10 early signs and symptoms of pregnancy, according to experts | The Independent
[This article was originally published in 2018]
Many people may claim they know how to spot the tell-tale signs of pregnancy.
However, there are a variety of symptoms of early pregnancy that some are likely less aware of, such as implantation spotting and leg cramps.
Pregnancy tests may not always display the correct results right away, which is why it’s important to be clued up on the other signs that a woman is in her first trimester.
Here are 10 early signs of pregnancy that everyone should take note of.
Missing a period
Missing a period is one of the most commonly known signs that a woman may be in the early stages of pregnancy.
During menstruation, the lining of the uterus breaks down and is shed in the form of a period, which typically lasts three to seven days.
When a woman becomes pregnant, the continued production of the hormone progesterone maintains the lining of the uterus, which means that she won’t experience periods as the lining of the uterus is no longer being shed.
During the first trimester of pregnancy, a woman may experience cramps in her legs and feet.
According to Clearblue, this is caused by a change in the way in which the body is processing calcium.
“Much of the calcium that you get in your normal diet is used by your body to help develop your baby’s bone, teeth and other organs,” wrote Dr M.D. Mazumdar, a senior consultant gynecologist at the SM Polyclinic.
“This decreases your own body’s share of calcium, making your bones and muscles weak.”
Another common symptom that women may notice as their bodies begin to change during pregnancy is increased sensitivity of the breasts.
Not only may their breasts feel more sore and tender than usual, but they may also increase in size, as explained by the NHS.
Further physical changes of the breasts may include more visible veins and darkening of nipples.
When a woman becomes pregnant, the hormonal changes that occur can make her feel increasingly tired.
An increase in the levels of hormones oestrogen and progesterone can lead to immense fatigue, particularly during the first trimester.
Morning sickness is a term often used when describing the nausea that some women have to cope with when carrying a child.
However, morning sickness can occur at any time of day.
Women who experience morning sickness may do so around six weeks after their last period, as stated by the NHS.
While women don’t have periods during pregnancy, they may still experience spotting on occasion.
Approximately one in four pregnant women will lightly bleed during their first trimester, according to BabyCentre.
Implantation bleeding can occur around a week after ovulation when the fertilised egg implants into the lining of the uterus.
It’s a well-known fact that women may experience a change in their taste preferences when pregnant.
They may develop an aversion to foods that they previously loved, while simultaneously craving foods that they used to hate.
According to the NHS, pregnant women may also notice an increase in the strength of their senses, particularly of smell.
As previously stated, a pregnant woman’s body will experience a dramatic increase in the hormones oestrogen and progesterone in the blood.
This can lead to mood swings during early pregnancy, as stated by Clearblue.
Bringing a baby in the world is an emotional experience, so a combination of hormonal changes and the overwhelming nature of pregnancy could lead to a whole array of feelings rushing to the surface.
Frequent bathroom trips
Women in the early stages of pregnancy are likely to experience a greater need to use the bathroom on a more frequent basis.
This is due an increased blood flow to the kidneys, as stated by Kidspot.
Furthermore, the growing size of the uterus during the first trimester can also put pressure on the bladder.
While this term may not be very familiar, it affects as many as one in 100 pregnant women, Clearblue states.
Hyperemesis gravidarum refers to severe vomiting during pregnancy.
Women who experience hyperemesis gravidarum may continue to do so throughout their entire pregnancy, although symptoms can improve over time.
It’s important for pregnant women to seek the advice of a doctor if experiencing severe nausea and vomiting.
41 early signs & symptoms of pregnancy before you've taken a test
"The exact symptoms – and the severity of them – will be different for everyone but there are certainly a large number of early signs of pregnancy that are worth looking out for."
The main signs broadly fall into 11 main categories, each affecting different physical areas of your body (such as your breasts, your head or your tummy) or different emotions you may be feeling.
Before we start, though, a little word of caution: some of these early pregnancy symptoms are tantalisingly similar to those you get when you're pre-menstrual or when you’re having your period – which means it can be tough to tell whether your body's actually telling you you're pregnant or not.
Here is our list of the 41 earliest and most common symptoms and signs of pregnancy...
1. Sore, sensitive, heavy boobs
Soreness or tenderness in your breasts can be one of the very earliest pregnancy symptoms. "Changes to the breasts can actually start as early as 1 to 2 weeks after conception," says Dr Larisa Corda, obstetrician, gynaecologist and IVF consultant. "Pregnancy hormones can make breasts swollen and sore. Or they may feel heavier or fuller or more tender to touch."
It's certainly a symptom many of the mums on our forum recognise. "I started getting really sore boobs and sore nipples 7 to 10 days after my last period finished," says DemWatson. "I thought it was due to my period because I was also experiencing cramping. I took a pregnancy test around 2 weeks later and it was positive!"
"I tested because I had really sore boobs," adds ErinDsoontobeB. "They were that sore, I had to wear a bra in the bath!"
Breasts feeling sore? Find out more – including tips to help relieve the pain
2. Veiny boobs
This is one of the early pregnancy signs BabyC2017 picked up on. "My boobs are SO veiny," she said. "They are usually big but the veins are never prominent. Now I can clearly see them – like someone drew on me in blue pen!"
"Yes, the veins in your breasts may look more pronounced," confirms Ellie Cockburn, a midwife at the world-famous The Portland Hospital. "This will be due to the blood flow to the breasts increasing."
For Jo1311, her veiny boobs were definitely a sign of positive news: "I got veins on my boobs and my nipples changed colour. I tested and got a BFP [Big Fat Positive test result]. "
3. Tender, tingly, darker, more 'sticky out' nipples
Your nipples may also change significantly during the early weeks of pregnancy. "Your nipples may begin to ache, tingle or protrude more than usual," says midwife Ellie. "The areoles – the dark circle around your nipple – may also become even darker and larger."
Tender nipples were the first sign for Tamarabell on our forum. "I started to get a feeling I was pregnant about 1.5 weeks before I was due on, so pretty early," she says. "I had really tender nipples and sort of butterflies in my tummy for a few days. My test came up positive the week before I was due. The doctor didn’t believe it and made me do another one. I just sort of knew that something was different!"
"Who'd have thought we'd ever get excited about sore/dark nipples!" adds lynz_81, who's been pregnant before. "Be warned: they will only get bigger and darker now!"
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4. Late or missed period
Being late or missing your monthly period is the most well-known early sign of pregnancy – and for 1 in 3 women, says the American Pregnancy Association, a missed period is still their 1st pregnancy symptom.
There are plenty of other symptoms in our list that you may notice before you miss your period but, as Dr Larisa Corda says, "this is the one that prompts most women to get a pregnancy test.
"Be warned though that not all missed or delayed periods mean you’re pregnant. Sometimes weight changes, hormone problems, stress or recently coming off contraception can affect your periods and possibly lead to you missing a period or having a delayed period."
More like this
And of course, for many of us, late and irregular periods can be the norm – which is why it's useful to know other symptoms.
Saying all that, if your period is unusually late, it's time to take a pregnancy test.
Find out how early you can take a pregnancy test
Late period but negative pregnancy test? Why you could actually be pregnant
5. Feeling a bit sick
Probably the most talked-about symptom is, of course, morning sickness. You can actually start feeling queasy from as early as 2 weeks of pregnancy, due to changes with your hormones.
That's certainly what happened to mamapink on our forum: "The first symptom I had was starting to feel slightly travel sick when in the car or on the bus."
Not every pregnant woman feels sick, and not every pregnant women who feels sick actually throws up. "But about 9 in 10 women will either suffer from vomiting or nausea, and this tends to last until about 12 weeks," says Rachel Heathcock, an antenatal teacher at the NCT.
There is no conclusive research explaining to why morning sickness happens but, says Dr Amin Gorgy, "it is widely considered to be brought on by the sudden increase of hormone levels in your body – specifically the levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) – that are required to develop the placenta. "
"And despite its name," adds Dr Amin, "morning sickness isn’t exclusively confined to the morning. It can strike at any time of the day or night."
"I had morning sickness very early on, at about 3 weeks," says Bride-carly-barley, "and my tastes changed. I couldn’t eat anything strong-tasting and the smell of my husband making his morning coffee made me want to be sick!"
To combat the sickness Dr Amin advises eating little and often. “And ensure you keep up fluid intake. In extreme cases, anti-sickness medication can be prescribed.”
Find out more about when morning sickness starts and how long it lasts
6. Spotting or light bleeding
It’s not unusual at all to have light spotting or bleeding in early pregnancy – in fact, it can occur in around 20% of pregnancies.
Dr Larisa explains the science behind it: "This is one of the earliest signs of pregnancy and is usually associated with 'implantation bleeding' – when the fertilized egg or embryo attaches to the wall of the uterus. The embryo usually implants between 6 to 12 days after conception.
"Not all women will get spotting though, so don’t worry – it’s not a reflection of how successful the implantation has been!"
Forum mum xFran82x says she had implantation bleeding 8 days after ovulating. "I had some watery pink discharge when I wiped a few times," she says, "and then found 2 dots of brown blood on my pants. I tested the next afternoon and got a faint positive result."
And it was similar for BabyGirlsMummy: "I had a regular 28 day cycle and the implantation bleeding was about a week before I’d have expected my period. Mine was some pink cervical mucus for a couple of days – enough that I needed a panty liner."
If you do bleed, our expert say you should definitely get anything unusual checked out by your doctor. "In most cases, spotting is nothing to worry about," says Dr Amin, "but it can be a sign of something more serious like an ectopic pregnancy or miscarriage. If you experience any bleeding that’s not normal for you, seek immediate medical attention. "
Got some spotting? Find out how long it can last
7. Period-like pains
This is a confusing symptom, as it can happen exactly around the time that you would expect your regular period pains. If you’re hoping you might be pregnant and then start feeling menstrual-type cramps, this may be a sign of pregnancy rather than your period. However, it’s one of the less common symptoms.
"These can often happen with spotting – are are also the result of the embryo planting into the wall of the womb," explains midwife Ellie Cockburn.
Forum mum firsttimemum88 felt these pains at 5 weeks. "I’m having pains like I do on my period," she said. "I found everyone says it’s normal. A hot camomile tea helps."
8. Stomach cramps
Rather than period-style pains, some women experience a bit of tummy cramping. This may be due to your ligaments starting to stretch as your uterus (womb) starts to change shape.
"At around a week after I would have ovulated, I got sharp stomach pains like a stabbing pain," describes forum mum gsmummy55. "Around the time of my missed period, I felt tired, with cramps, and needed the loo more. And a week after that, I started being sick!”"
Find out more about cramps in early pregnancy
9. Tummy twinges, pulling and pinching
These are some of the terms our mums use in our forum when describing the sometimes curious feelings many of us have in our stomachs in early pregnancy.
It might feel like your muscles are being stretched or even pinched from inside, and can seem to be on either side, as forum mum Louis2 who is 5 weeks pregnant, describes. "For the past few days," she says, "I have been having a few lower abdominal twinges, often on one side, but occasionally on the other."
"I had abdominal twinges at approx 5 weeks and panicked," adds xxmrsjohnstonexx. “But the doctor said it was just everything stretching and changing and not to worry.”
"Bloating is a lesser known pregnancy symptom but it definitely can occur," says Dr Amin. And, if you find you've got a bloat bump way before any kind of baby bump, it's probably all down to pregnancy levels of the hormone progesterone.
"Progesterone can cause bloating by allowing the smooth muscle in the walls of the bowel to relax," explains obstetrician Dr Claire Hein. "Hormones often have several effects – some of them less desirable than others!"
"I had bad bloating in the 1st trimester,” recalls forum mum Kelmo. "I could easily pull off looking 5 months but it did ease around 12 weeks."
Pinpoint the foods that are pregnancy bloat villains
YOUR BODY 'DOWN THERE'
11. Needing the loo more often
If you're pregnant, the loo may become your new best friend over the next few months. One Taiwanese study found that 'urinary frequency' – aka needing to pee a lot – affects 77% of pregnant women.
At the very beginning of pregnancy, it's not the pressure of your growing baby on your bladder that's causing you to wee a lot (that particular pleasure comes later!). Instead, it's pregnancy increasing the blood flow to your kidneys by 35% to 60% – and because it's the kidneys job to produce urine, that means more urine collecting in your bladder.
As mum-to-be lunar eclipse says on our forum, it can get a bit much, especially at night. "I'm 5 weeks and peeing at least 3 to 4 times every night. I’ve not got a decent sleep for about a week now. It surely can't get worse – I'll be sleeping on the toilet!"
Peed off with peeing? What's normal in pregnancy – and what you can do about it
12. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
Confusingly, frequent trips to the loo can also be a sign of a urinary or bladder infection. And even more confusingly, both can be more likely when you’re pregnant due to your changing hormones.
"Reduced immunity during pregnancy, even in the early stages, can be responsible for an increased susceptibility to urinary tract infections," explains midwife Ellie Cockburn.
Common signs of a UTI include stinging when you wee, sharp, low abdominal pain and, sometimes, a little blood in your wee. You should see your GP if you notice any of them but it's not something to worry about because it's easily treated – as forum num Chloe123 says: "I had several UTIs throughout early pregnancy. They are very common. The sooner you get a wee sample to your GP, the better so then they can treat you for it."
Why it’s important to treat a UTI when you’re pregnant
13. Trapped wind
Not as funny as it sounds. In fact, not funny at all – trapped wind can give you a painful bloated feeling in your stomach or under your ribs, even in very early pregnancy.
"Shifting hormones during the first trimester can interfere with normal digestion, causing trapped wind," explains midwife Ellie.
Over on our forum, mum-to-be Overjoyed was absolutely not overjoyed by her trapped-wind symptoms. "I suffered terribly with this for about 2 weeks," she says. "It was agony one night and I thought it must be a test to see how I might cope with contractions!"
Of course, trapped wind can also become passed wind, as in farting and burping, which can make you feel better afterwards – but may not be appreciated much by those close by!
There she blows! How to avoid and relieve trapped wind in pregnancy
Been regular and suddenly gone on a poo-no-show? "Constipation is a side effect of the increase in progesterone in your body, which relaxes the bowel walls and can make it harder to poo," explains midwife Ellie.
As with constipation when you're not pregnant, the solution is usually just eating more fibre, fruit and veg and keeping your water intake up.
Bunged up? Find out which foods to eat and which to avoid
Yes, the pregnancy gods have a sense of humour! If you’re not constipated, you might have the runs instead. This can happen at any point in pregnancy, but is one of the symptoms several of our forum mums singled out as something they had in the first few weeks.
This time, though, we can’t blame our friendly pregnancy hormone progesterone.
"It’s actually more likely to be a side-effect of picking up a tummy bug due to reduced immunity during pregnancy," says midwife Ellie.
For HappyMrsS on our forum, certain foods caused the problem. "I worked out that there were certain foods that would cause it more than others," she says. "Chinese food went straight through me and anything that was quite rich did the same. It stopped at around 10 weeks I think."
Neenawneenaw agrees: "I had diarrhoea through the 1st trimester which really freaked me out, as usually I have IBS with constipation. But it was fine, and of course had no ill effect on the baby."
Stop the trots: what to try when you’re pregnant
16. Change in cervical mucus
Some of our forum mums find their cervical mucus changes – and they seem to have more mucus than usual.
In very early pregnancy, your mucus may seem to be thinnish and slippery for longer than usual (its texture changes across your normal monthly cycle) and it will then thicken due to the increase in progesterone.
For forum mum Blue_Gecko, this thickened mucus was one of the clearest early signs she was pregnant. "The cervical mucus was creamy and quite heavy," she recalls. "It felt quite moist down there."
Cervical mucus is usually a pale white/yellow colour but don’t worry if you see a brownish discharge: this is also common. It’s usually harmless, but if you’re worried, have a chat with your GP.
Thrush is another pregnancy symptom that is affected by the increasing level of the hormone progesterone – and research reported in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology suggests that, during pregnancy, women are twice as likely to develop thrush than at any other stage in their life.
A sign of thrush can be increased or thicker cervical mucus – but this is also a sign of early pregnancy, so permission to be confused! Thrush does have other symptoms, too, though, including itchiness and soreness, and possibly a stinging sensation when you wee.
On our forum, CupcakeLadyJ is a sufferer. "I am only 4 weeks and I have got thrush," she says. "It feels uncomfortable more than itchy – like a niggle I can feel down below!"
Check which anti-thrush medication is safe to take
From feeling a bit rundown to experiencing complete fatigue (here at MFM we call it 'pregxhaustion'), unusual tiredness can be a very early sign that you’re pregnant.
"Extreme tiredness often comes as a shock but is a completely normal symptom of early pregnancy," says Dr Amin Gorgy. "During the 1st trimester, your body’s hormone levels skyrocket and the rise in progesterone can really have a significant impact on how you feel. Feeling tired is a sign that you need to slow down and rest up."
Forum mum-to-be Yummymummyalli found the exhaustion hits her most at the start of the day and when she's finished work. "I am exhausted when I wake up," she says, "but sort myself out by the time I get to work. Then by 7pm I’m tired again. I've been going to bed 1 or 2 hours earlier than usual."
Combat pregxhaustion: midwife tips that help
If it’s not tiredness you're feeling, then maybe it’s the opposite and you just can't get to sleep in the first place. The cause? Yep, experts believe it’s changes in our hormones (those hormones have a LOT to answer for).
For poor forum mum-to-be EvelynsMummy6390 insomnia has been really quite debilitating. "My first hint of being pregnant was that I just couldn’t sleep one night," she says. "Right now it’s past 4am and I've been in bed since about 9pm as I was so tired. Slept an hour and PING! awake and can't get comfy."
Meanwhile Lauri27 says she initially blamed her insomnia on anxiety and excitement at finding out she was pregnant. "I am 4 weeks and only just found out I was pregnant," she says. "I haven’t been able to sleep for the last 2 nights and thought I was just nervous. I didn’t know this was a thing!"
20. Vivid dreams
"Some just-pregnant women mention experiencing strange or unusually vivid dreams," says midwife Ellie Cockburn. "This is not so much a symptom of pregnancy as it is of all the emotions and natural anxiety around becoming a parent."
And as some of our forum mums share, the dreams really can be unusual!
"I dreamt I bought my older daughter a baby goat, as there is a little grey one at our local open farm that she absolutely adores. But it was white and I was so worried that she wouldn’t like it, I woke up crying!" says 3-little-princesses.
One of Critters-Mum-Claire-21 was particularly vivid: "I dreamt last night I had a 4 ft 11in baby and the only thing I could get to fit him was a red velour jumpsuit!"
Find out what your pregnancy dreams might mean
"Headaches can certainly be an early sign of pregnancy," says Dr Larisa Corda. Although more common during the latter part of your first trimester and then into your second, she says headaches can start earlier and are (you guessed it!) due to the change in hormones in your body.
For forum mum RedBrown28, they were definitely there at the start. "I had headaches for about a month in early pregnancy," she says. "It was a nightmare as I normally never get headaches. Thankfully they did pass and, by about 15 to 16 weeks, they were nowhere to be seen."
"They were torture," agrees Happy-Mrs-S. "I phoned my midwife in tears. She told me that they are very common in early pregnancy and caused by all the hormones. She told me to make sure I drank as much as I possibly could and, as it was summer, I tried to get extra liquids from eating lots of melon and ice lollies, too."
Check out which headache painkiller is safe to take in pregnancy
22. Feeling dizzy
Dizziness and feeling faint is more commonly reported as a 2nd and 3rd trimester symptom but it's definitely not unknown as an early-pregnancy sign – and for forum mum Supersquish it was the clincher.
"I was queuing in Primark," she says, "and felt faint all of a sudden, and it suddenly hit me! I remember thinking, ‘Oh my God!’ and dropping my items and running to Boots for a test! I knew it was going to be positive."
And it was!
Is that faint feeling a lack of iron?
YOUR MUSCLES & JOINTS
Back pain, particularly in your lower back, is an early symptom pinpointed by several of our mums – even right at the beginning of pregnancy.
"I had lower backache about a week before my period was due," says forum mum-t0-be xlittlemissx.
"It is caused by ligaments in the body becoming softer and stretching, which can put a lot of strain on the lower back," explains midwife Ellie.
"In addition," says Dr Larisa, "constipation, which is common in early pregnancy because of the effect of pregnancy hormones on the gut, can also cause backache too."
Forum mum-to-be nikkiandneil was suprised to get early backache. "'I’m only 5 weeks!" she says. "I have been having backache every day for the last week and a half. It usually eases off if I move about, though."
Read the best mum tips for soothing aching pregnancy backs
24. Achy hips, legs and arms
Yep, it’s not just your back – your hips, legs and even arms may also ache at different times during early pregnancy due to hormone changes.
“Yesterday I had a achey left leg and an achey right arm and I was like, ‘Am I falling to pieces?’ And then this morning I got a BFP [Big Fat Positive test]. At least I know why!” says Sparkling_DiamondButton.
"Yes," says Dr Larisa. 'It's those pregnancy hormones loosening up your ligaments and joints to prepare for accommodating your growing baby."
25. Leg cramps
Studies, such as this 2006 one in the Journal of Reproduction & Infertility, suggest that between a third and a half of pregnant women experience leg cramps in pregnancy – although usually not until they're well into their 3rd trimester.
Early cramping does happen but it's not often as severe as the cramping you may experience later on (there's something to look forward to!)
They are plenty of theories as to why leg cramps happen in pregnancy – from vitamin deficiencies to electrolyte imbalances – but no one's come up with the definitive answer yet.
Hop? Stand on a cold floor? Best tips for relieving leg cramps
26. Sour or metallic taste
Forum mum sealeyB says she had a "really metallic taste" in her mouth very soon after ovulation and "it didn't go for 2 weeks". And she's definitely not alone in experiencing this early pregnancy symptom.
"Experiencing strange tastes, known as dysgeusia, is one of the lesser-known but actually quite common early pregnancy signs," says Dr. Amin Gorgy. And, once again, pregnancy hormones are the culprit.
The metallic taste symptom can vary in its intensity but it's definitely sour. "It’s as if I have sucked 2p pieces!" says forum mum-to-be Deli3.
Could there be other reasons why you have a strange taste in your mouth?
27. Food tasting 'wrong'
Dysgeusia can affect you in early pregnancy is other ways – going off previously favourite foods and drinks because they don't taste 'right' any more.
"My first sympton was an aversion to Diet Coke which I normally love! It just seemed to taste funny," says forum mum-to-be Hushpuppy.
"I had a problem with coffee," recalled fellow forum mum bev6. "It tasted stronger, if not bitter, and I could not drink it. I also had a horrible film in my mouth that I could not get rid of - it lasted for weeks”
28. Excess saliva
Another weird one – you may find you have more saliva in your mouth or notice a bit of drooling when you fall asleep!
The medical term for this one is 'ptyalism' and experts believe it happens because your body knows it is pregnant and the nerves that control salivation are more stimulated than usual.
29. Dry mouth
Then again, you may get the opposite to excess saliva: a dry mouth. And, along with that, you may find you’re more thirsty than usual, which is normal but, very occasionally, can be a sign of gestational diabetes.
When mum ILOVECUPCAK3S discovered she was pregnant – very early on – dry mouth was one of the many symptoms she experienced. "I had headaches, really spotty skin, low, mild period-like pain, restless sleep, dry mouth, hot flushes, tiredness, crying all the time, sore boobs and major bloatedness." Almost a full house there, ILOVECUPCAK3S!
Not a pretty symptom but, from fairly early on in pregnancy, when you brush your teeth, you may find a bit of blood on your toothbrush or in the sink when you spit out.
This is all due to a combo of pregnancy hormones and more blood pumping around your body, making your gums swell.
But even if it’s uncomfortable, it’s best to brush your teeth more, not less according to the experts. “Many people think they should stop brushing if they have bleeding gums but this isn’t the case,” says Janet Clarke from the British Dental Association. "Brush more and make an appointment to see your dentist about it,”
What you should know about looking after your teeth in pregnancy
31. Increased sensitivity to smells
This is a big early sign for lots of our forum mums. Can you suddenly smell damp? Does your pet have a new whiff about them? And have you started thinking your partner could do with a good wash and a splash of cologne?
Oh yes, your sense of smell may be so heightened that you can smell things that you didn’t even know had a smell, as MadForNO5 experienced: “Seven days after ovulating, I started to get a strong sense of smell. I could smell absolutely everything!"
The downside? The slightest odour can make you feel queasy.
32. Stuffy or runny nose
"I have a runny nose and I'm sneezing a lot. It started a week before my period was due and I'm 5 weeks now," says forum mum-tone jumpingzebra.
But anouska-b has the opposite problem. "I've had a stuffy nose all the way through, starting right from the beginning. I've become one of those annoying people who breathe really loudly!"
Sounds contradictory until you realise that the main culprit here is your pregnancy levels of the hormone oestrogen, which can increase mucus production. Pass the tissues...
Are Vicks and Sudafed decongestants safe to take during pregnancy?
It doesn’t get more glamorous than this early sign: blood dripping from your nose. It happens quite commonly in pregnancy, from early on till quite late, because the blood vessels in your nose expand when you’re pregnant, putting more pressure on the delicate vessels in your nasal passages.
“My nosebleeds started as soon as I got pregnant (although I didn’t know I was at the time) and I get them quite badly," says forum mum kelsy1978. "My midwife suggested I carry a small bottle of Lucozade with me at all times so that, after the nosebleed, it gives me a little pick me up. “
Find out the best way to stop a nosebleed when you’re pregnant
YOUR DIGESTION & APPETITE
34. Not hungry
In those 1st few weeks of pregnancy, your appetite may be affected. Many of our forum mums-to-be found they were suddenly less hungry than before – either because they were feeling queasy or because their normal hunger just wasn’t there.
That's how it was for ClaireHair: "I'm off food," she said. "Not much appetite. I just have to eat what I fancy [when I do feel hungry]. Saturday night, that was chips, curry sauce and deep-fried chilli beef from the Chinese!"
35. More hungry or more thirsty
While some mums-to-be suddenly can't bear the thought of eating, others suddenly find they’re so ravenous, eating is all they can think about.
For forum mum MsDodger, her appetite went through the roof. "I eat a lot normally but this it was a massive leap," she says. "I could not (and still cannot) stop snacking all day and eating large meals."
And this ravenous urge can apply to drinking as well, as eating, as bleurgh discovered. "Thirst! I wondered how much I could actually drink before drowning myself. Even my hubby said he nearly asked if I was drinking for two before I tested."
36. Not sure if hungry or sick
Oh dear, our appetite really can be a bit of a rollercoaster in early pregnancy. It can be a confusing time when you're not sure if you're feeling sick because you need to eat or you're feeling sick because you've got morning sickness and eating will make it worse.
Forum mum-to-be katie4matthew sums it all up when she says, "I can’t tell the difference between feeling sick and hungry at the moment. I'm so confused!"
Ouch. While heartburn is a very frequent mid to late-pregnancy symptom, we know from our forum posts that some mums-to-be experience it in the early weeks of pregnancy, too.
Indeed, for MissTysonMayer, it was 1 of the very first signs that she was pregnant. "I felt different from what would of been around 3 weeks," she says. "Had a bad stomach and felt sick, heartburn, headaches. The lot. Then I tested the next week when I was due and it was positive!"
So what's going on? "In pregnancy, the sphincter at the top of your stomach relaxes, allowing stomach acid to rise up into your oesophagus," explains family GP Dr Philippa Kaye.
Can you take antacids, like Gaviscon, when you're pregnant?
38. Spots and acne
Remember those outbreaks that peppered your teens? Well, they could be back now you’re pregnant. Given the hormonal changes in early pregnancy, it’s no surprise that one of the first signs can be an eruption of spots – as if we don’t have enough else to cope with!
“When I got pregnant, the first symptoms were that I got little bumpy spots on my forehead a few days before my period was due," forum mum mama pink says.
"Yes, for many pregnant women, the hormone progesterone can cause a flare up of the teenage acne that you thought you’d ditched years ago," explains GP and homeopath Dr Jeni Worden. "Essential as it is, progesterone is to blame for many of pregnancy’s less desirable effects."
In a bad spot? What you can do if you have a breakout
39. Hot flushes
Some of our forum mum-to-be say they have felt that rising heat creeping up on your skin during early pregnancy so it might just be a sign that there is good news on the way.
It's well known, as the NHS Pregnancy & Baby Guide confirms, that hormonal changes and an increase in blood supply to the skin can mean your basal temperature (your normal resting body temperature) is higher than normal. And US researchers from the University of Pittsburgh have found that hot flushes affect just over a third of mums-to-be at some stage in their pregnancy.
For Tullah on our forum, hot flushes affected her from as early as 5 weeks' pregnant: "I’m normally always cold but have been really hot especially in bed," she says. "Yesterday I was walking about the shops and had to have a sit down, I was so hot. My stomach seems to be very hot, too!"
Cool facts on hot flushes in pregnancy
40. Oversensitivity, grumpiness, tearfulness
Can’t watch Bake Off without tearing up? Find niggly things have become super niggly? Your emotions are heightened in the early days of pregnancy and the result can be sudden and surprising mood swings.
"Your body is producing hormones at levels you’ve never experienced before and they’re whizzing round your system like wildfire," says independent midwife Eleanor May-Johnson of Neighbourhood Midwives.
Which would explain why forum mum-to-be racheltidy is finding herself flying off the handle at anything and everything: "I am 5 weeks pregnant. I'm usually a chilled-out person. However, the last few days I have turned into the devil! I just want to shout at everyone!"
Up and down? Find out what mood swings are normal
Finally, sometimes there’s not a specific ‘thing’ that’s different, it’s just you don’t feel quite, well, the same. Pregnancy can work in mysterious ways, and sometimes you just have a gut feeling that you've conceived.
Obviously, there are no scientific studies to substantiate that 'feeling' pregnant could, in any way, mean you are pregnant but this, from ace10 on our forum, is not the only post we've seen like this:
"I am 6 days past ovulation and today I just can not shake the feeling that I am pregnant. It's like something in me is telling me I am? Its very strange."
And then, a week later, she comes back to add: "Well I guess my feeling was spot on because I got my Big Fat Positive [test result]. I tested today and the line came up pretty much straight away. We are so happy!"
So maybe there's something in it...
So, I've got some of these symptoms. Am I definitely pregnant?
Frustratingly, as we've already explained, many of the signs and symptoms of early pregnancy we've details above are the same as, or can be easily confused with, the signs and symptoms of PMS or the signs and symptoms that your period's on its way.
Some of the signs – nausea, breast tenderness, mood swings, and a frequent need to wee – are, anecdotally, more common signs of pregnancy than others. But you could be pregnant without experiencing any of them. And you may not be pregnant even if you experience them all.
"We will all experience the first signs of pregnancy in completely different ways," says Dr Amin Gorgy. “There is no specific way that you ‘should’ feel. We are all individuals."
As wise forum mum gazsgirl says, "Everyone is different and most symptoms are so like period ones, it’s always hard to know until you see the line."
Time to take a test if you haven’t already...
About our fertility expert Dr Amin Gorgy
Dr Gorgy co-founded The Fertility & Gynaecology Academy in 2004 and is now its co-director. Previously, he was the deputy director of the Assisted Reproduction and Gynaecology Centre. He is a fellow of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (2006) and a member of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.
About our expert obstetrician Dr Larisa Corda
Dr Corda is an obstetrician and gynaecologist who specialises in IVF. After working in Sydney at IVF Australia (2012-13), she returned to the UK and was awarded membership of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. She now works as a gynaecologist and IVF consultant and is also Fertility Expert for ITV's This Morning show.
Find out how soon you can take a pregnancy test
Late period but negative pregnancy test? Why you could actually be pregnant
I'm pregnant, now what?
Early pregnancy | Shchelkovsky perinatal center
Pregnancy is a wonderful period! However, the changes taking place in the body at this time can greatly frighten you. The phenomena characteristic of pregnancy are different for all women, and will not necessarily be repeated during each subsequent gestation. Let's analyze the most common symptoms, their causes and possible methods of correction.
1. Frequent urination.
Frequent, painless (!) urge to urinate is one of the signs of pregnancy. This is due to increased secretion of progesterone (pregnancy hormone), changes in metabolism and pressure from the growing uterus on the bladder.
Be sure to see a doctor if:
painful urination (this may be a sign of an infection)
urine of strange color (stained with blood, brown)
the amount of urine excreted per day is much less than the liquid drunk per day
Life hack! Under no circumstances should fluid intake be restricted! To alleviate the condition and reduce the frequent urge to urinate, it is necessary to exclude products that have a diuretic effect: tea, coffee, zucchini, watermelon; as well as salty, spicy and fried foods. It is better to drink water or juice. Wear comfortable cotton underwear that does not squeeze the lower abdomen.
2. Nausea, vomiting, heartburn, increased susceptibility to smells.
Nausea is one of the common symptoms of early pregnancy. The range of issues related to nausea and vomiting during pregnancy is quite wide. From "it's good, I don't even feel sick" (with relief), "I don't feel sick, what's wrong with me?" (with anxiety) to "when will this nausea pass" (with hope). Indeed, these symptoms are not at all a mandatory accompaniment of gestation, they can manifest at 7-8 weeks and last up to 12-14 weeks. The duration of this condition can sometimes be delayed, but rarely persists throughout pregnancy.
Life hack! For nausea, eat before feeling hungry. Solid, non-hot food and drinks at a cool temperature are best. With heartburn, you should eat small portions of food and often, and most importantly, sit, stand or walk for at least 30 minutes after eating, but do not lie down.
You should definitely consult a doctor if:
vomiting occurs even after drinking water
vomiting is exhausting, accompanied by dizziness, weakness
dryness, jaundice and flaking of the skin appear
Nausea and vomiting interfere with proper nutrition, accompanied by weight loss
To reduce nausea and vomiting in the morning, try eating something before you get out of bed. It can be a cracker, a cookie, a piece of hard cheese. And salty food is preferable to sweet. You can have a snack in the same way at night when you get up to go to the toilet. Do not lie down immediately after eating, this will only increase nausea. Vitamins for pregnant women with nausea should be taken in the evening after meals. Cool water with lemon, ginger, mint tea, or ginger or mint candies can alleviate the condition. It is necessary to exclude those foods, drinks and smells that are unpleasant to you. Brushing your teeth and rinsing your mouth often can also reduce nausea.
3. Pain or cramps in the lower abdomen, constipation, pain in the lumbar region.
The simplest and most easily controlled cause of pain is delayed and incomplete bowel movements. An increase in the concentration of progesterone relaxes the smooth muscles, which are located not only in the uterus, but also in other hollow organs. In this case, the correction of the diet and the restoration of the passage of feces will help. If the measures are ineffective, the doctor may prescribe safe drugs for you. A special type of pain that occurs during exclusivity in pregnant women is pain in the round ligament of the uterus. This acute, rather intense pain occurs, as a rule, on the one hand with a sharp change in body position (for example, when getting up from a chair or leaving a car). This pain occurs due to stretching, and then a sharp contraction, like a spring, of the round uterine ligaments. The pain quickly passes if you immediately take a comfortable position and does not require special treatment.
You should definitely consult a doctor if:
pain is accompanied by spotting bloody discharge from the external genitalia
increasing duration and intensity of pain
abdominal pain accompanied by dizziness, fever, loss of consciousness
Life hack! To normalize bowel movements, eat more vegetables and fruits, drink water and move more during the day. Try to eat often and in small portions.
4. Enlargement and soreness of the mammary glands.
Hormonal restructuring of the body during gestation is accompanied, among other things, by an increase in the size of the mammary glands and an increase in their sensitivity. By the end of the first trimester, the soreness usually disappears, no additional methods of treatment are needed.
Life hack! Choose comfortable supportive underwear (it should not leave marks on the skin at the end of the day). You may need a larger size or a sports bra. Pain in the mammary glands is relieved by a warm shower at the end of the day.
You should definitely see a doctor if:
the pain is intense
mammary glands are very dense with redness and body temperature is increased
discharge from the nipples appears (purulent, bloody)
5. Increased body temperature.
In early pregnancy, an increase in body temperature to 37.5 ° C is not necessary, but is possible due to the peculiarities of the action of progesterone. Because of this, it is difficult for pregnant women to endure stuffy, hot rooms. Self-medication is dangerous: an attempt to bring down the temperature even with a seemingly harmless folk method - tea with raspberries - can mask the true cause of hyperthermia and delay the diagnosis. Due to the increased body temperature, pregnant women should dress in layers and avoid stuffy and hot rooms and spaces so that they can always “adjust” their temperature on their own.
These symptoms can be explained by the individual reaction of the vascular system to the increase in blood volume that occurs during pregnancy. Another possible reason is dry air in the room, the operation of central heating batteries.
Life hack! The easiest way to deal with nasal congestion is to use a humidifier. If you don't have one, you can put a damp towel on the battery - less effective, but better than nothing. It is possible to use sprays with sea salt, but you need to carefully read the instructions and especially the "Indications" section, it should contain information about the safety of the product during pregnancy.
You should definitely see a doctor if:
symptoms of a cold occur
nasal congestion accompanied by ear congestion
These symptoms appeared after exposure to the allergen known to you
7. Blood pressure fluctuations.
An ideal option for the course of any pregnancy is the stability of the blood pressure throughout the gestation. However, this is extremely rare. A small (up to 10 units) increase in pressure from the usual reference may be due to an increase in the load on the cardiovascular system as a result of changes in body weight, hormonal changes, and uterine pressure on the vessels. Normal pressure: systolic below 130 mm Hg, diastolic no more than 85 mm Hg. Blood pressure in the range of 130–139/ 85–89 mm Hg considered high to be normal. High numbers are often observed in patients of older reproductive age, suffering from diabetes mellitus and kidney disease, obesity, etc. However, it is imperative to tell the doctor about all these concomitant pathological conditions at the first appointment and, if necessary, consult a neurologist, cardiologist, endocrinologist and other related specialists . Reasonable physical activity, adherence to sleep and wakefulness, a balanced diet, and the rejection of coffee and strong tea allow you to keep pressure within limits. Of the completely exotic for our days, but no less significant - the prevention of stress.
Life hack! If you first discovered that you have high normal pressure, repeat the measurement after 15 minutes. If the pressure remains elevated, see a doctor.
Be sure to see a doctor if:
your blood pressure is above 140/90 mmHg.
pressure increased by more than 10 mm Hg. relative to your usual
an increase in the pressure indicator is accompanied by edema, the appearance of "flies" before the eyes
NB! You should also pay attention to lowering blood pressure. Numbers less than 90/60 mmHg - an excuse to see a doctor.
Life hack! Keep a blood pressure diary, especially if you are prone to hypertension. Show your diary to your doctor at every appointment.
8. Heaviness and pain in the legs.
Heaviness and pain in the legs, especially in the evening, are frequent companions of pregnancy. There is an explanation for the occurrence of symptoms: an increase in load due to growing weight and a shift in the center of gravity of the body.
Life hack! Ask your partner/husband to give you a foot massage, relax with your limbs elevated (not too much!) A therapeutic pedicure, dousing the legs with cool water, a contrast shower, a cream or gel for legs with cooling components (menthol, essential oils), as well as compression stockings or stockings of the lightest degree of compression will help.
You should always see a doctor if:
one or both legs are very swollen or discolored
previously diagnosed varicose veins, family history of thrombosis
9. Skin changes.
During pregnancy, you may notice dark spots on your skin. Especially often such darkening (hyperpigmentation) is observed in the nipple area, along the white line of the abdomen. Stretch marks (stretch marks) may appear on the skin of the abdomen and thighs. These are normal signs and do not require any treatment. In most cases, skin color will return to normal after breastfeeding ends, and stretch marks will shrink and fade. Itching can be associated with stretching of the skin, especially in the abdomen and mammary glands. This symptom occurs infrequently and is usually successfully stopped by the use of special products to moisturize and soften the skin. By the way, these same remedies usually help in the fight against stretch marks.
Life hack! Oils and moisturizing creams to increase skin elasticity, contrast showers, massage with a hard brush will help reduce the likelihood of skin changes.
You should definitely consult a doctor if:
along with itching there are areas of redness, spots, peeling
10. Bleeding gums.
Changes in the characteristics of blood circulation in the body of a pregnant woman can cause bleeding gums. The appearance of minor blood impurities during brushing your teeth, when eating solid foods (for example, an apple) is acceptable. However, the key provision is "insignificant". If you find it difficult to assess your own condition, consult a specialist.
You should definitely consult a doctor if:
you have loose teeth, sore gums, bad breath
bleeding in the gum area increases
11. Fatigue, mood instability.
Tearfulness, lack of strength, forgetfulness, distraction, the whole palette of feelings "here and now"... The list can be continued, and there is only one explanation for this - pregnancy. The most common early symptom is severe fatigue. There is no universal recipe, just as there is no single picture of these states. The main recommendation for all pregnant women is to rest often, relax and even sleep during the day. Most importantly, you need to remember: pregnancy is not a disease, but a great time to prepare for motherhood.
Why does the stomach pull in early pregnancy?
Why does the stomach pull in early pregnancy? This question often worries expectant mothers, and at times leads to panic. When is discomfort pathology, and when is it normal?
Pregnancy is a special time for a mother and her baby. After all, the connection between them is inextricable, and every negative influence or stress affects both of them.
Possible causes of pain
Every woman dreams of having an easy pregnancy and no cause for alarm. However, a very common complaint among pregnant women is pain in the lower abdomen of a pulling or aching nature.
Complaints are so common that it is necessary to clearly understand when pulling sensations during pregnancy are pathological and require immediate medical attention, and when they are completely physiological and require only general recommendations.
Of course, pain in the lower abdomen can appear at any stage of pregnancy, however, most often women notice their appearance in the early stages of pregnancy.
Painful sensations in the abdomen during pregnancy are very diverse both in subjective sensations and in their localization, in intensity of occurrence. Pain can appear both at rest and after any physical activity. Unpleasant sensations can manifest themselves in one place, or radiate to other areas.
Unpleasant sensations in the lower abdomen are rarely avoided during pregnancy. These sensations can occur not only in pathology. During pregnancy, the uterus increases in size, there is a tension in its ligaments and muscles. In addition, there is a displacement of the pelvic organs. All this leads to the appearance of pulling or aching sensations in the abdomen. All these phenomena are manifestations of physiological changes that occur to a woman during pregnancy.
Of course, this state of fear does not cause and does not require any intervention on the part of the doctor. However, pulling pains in the lower abdomen are not always a physiological process. It happens that this indicates that the pregnancy proceeds with pathology and requires medical adjustment.
That is why, if there are pulling or aching pains in the lower abdomen, it is necessary to contact an obstetrician-gynecologist in order to accurately determine the cause of the pain.
Never self-medicate. Remember that you are responsible not only for yourself, but also for the little man that you carry under your heart.
Abdominal pain during pregnancy can be:
Pain associated with pregnancy may be developmental:
physiological changes during pregnancy;
Pain not associated with pregnancy may occur with:
pathologies of the digestive system;
diseases of other organs or systems.
Pain in the lower abdomen during pregnancy as a variant of the norm
Not all pain in the lower abdomen during pregnancy is a manifestation of pathology. Sometimes they can occur during the normal course of pregnancy.
As a physiological process, pain in the lower abdomen can occur in the following situations:
sign of pregnancy;
displacement of the pelvic organs by the growing uterus;
stretching of the ligaments and muscles associated with the growth of the uterus.
Abdominal pain is a sign of pregnancy
Finding out that you are pregnant is now not a big deal, because there are pregnancy tests. In addition, a delay in menstruation can serve as evidence of pregnancy.
All this is good when menstruation is regular and delayed by at least 14 days. In this case, the pregnancy test may be positive. However, do not forget that not all tests are highly accurate, so it can show two cherished strips much later than we would like.
Therefore, it is necessary to pay close attention to the sensations of your body, because it signals the onset of pregnancy long before the manifestation of a delay in menstruation.
If you assume that pregnancy is possible, then listen carefully to your body: it can send you a signal in the form of pulling pains in the lower abdomen. At the same time, the pains will differ in their intensity: one woman will say that the pains are unbearable, the other will not notice them at all. Each woman is individual.
If each menstruation is preceded by unpleasant pain in the lower abdomen or lower back, you may not understand that once again they are associated with the onset of pregnancy.
Pain in the lower abdomen during pregnancy may be associated with the implantation process. To do this, you need to remember the process of fertilization of the egg by the sperm. After their fusion in the fallopian tubes, the fertilized egg enters the uterus under the action of the movement of cilia in the fallopian tubes. The uterine endometrium is a loose mass where a fertilized egg is implanted.
The process of implantation is the introduction of a fertilized egg into the endometrium of the uterus. At this time, there is a violation of the integrity of the endometrium, which may be accompanied by unpleasant sensations in the lower abdomen. In addition, sometimes slight dark bloody discharge may appear from the genital tract, which can be perceived as the beginning of another menstruation.
A fairly common cause of pain in the lower abdomen is a threatened miscarriage. This condition is individual and does not depend on physical exertion or complete rest, but on the condition of the woman and her unborn child.
Causes that may cause miscarriage include:
heavy physical exertion;
malnutrition of the ovum;
genetic disorders and other causes.
Of course, this is not evidence that a miscarriage will not occur with complete rest. Miscarriage can occur due to genetic abnormalities, and due to stress. No woman is immune from 90,003 threats of pregnancy loss.
That is why attention and sensitivity to the state of your body is so necessary, which will in every possible way send signals that the pregnancy is not going the way you want.
Threatened miscarriage is accompanied by:
aching or pulling pains in the lower abdomen;
aching or drawing pains in the small of the back or sacrum.
bloody discharge from the genital tract.
If you have pain in the lower abdomen, you need to see a doctor, as a threatened miscarriage, if medical assistance is not provided, can turn into an abortion that has begun, the treatment of which is much more difficult, if not completely useless.
An ambulance should be called if:
pain in the lower abdomen gets worse;
pains begin to radiate to other areas;
painful sensations do not go away for a long time;
bloody discharge from the genital tract appeared.
If the pulling pains in the lower abdomen are weak, do not increase and do not radiate to other areas, then you can come to the antenatal clinic in the daytime on your own. This will not threaten serious complications of your condition.
If the pain becomes more intense, does not go away at rest, you should not self-medicate, take drugs without a doctor's prescription.
Do not put anything on the stomach. Both hot and cold application can contribute to the onset of a miscarriage. In addition, with the threat of termination of pregnancy, this manipulation will not remove the pain.
When a threatened miscarriage occurs, pain of a pulling or aching nature disturbs the pregnant woman in the lower abdomen.
If the pains have a clear localization in a certain place, most often on the right or left, then a mandatory consultation with a specialist is necessary, since an ectopic pregnancy or surgical pathology, such as appendicitis, may develop.
Bloody discharge from the genital tract
If bloody discharge from the genital tract has joined the pulling pain in the lower abdomen, urgent medical attention is needed. This phenomenon may indicate a miscarriage that has begun.
The discharge may be scanty, spotting or copious, dark or bright. In any case, you can not do without consulting an obstetrician-gynecologist.
There are situations when there is no pain, but there is bloody discharge from the genital tract. This case also requires specialist advice.
Any bloody discharge from the genital tract may indicate a miscarriage. Only timely treatment can contribute to the preservation and prolongation of pregnancy.
In some cases, the appearance of bloody discharge from the genital tract may be a manifestation of a miscarriage, which requires immediate medical attention.
The fertilized egg does not always develop correctly. In some cases, there is a cessation of its division and death. Most often, missed pregnancy occurs due to any mutations. At the same time, the woman does not suspect that the pregnancy has stopped.
However, the dead fetal egg begins to be rejected on its own. At the same time, there are pulling pains in the lower abdomen, which are soon joined by bloody discharge from the genital tract.
When a miscarriage is diagnosed, curettage of the uterine cavity may be indicated. Conservative management is also possible, but this can only be determined by a specialist after consultation.
Ectopic pregnancy most often occurs as a tubal pregnancy, when the fertilized egg does not reach the uterus, and the implantation process occurs in the fallopian tube. At the same time, the development of the fetal egg can continue for a long time without any manifestations, up to 12 weeks of pregnancy. However, most often such a pregnancy is interrupted at 6 to 8 weeks.
The fertilized egg develops and grows, which causes pain in the right or left side of the lower abdomen. The pains are unilateral, are obsessive, tend to increase.
In addition to pain in the lower abdomen, bloody discharge from the genital tract appears, and the pain begins to radiate to the leg from the side of the pain. There may be unpleasant sensations of pressure on the rectum. Medical surgery is the only way to save a woman's life. Preservation of pregnancy is impossible.
"Non-obstetric" causes of pain in the lower abdomen
Among the "non-obstetric" causes of pain in the lower abdomen, the most common are inflammatory processes of the pelvic organs. If earlier it was believed that there could be no inflammation in pregnant women, now it has been proven that a decrease in the immunity of a pregnant woman awakens all pathological processes in her body.
Pain in inflammatory processes of the pelvic organs differ in their intensity. At the same time, they occur in the lower abdomen and most often have a pulling or aching character.
Pathology of the digestive system
Very often, pulling pains in the lower abdomen can occur in a pregnant woman due to problems with the digestive tract. During pregnancy, there is a decrease in intestinal contractility. In addition, there are significant changes in the hormonal background of a woman. Therefore, very often pregnancy is accompanied by constipation and bloating. To normalize digestion, a change in diet is recommended and mild laxatives can be taken.
Of the surgical pathologies that may be accompanied by pulling pains in the lower abdomen during pregnancy, acute appendicitis is the most common.
In the early stages of pregnancy, it is obligatory to differentiate obstetric and gynecological diseases from appendicitis, since it has similar symptoms. There are pains in the lower abdomen, which most often occur in the navel or stomach, and then descend to the right iliac region. Nausea, vomiting, fever joins. The only treatment is surgery. In this case, the pregnancy is preserved.
Diseases of other organs or systems
In addition to obstetric and surgical causes, which can cause pulling pains in the lower abdomen in early pregnancy, other body systems may also be involved in the pathological process. The most common lesion is the urinary tract.
Due to the anatomical features of a woman, cystitis can occur at any time and in any condition, so pregnant women are just as susceptible to it as non-pregnant women.
The bladder, located in the lower third of the abdomen, may give false symptoms of threatened miscarriage.
Cystitis, in addition to pulling or aching pains in the lower abdomen, is accompanied by pain during urination, pain at the end of the act of urination. In addition, with cystitis, the urine may be stained with blood, and it is difficult to distinguish this from bloody discharge during a miscarriage.
In any case, it is necessary to consult an obstetrician-gynecologist, pass a general urine test, and then consult a urologist and treat the infection.