or school and away from young babies until the sores have dried up, usually a few days after treatment starts.
Hives is a raised, red, itchy rash that can appear on any part of the body at any time, but is common on the chest, stomach and back, as well as the throat and limbs. Hives usually disappears within a few days without any treatment. Your pharmacist can advise you about over-the-counter medications to treat hives. If the rash doesn't go away, you should see your doctor.
Pityriasis rosea is a mild skin rash that sometimes appears after a sore throat, cold or fever. It usually affects only children over 10.
It begins with a single pink or tan patch on the chest or back. Oval red patches then appear on the chest or back and limbs over the next weeks. They might be itchy, and your child might feel tired and unwell.
The exact cause of pityriasis rosea is unclear, and experts believe it is probably not contagious. The rash usually clears up within a couple of months without treatment.
If you are pregnant, pityriasis rosea can in rare cases lead to complications. See your doctor if you are pregnant and come into contact with a child who has pityriasis rosea.
Molluscum contagiosum is a viral skin infection that is spread by skin-to-skin contact or by sharing swimming pool water or towels.
Molluscum contagiosum spots look like pimples and grow into round pearly white lumps, usually 2 to 5 millimetres in size. They can be itchy. Usually they heal without treatment within 6 months, but it might take longer.
Rashes with fever
Slapped cheek disease (fifth disease)
Slapped cheek disease is a viral infection that mainly affects pre-school and school-age children. It typically causes a bright red rash on both cheeks that spreads as a ‘lacy’ rash on the body and limbs. Occasionally, it causes fever.
Slapped cheek disease is usually mild and clears up in a few days without treatment. The child is contagious before the rash appears, but not once it has appeared.
The virus can affect a pregnant woman, potentially causing a type of anaemia in her unborn baby. It can also cause miscarriage. If you suspect you or your child has slapped cheek disease, you should avoid contact with women who are, or might be, pregnant.
Hand, foot and mouth disease
Hand, foot and mouth disease is a mild but highly contagious viral illness that causes a rash on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. It is not the same as the foot-and-mouth disease that affects farm animals.
The disease is common in childcare and kindergartens. Your child might feel unwell and have a fever and blisters on the hands and feet and in the mouth, and also in the nappy area, that last 7 to 10 days. Children with hand, foot and mouth disease should stay away from childcare or school until all the blisters have dried up.
Hand, foot and mouth disease usually resolves on its own without major problems but in rare cases it can be more serious especially in people whose immune system is not functioning normally or pregnant women. These rare problems include infections of the brain and heart muscle and miscarriage in pregnant women.
Roseola infantum is a contagious viral infection that can cause cold-like symptoms and a high fever. Kids with roseola infantum have raised pink spots that start on the chest, stomach and back and spread to the limbs. The child is contagious before the rash appears, but not after. The rash usually lasts 3 to 5 days.
The high fever may last for a few days. Roseola infantum can also cause some children to have a febrile convulsion. If your child has a convulsion (fit), call triple zero (000) immediately and ask for an ambulance. Febrile convulsions are scary to see but are generally not harmful.
When to seek help
Many babies develop a skin rash in their first days or weeks as their sensitive skin adapts to a new environment. Most rashes are harmless and go away on their own. But if your baby seems unwell, or if you’re worried, you should see your doctor. They can advise about the cause and whether treatment is necessary.
Whatever their age, you should take your child to the doctor if they have a rash and persistent high temperature, cold or cough symptoms or swollen neck glands.
Treatment of common childhood rashes
If you think your child might be contagious, they should stay at home. Keep them away from school, childcare and other children. You should also keep them away from women who are pregnant, or who might be pregnant, since some childhood infections can cause serious problems in unborn babies.
You can use paracetamol or ibuprofen (in babies aged over 3 months) to reduce fever — read the packet instructions carefully to ensure your child receives the right amount for their age and weight.
Your pharmacist can advise you on treating the symptoms of common rashes. For example, you can use over-the-counter creams to prevent itchiness.
If you are concerned about your child, call Pregnancy, Birth and Baby on 1800 882 436 to talk to a maternal child health nurse, or call Healthdirect on 1800 022 022 to talk to a registered nurse. Alternatively, contact your doctor.
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Newborn Rashes and Birthmarks
Is this your child's symptom?
Normal skin rashes and birthmark questions about newborns
Newborn Rashes - Topics Covered
If your baby is healthy, skip the "What to Do" section. Go directly to the topic number that relates to your question for advice.
Acne. Small red bumps on the face (onset 2-4 weeks).
Drooling or Spit-Up Rash. Rash around the mouth and on the chin (onset anytime).
Erythema Toxicum. Red blotches with small white "pimple" in the center (onset 2-3 days).
Skin Injury from Birth Process. From forceps, scalp electrode or birth canal (present at birth).
Milia. Tiny white bumps on the nose and cheeks (present at birth).
Mongolian Spots. Bluish-green birthmark, often on buttock (present at birth).
Stork Bites (Pink Birthmarks). On back of neck or bridge of nose (present at birth).
Strawberry Hemangiomas. Raised red birthmarks (onset 2-4 weeks).
Port-wine Stains. Dark red or purple flat birthmarks (present at birth).
Newborn Face Rashes: Most Common Ones
Erythema Toxicum 50% (onset day 2 or 3)
Milia 40% (present at birth)
Baby Acne 30% (onset week 2 to 4)
Drooling or Spit-up Rash (common and onset any time)
Heat Rash (common and onset any time)
Many newborn rashes that have no clear cause are heat rashes.
Heat rashes are a pink blotchy area with tiny bumps.
They mainly occur on the face, neck and chest.
During hot weather, most temporary newborn rashes are heat rashes.
Cause: blocked off sweat glands. The openings are so tiny in newborns, that any irritation can block them. Examples are getting any ointment on the skin, friction from clothing or being overheated. Being held against the mother's skin while nursing causes many face rashes.
Herpes Simplex: Serious Newborn Rash
Appearance. Several water blisters or pimples grouped in a cluster. They look like the cold sores (fever blisters) that adults get on their lip. After several days, they crust over.
Location. Just one part of the body, usually the scalp or face.
Redness. The base can be pink. The pinkness does not extend beyond the cluster of vesicles.
Onset. Within the first 2 weeks of life.
Importance. Early treatment with anti-viral drugs can prevent serious problems. If you think your newborn's rash looks like herpes, call your child's doctor now.
Imitator. Although herpes can be confused with erythema toxicum, they look very different.
When to Call for Newborn Rashes and Birthmarks
Call 911 Now
Not moving or very weak
You think your child has a life-threatening emergency
Call Doctor or Seek Care Now
Age less than 1 month old and looks or acts abnormal in any way
Fever in baby less than 12 weeks old. Caution: do NOT give your baby any fever medicine before being seen.
Purple or blood-colored spots or dots not present at birth
Tiny blisters (little bumps that contain clear fluid)
Pimples (little bumps that contain pus). Exception: looks like erythema toxicum which occurs in half of newborns.
Skin looks infected (such as spreading redness, sores or pus)
Rash is painful to touch
You think your child needs to be seen, and the problem is urgent
Contact Doctor Within 24 Hours
You think your child needs to be seen, but the problem is not urgent
Contact Doctor During Office Hours
Mild newborn rash, but cause is not clear
You have other questions or concerns
Self Care at Home
Normal newborn rashes or birthmarks
Seattle Children's Urgent Care Locations
If your child’s illness or injury is life-threatening, call 911.
Care Advice for Newborn Rashes and Birthmarks
More than 30 percent of newborns develop baby acne of the face. Acne consists of small red bumps.
This baby acne begins at 2 to 4 weeks of age. It lasts until 4 to 6 months of age.
The cause appears to be the transfer of maternal hormones just prior to birth.
Since it goes away on its own, no treatment is needed. Baby oil or ointments make it worse.
Drooling or Spit-up Rash:
Many babies have a rash on the chin or cheeks that comes and goes. This is often due to contact with food. It's more common after starting baby foods. In newborns, it can also be from stomach acid that has been spit up. Prolonged contact with spit-up during sleep can cause the rash to get worse.
Other temporary rashes on the face are heat rashes. These can occur in areas held against the mother's skin during nursing. Heat rashes are more common in the summertime.
Rinse the face with water after all feedings or spitting up. During hot weather, change the baby's position more often. Also, put a cool wet washcloth on the rash. Do this for 10 minutes.
More than 50 percent of babies get a rash called erythema toxicum. It starts on the second or third day of life.
It's a harmless baby rash that doesn't need to be seen.
The rash is made up red blotches. They are ½ inch to 1 inch (1 to 2.5 cm). The blotches have a small white or yellow "pimple" in the center.
They look like insect bites, but are not. Red blotches are the main feature.
They can be numerous, keep occurring, and look terrible. They can occur anywhere on the body surface, except the palms and soles.
Their cause is unknown, but they are not an infection.
They go away by 1-2 weeks of age.
No treatment is needed. Ointments or baby oil make it worse.
Skin Injury from Forceps, Scalp Electrode or Birth Canal:
The pressure of a forceps on the skin can leave marks. You may see bruises or scrapes anywhere on the head or face.
During birth, skin overlying bony prominences can become damaged. You might see this on the sides of the skull bone. This is from pressure from the birth canal. Even without a forceps delivery, you may see bruises or scrapes.
Scalp electrodes can also cause scalp scrapes and scabs.
The bruises and scrapes will be noted at birth. They will be more noticeable by day 2. They heal over or go away by 1 - 2 weeks of age.
A fat tissue injury won't appear until day 5 to 10. Look for a firm coin-shaped lump. It will be under the skin and sometimes with a scab. This lump may take 3 or 4 weeks to go away.
For any breaks in the skin, apply an antibiotic ointment (such as Polysporin). No prescription is needed. Use 3 times per day until healed.
Call Your Doctor If:
It becomes tender to the touch
Becomes soft in the center
Starts to looks infected
Milia are tiny white bumps that occur on the face. The nose and cheeks are most often involved. Milia can also be seen on the forehead and chin.
Milia occur in 40 percent of newborn babies. Present at birth.
Milia are many in number. They occur equally on both sides of the face.
Although they look like pimples, they are much smaller (pinhead size). They are not infected.
They do not look like water blisters.
They are blocked-off skin pores. They will open up.
Milia will go away by 1 to 2 months of age.
No treatment is needed. Ointments or creams can make them worse.
A Mongolian spot is a normal bluish-green or bluish-gray flat birthmark. They occur in over 90 percent of Native American, Asian, Hispanic, and African American babies. They are also seen in 10 percent of Caucasians, especially those of Mediterranean descent.
They are present at birth.
They occur most commonly over the back and buttocks. However, they can be present on any part of the body.
They vary greatly in size and shape.
They do not indicate illness or any disease.
Most fade away by 2 or 3 years of age. A trace may last into adult life.
Stork Bites (Pink Birthmarks):
Flat pink birthmarks that occur over the bridge of the nose or the eyelids. You can also find them on the back of the neck ("stork bites"). The ones in front are often referred to as "an angel's kiss".
They occur in more than 50 percent of newborns. They are present at birth.
All the birthmarks on the bridge of the nose and eyelids clear completely. Those on the eyelids clear by 1 year of age. Those on the bridge of the nose may last for a few more years. Those on the forehead from the nose up to the hairline usually last into adulthood. Laser treatment during infancy should be considered. Most birthmarks on the nape of the neck also clear. But, 25 percent can last into adult life.
Strawberry hemangiomas are red birthmarks that are raised or increasing in size.
Onset usually between 2-4 weeks of age. Most often, start after 3 weeks of age. Sometimes (although rare), they don't appear until the second month of life.
They become larger for 1 year. Then, they fade away over 6 to 8 years without any treatment.
They run a small risk of bleeding with trauma. Any bleeding should stop with 10 minutes of direct pressure.
Discuss with your child's doctor on the next regular visit. Call sooner if you are concerned.
Port-Wine Stain Birthmarks:
Present at birth in 1 out of 200 newborns
Deeper in color (dark red or purple) than stork bites (salmon patches)
Flat, smooth surface
Natural course: Do not fade or disappear like stork bites. May become darker.
Grow with the child, but cover the same area
Treatment: May refer to dermatologist for laser treatments early in infancy
Call Your Doctor If:
Your baby starts to look or act abnormal in any way
You think your child needs to be seen
And remember, contact your doctor if your child develops any of the 'Call Your Doctor' symptoms.
Disclaimer: this health information is for educational purposes only. You, the reader, assume full responsibility for how you choose to use it.
After discharge from the hospital, mother and baby gradually get used to the daily routine. The child should eat well and be warm - this is the first on the list. No less important is the care of the skin of the baby, which is very delicate and sensitive to external stimuli. To adapt to the new environment, the baby needs time and care of parents. Chemicals, fragrances, dyes in clothes, and detergents cause redness, diaper rash, or a rash. How to properly care for the skin of a newborn to protect the child from contact dermatitis, allergies, and other rashes?
The baby is born with a protective coating. During this period, there is no need to bathe the baby or use baby lotions and creams.
A full bath is normal from the first days of a baby's life, the main thing is to follow the rules:
- bathe your baby in a warm room.
- water should be at body temperature: 36-37 degrees to the touch.
- make sure the necessary items for the procedure are within reach. - remove jewelry that can scratch the child.
- hold the newborn firmly by lifting his head above the water.
- do not use cotton swabs to clean the nose and ears.
- To wash your baby's face, use water without soap.
- never leave a child unattended while bathing, even for a moment.
- For the first 2-3 months after birth, give up shampoo and soap, which can cause an allergic reaction in the baby.
- if you do use baby bath products, make sure they are soft, suitable for babies and odorless.
- then carefully wrap the baby in a cotton towel or a special corner robe for newborns.
- the room in which the baby will be after the bath should be warm, and air conditioners and fans should be turned off to prevent colds. Umbilical cord care
By the time of discharge from the hospital, this organ, which connected mother and baby during all 9 months of pregnancy, will begin to dry out. Gradually, the umbilical cord atrophies and falls off within 1-2 weeks. Until then, the place of its attachment to the belly of the newborn must be kept clean and dry. All you need is plain water. You can not pull the keratinized part, even if it begins to fall off. The process will end by itself. To protect your baby's delicate skin, buy diapers for newborns that have a notch in the waistband for the unhealed navel. If you are using regular diapers, fold the edge so that the fabric does not rub against the tummy. In some cases, the child may need a doctor. Contact your pediatrician if your child has a fever of 38°C or more along with changes in the navel: the area is red and swollen; oozing yellow pus; there is an unpleasant smell. Many mothers are worried about the appearance of small specks of blood on the baby's undershirt or diaper, the child's bed. A little bleeding is normal.
Diapers and diapers
Change diapers more often as soon as you notice that they are wet or dirty. If left for too long, it can cause infections. For newborn hygiene, thoroughly clean the genital area after every diaper change. Wash your baby under warm, running water to prevent irritation. Allow a few minutes for the skin to air dry, or gently pat dry with a soft towel. Use baby wipes less often to care for your newborn's skin. Perfume and alcohol in them can cause irritation, cause a rash. Make sure you buy diapers in a size that fits your baby. If the baby's skin in the diaper area is irritated, choose a different brand or stop using them for a while. . Wash reusable diapers and diapers with a mild, unscented detergent or clean, hot water. Most diaper rashes on a newborn's skin are not dangerous, but some can be a sign of an infection and need to be looked after. If the baby's skin is very reddened, itchy, or causes pain, contact your pediatrician immediately.
What to do in case of skin problems
In the first months after birth, the baby may develop a rash, irritation, diaper rash, which seem unusual to parents.
Most of the newborn skin problems do not need treatment:
- baby pimples - a small red rash on the face. As a rule, it disappears over time without intervention.
- milia are tiny whiteheads on a child's face.
- erythema is a common patchy rash that can affect newborns. Some appear as yellow or white bumps surrounded by a red halo. The rash tends to migrate to different parts of the body. It is most common on the second day of life, but may appear at birth or within the first two weeks. There is no cure - erythema gradually disappears on its own.
This rash appears as red bumps that may fester. It usually appears on the forehead, cheeks, or scalp, and sometimes spreads to other parts of the body. The risk group includes infants who suffer from allergies from birth or have a genetic predisposition to the disease. In case of pathology, it is recommended to use special moisturizers: ointments, creams, oils. Do not bathe the baby for a long time with this disease. When an allergic rash appears, a consultation with a pediatrician is required.
- untimely diaper change. Urine or stool in a diaper irritates a newborn's skin, causing red weeping spots.
- bacterial or yeast infection. Taking antibiotics can cause the growth of fungi of the genus Candida. It usually appears around the genitals and buttocks of an infant. It looks like red spots with a whitish coating.
How to properly care for your skin to prevent diaper rash:
- do not use reusable diapers often.
- give up talcum powder: it dries out the skin of a newborn.
- air baths for half an hour. Heat rash is caused by overheating of the body. It is usually visible in the folds of the baby's skin. Hot, humid weather is a favorable time for prickly heat. To avoid rashes, keep your newborn cool by dressing him in loose cotton clothing.
This disease develops when an infant's skin comes into contact with an irritant. The rash appears at the points of contact with the allergen: metal latches on T-shirts; dyes in clothes; washing powder; inappropriate soap, shampoo; allergic to the oil used. Parents need to trace, after which rashes appear, and eliminate the irritant. To bathe the baby, you need to use shampoo and soap that do not cause allergies in the newborn; iron baby clothes before putting them on. For washing, special powders or gels are used that do not contain fragrances and dyes, the child's clothes, bed linen and blankets are washed separately from the family's wardrobe items.
Rashes in infants | Rassvet Clinic
Babies are generous with various rashes. According to the "good" tradition, most of them are considered allergic with all the consequences - a strict diet for a nursing mother, transfer to artificial feeding, prescription of therapeutic mixtures, etc. In fact, true allergic rashes in infants are not so common. Allergic diseases affecting the skin in infants include: atopic dermatitis, acute urticaria and angioedema. Acute urticaria is extremely rare in infants - this is an acute allergic reaction in the form of peculiar rashes like blisters (as with a nettle burn, hence the name), which suddenly appear on the skin and just as suddenly disappear without leaving any trace, usually do not exist on the skin for longer than a day and are accompanied by severe itching, which manifests itself in the general anxiety of the child. The most common causes are dietary proteins (such as cow's milk), viral infections, insect bites, and drugs (such as antibiotics). In severe cases, it may be accompanied by swelling and redness of the soft tissues of the face, neck, larynx, arms, legs, genitals or abdominal cavity - Quincke's edema, which requires immediate medical attention.
Let's look at what is most often undeservedly called an allergy:
Toxic erythema newborns - a transient benign rash, the exact cause of the appearance is unknown (possibly due to skin irritation by environmental factors).
Appears at birth or in the first 24-48 hours of life. Localization - face, trunk, limbs, except for the palms and soles. Disappears on its own within 5-7 days, sometimes 3 weeks. Does not require treatment.
Neonatal acne (acne infancy, neonatal pustulosis) is caused by androgen stimulation of the baby's sebaceous glands.
Peak rash falls on the 3rd week of life. It is localized more often on the face, sometimes spreads to the scalp, less often to the collar zone. They resolve spontaneously. The skin needs cleansing and moisturizing, in some cases, the application of treatment creams may be required.
Sweating rash , which occurs in poorly "ventilated" areas as a result of blockage of the sweat glands. May occur at any age.
Localization - skin folds, buttocks and back surface of the body, sometimes the face (after sleep). Depending on the depth of the lesion, it happens - crystal prickly heat, prickly heat, deep prickly heat (superficial).
The duration of the rash is from several hours to several days.
Treatment - cool water baths, air baths, prevention of overheating. Lotions containing calamine and creams with corticosteroids and antibiotics may be used to treat some cases of red and deep prickly heat.
Seborrheic dermatitis is a skin disorder that develops in areas rich in sebum. The exact cause is unknown (a certain role is assigned to the skin saprophyte - the Malassezia fungus, which grows well and multiplies in the sebaceous secretion).
It can be foci or widespread, dermatitis with bran-like scales, which can form a crust (“cap”, gneiss) on the scalp.
Favorite localization - scalp, face, folds (!).
May begin at or after the 1st to 2nd week of life, resolves spontaneously within a few weeks or months.
Treatment consists of softening the crusts with oil or cream and then removing them, moisturizing the skin and, in some cases, applying antifungal and anti-inflammatory creams.
Simple contact dermatitis is a non-specific skin injury due to prolonged or repeated exposure to a variety of substances - saliva, fruit juices, foaming bath products, detergents (their residues on the walls of the bath), etc. In infants, saliva is often causes dermatitis in the area of contact with the nipple and in the folds of the neck.
As a rule, removal of the damaging agent and short-term use of anti-inflammatory creams leads to a quick recovery, but some children are so sensitive that it is almost impossible to identify the causative factor.
Diaper dermatitis (prototype of contact dermatitis) is a skin lesion that occurs under the influence of physical (overheating), chemical, enzymatic (contact with sweat, urine and feces) and microbial factors. Localization - the area of the diaper or diaper fit.
Treatment is carried out using the abbreviation ABCDE (air, barrier, cleansing, diaper, education) - air, barrier, cleansing, diaper and parent education. Frequent diaper changes, washing the skin and drying it thoroughly help. Dermatitis is effectively prevented by the application to clean skin of products that completely cover it (Vaseline, zinc paste). In stubborn cases, medicated creams containing corticosteroids, antibiotics, or antifungals may be recommended.
And now a few words about AD:
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic allergic inflammation of the skin, genetically determined, associated with the loss of the skin barrier and, therefore, accompanied by dryness, itching and various rashes. In a third (!) of cases, it is combined with food allergies (the most common "culprits" are cow's milk, chicken eggs, wheat, fish, soy, nuts).
Starts more often not earlier than 3 months of life.
The most common localization up to 2-3 years is the face (cheeks, forehead, chin), convex parts of the limbs (extensor surfaces) and trunk, never in babies in folds (!).
Exacerbations are provoked by various factors - stress, dry air, sweat, food (histamine liberators), infections, contact with tobacco smoke, animal hair, coarse fabrics, detergent residues on clothing, etc.
Treated with careful skin care and using anti-inflammatory creams.
There are also:
Pseudo-allergic reactions are reactions that look similar to allergic reactions (for example, various rashes), but are not such, due to the non-immune mechanism of their development.
The reason is an increased content of histamine (tyramine, serotonin) in foods, or the ability of foods to increase the release of these substances in the body, or their increased absorption, due to the pathology of the gastrointestinal tract (fermentopathy, inflammation in the intestinal wall, etc.). ). Such products include chocolate, cocoa, strawberries, citrus fruits, honey, sauerkraut, marinades and spices, seafood, fish, caviar, pork, mushrooms, cheeses, nuts, smoked meats, preservatives, dyes and flavor enhancers.
Treatment includes dietary advice, skin care, and in some cases, antihistamines and anti-inflammatory creams.
Clinical manifestations of atopic dermatitis, simple contact dermatitis in highly sensitive children and the manifestation of pseudo-allergic reactions are very similar to each other, so the main task remains to create a "skin barrier" by constantly moisturizing the skin with the help of emollients, stopping exacerbation with anti-inflammatory creams and eliminating exacerbation provoking factors .