Helping Young Children Develop Strong Writing Skills
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Why is writing important?
What Can You Do?
Ideas for Parents: How to Help Your Child Become a Stronger Writer
Note: This article was adapted from two articles written by the U.S. Department of Education and was compiled by Colorín Colorado.
Writing is an important part of our daily lives. It is, however, a difficult skill to learn and master. By getting a head start with some simple activities, you can help your child begin to develop her writing skills at an early age. By doing so you will be contributing to her future success as a student and as an adult while teaching her how to express herself.
In this article, we provide some reasons that writing is an important skill for people of all ages, as well as a list of suggestions that will help your child become a stronger writer.
Why is writing important?
Writing is practical. Every day, we need to write in order to complete our tasks, whether we are filling out a form at the doctor's office or writing an important letter. These tasks require us to write clearly, and organize information effectively.
Writing is an important element of a student's education. Whether students are writing by hand or on the computer, many assignments and exams require students to write short answers or longer essays as a way of assessing what they have learned. As students get older, they will be expected to show more sophisticated writing skills, and to complete more sophisticated tasks through their writing. In addition, many colleges and universities require students to write essays as part of their admissions application.
Writing can be an important element of an employee's job. Employees in many kinds of jobs are required to write on a daily basis. Perhaps they are taking phone messages and doing administrative work, or writing research reports and newspaper articles. Whatever the task, their ability to do their job well may depend on their ability to write. Many job applicants also must submit a resumé and a letter of application when applying to a new job.
Writing is an important form of communication. Writing letters and emails is a common way of keeping in touch with our friends, relatives, and professional colleagues. Writing is frequently the final stage in communication when we want to leave no room for doubt, which is why we write and sign contracts, leases, and treaties when we make important decisions.
Writing can be an important outlet. Many people find writing to be therapeutic, and a helpful way to express feelings that cannot be expressed so easily by speaking.
What Can You Do?
It's important to remember that writing can be as difficult a subject to teach and assess as it is to learn. Many students have trouble writing with clarity, coherence, and organization, and this can discourage them from writing if they feel frustrated.
That's where parent involvement can make a big difference. Encouraging your child to develop strong writing skills at a young age, and to become a better writer as she gets older, can have a lifelong positive impact on her writing, and may make writing an easier and more enjoyable process for her
To get you started, the Department of Education offers a number of ideas of things you can do help your child become a stronger writer. While many of these ideas apply to younger children, they can be adapted for older children as well. To learn more about ways to support your children if they continue to struggle with writing in middle and high school, read Tips for Parents of Struggling Adolescent Writers.
Ideas for Parents: How to Help Your Child Become a Stronger Writer
What You Need
Pencils, crayons, or markers
Yarn or ribbon
Writing paper or notebook
Cardboard or heavy paper
Before getting started
Provide a place It's important for your child to have a good place to write, such as a desk or table with a smooth, flat surface. It's also crucial to have good lighting.
Provide the materials Provide plenty of paper (lined and unlined) and things to write with, including pencils, pens, and crayons.
Brainstorm Talk with your child as much as possible about her ideas and impressions, and encourage her to describe people and events to you.
Activities for young children
Encourage the child to draw and to discuss her drawings Ask your child questions about her drawings such as:
"What is the boy doing?"
"Does the house look like ours?"
"Can you tell a story about this picture?"
Show an interest in, and ask questions about, the things your child says, draws, and may try to write.
Ask your child to tell you simple stories as you write them down Copy the story as your child tells it, without making changes. Ask her to clarify anything you don't understand.
Encourage your child to write her name Practice writing her name with her, and point out the letters in her name when you see them in other places (on signs, in stores, etc.). She may start by only writing the first few letters of her name, but soon the rest will follow.
Use games There are numerous games and puzzles that help children with spelling while increasing their vocabulary. Some of these may include crossword puzzles, word games, anagrams, and cryptograms designed especially for children. Flash cards are fun to use too, and they're easy to make at home.
Turn your child's writing into books Paste her drawings and writings on pieces of construction paper. For each book, make a cover out of heavier paper or cardboard, and add special art, a title, and her name as author. Punch holes in the pages and cover, and bind the book together with yarn or ribbon.
Make sure your child sees you writing She will learn about writing by watching you write. Talk with her about your writing so that she begins to understand why writing is important and the many ways it can be used.
Encourage your child to write, even if she's scribbling Give your child opportunities to practice writing by helping her sign birthday cards, write stories, and make lists.
As your child gets older, write together Have your child help you with the writing you do, including writing letters, shopping lists, and messages.
Suggest note-taking Encourage your child to take notes on trips or outings, and to describe what she saw. This could include a description of nature walks, a boat ride, a car trip, or other events that lend themselves to note-taking.
Encourage copying If your child likes a particular song, suggest that she learn the words by writing them down. Also encourage copying favorite poems or quotations from books and plays.
Encourage your child to read her stories out loud As your child gets older, ask her to share her stories with you. Listen carefully without interrupting, and give her positive feedback about her ideas and her writing!
Hang a family message board in the kitchen Offer to write notes there for your child. Be sure that she finds notes left there for her.
Help your child write letters and emails to relatives and friends These may include thank you notes or just a special note to say hello. Be sure to send your child a letter or card once in awhile too so that she is reminded of how special it is to get a letter in the mail. Consider finding a pen pal for your child.
Encourage keeping a journal This is excellent writing practice as well as a good outlet for venting feelings. Encourage your child to write about things that happen at home and school, about people she likes or dislikes and why, and about things she wants to remember and do. If she wants to share the journal with you, read the entries and discuss them together.
Things to remember
Allow time Help your child spend time thinking about a writing project or exercise. Good writers often spend a lot of time thinking, preparing, and researching before starting to write. Your child may dawdle, sharpen a pencil, get papers ready, or look up the spelling of a word. Be patient — this may all be part of her preparation.
Respond to your child's writing Respond to the ideas your child expresses verbally or in writing. Make it clear that you are interested in what the writing conveys, which means focusing on "what" the child has written rather than "how" it was written. It's usually wise to ignore minor errors, particularly at the stage when your child is just getting ideas together.
Praise your child's writing Take a positive approach and find good things to say about your child's writing. Is it accurate? Descriptive? Original? Creative? Thoughtful? Interesting?
Avoid writing for your child Don't write a paper for your child that will be turned in as her work, and don't rewrite your child's work. Meeting a writing deadline, taking responsibility for the finished product, and feeling ownership of it are also important parts of the writing process.
Help your child with her writing as she gets older Ask your child questions that will help her clarify the details of her stories and assignments as they get longer, and help her organize her thoughts. Talk about the objective of what she is writing.
Provide your child with spelling help when she's ready for it When your child is just learning how to read and write, she may try different ways to write and spell. Our job is to encourage our children's writing so they will enjoy putting their thoughts and ideas on paper. At first, your child may begin to write words the way that she hears them. For example, she might write "haf" instead of "have", "frn" instead of "friend", and "Frd" instead of "Fred." This actually is a positive step in developing her phonemic awareness. Keep practicing with her, and model the correct spelling of words when you write. As your child gets older and begins to ask more questions about letters and spelling, provide her with the help she needs.
Practice, practice, practice Writing well takes lots of practice, so make sure your child doesn't get discouraged too easily. It's not easy! Give her plenty of opportunities to practice so that she has the opportunity to improve.
Read together Reading and writing support each other. The more your child does of each, the better she will be at both. Reading can also stimulate your child to write about her own family or school life. If your child has a particular favorite story or author, ask her why she thinks that story or that person's writing is special.
As you read and write more with your child, you will be building an important foundation, and taking steps that will help your child to become a better reader, writer, and student. Your efforts now will make a difference — and it may be just the difference that your child needs to succeed!
U.S. Department of Education. Office of Educational Research and Improvement, Archived Information. "Help Your Child Learn to Write Well." http://www.ed.gov/pubs/parents/Writing/index.html.
U.S. Department of Education. Parent Section: Helping Your Child Become a Reader. "Write On!" http://www.ed.gov/parents/academic/help/reader/part5.html#write.
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Major support provided by our founding partner, the American Federation of Teachers, AFL-CIO.
With generous support provided by the National Education Association.
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7 Great Ways to Encourage Your Child's Writing
By: Amanda Morin, Understood
Write a “Convince Me!” letter
Writing isn’t just about telling stories or reporting on books. There are many ways your child can use words, including trying to convince others to agree with her. You can help her practice this type of writing by letting her argue with you—in writing!
Choose a topic you don’t agree on, such as allowance or bedtime. Have your child write you a letter trying to convince you to change your mind. The catch? She has to use facts, quotes and logic to back up her argument.
2. Play a game with pictures
Photos and images are great story sparkers. Do a web search and find a few interesting images. Or cut out pictures from magazines. The pictures can be realistic, such as a photo of students on a playground. Or they can be fantastical images, such as a superhero flying in space.
Glue a couple images into a notebook. Then ask your child to write about one of them. You can prompt her, asking her to include what she sees, what the people are thinking, what will happen next—or just let her imagination run free.
3. Play “Tell Me How”
In this activity your child pretends she’s writing to a space alien who doesn’t know anything about our culture. This alien does everything exactly as it’s said or written.
Your child’s job is to choose an everyday task, like brushing her teeth or making a sandwich. Then, she needs to write step-by-step directions about how to do the task for the alien. When she’s done, you get to be the alien and try to follow the steps exactly as she wrote them. She may be surprised at what she left out!
4. Make an “I Can” book
As your child learns to write, she’ll also be learning other new skills. Making an “I Can” book will let her practice writing skills and keep track of her other accomplishments. Staple together a bunch of blank sheets of paper to make a book. As your child reaches a new milestone, such as learning to tie her shoes or hit a baseball, she can draw a picture on a new page of the book. Younger kids can then write, “I can tie my shoes. ” Older kids can write a few sentences about what they’ve accomplished.
5. Play “Fortunately/Unfortunately”
This turn-taking writing game is based on a classic kids’ book by Remy Charlip called Fortunately. In it, something lucky happens and then something unlucky happens. Each event is introduced by either the word “fortunately” or the word “unfortunately.”
To play, take a piece of paper and write a sentence beginning with “Fortunately,” such as “Fortunately it was a sunny day. I wanted to play outside.” Pass the paper to the next player, who will add an “unfortunately” sentence, such as “Unfortunately, I had to clean my room.” Keep going until the story is too silly to continue.
6. Make a journal jar
A journal doesn’t have to be a diary. It can also be a book where your child writes about ideas or answers questions, like “If you could do anything next summer, what would you choose?” A journal jar is a place to keep all those ideas and questions.
Wash and decorate a wide-mouthed jar, like one that used to contain peanut butter. Then, write or print out journal prompts on slips of paper. Ask your child to pull out one prompt each day and write about it in her journal.
7. Create a family scrapbook
A family scrapbook is a great way to save memories and jump-start your child’s writing. Use an inexpensive photo album to keep souvenirs of things you do together. This can include photos, ticket stubs, and found objects, like pretty leaves.
Your child can begin by writing the date and a line about where you were and what you did. Then, you can work together to write a more detailed summary. Don’t forget to include funny or even annoying moments!
Watch as an expert shares more tips for encouraging your child’s writing, including using dictation (speech-to-text) technology:
This special edition of Growing Readers was created by Understood, a free online resource for parents of children with learning and attention issues. This article originally appeared on Understood.org.
Practicum for parents "How to help a first grader to master the skill of writing"
Keywords: bad handwriting, exercises for the formation of graphic skills
Your child is a first grader and you are faced with the fact that your child cannot write beautifully. What should a loving parent do? Many parents come to me asking how they can help their child.
The problem of poor handwriting is one of the most common problems at school.
The first reason is poorly developed fine motor skills of the hand.
What is fine motor skills?
Physiologists under this expression mean the movement of the small muscles of the hands. At the same time, it is important to remember about hand-eye coordination, because. the development of small hand movements occurs under visual control. Why is it so important to develop fine motor skills in a child's hands? The fact is that in the human brain, the centers that are responsible for speech and finger movements are located very close. By stimulating fine motor skills, we activate the areas responsible for speech. And besides, in the future, the child will need these skills to use movements to draw, write, dress, etc.
The second reason for is the incorrect position of the handle.
Parents and teachers face difficulties in teaching children to hold a pen correctly when writing. A child comes to school already with a certain skill to hold a writing instrument! Unfortunately, retraining is much more difficult than teaching correctly. How much effort and time is spent to teach children these seemingly simple rules! Children hold the writing instrument incorrectly: they squeeze too much, place their fingers incorrectly, bend them, twist the brush. As a result, excessive tension occurs in the fingers and hand, which causes numbness and pain, the child quickly gets tired, the speed of writing decreases and handwriting deteriorates. Wrong writing style can even contribute to such a serious disease as writing spasm.
How to hold a pen correctly?
The handle must rest on the left side of the middle finger. The index finger on top holds the handle, the thumb supports the handle on the left side. All three fingers are slightly rounded and do not grip the handle too much. The index finger can be lifted easily without the handle falling off. The ring and little fingers can be inside the palm or lie freely at the base of the thumb. While writing, the hand rests on the upper joint of the little finger bent inward. So, the handle must be held freely, without clamping it too tightly and without bending the index finger. Bending the first joint of the index finger increases muscle tension, the child quickly gets tired, and the pace of writing slows down.
The distance from the tip of the rod to the index finger should be about 2 cm. The color of the paste should be dark blue, dark purple. Adults rarely pay attention to the quality of the pen: its shape, length, thickness, hardness of the rod, and these are all important conditions for the success and ease of skill formation. The optimal length of the handle is 15 cm, it is better not to use very short and very long handles. Different types of gift and promotional pens are not suitable for writing by children, especially flat tetrahedral ones, with a diameter of more than 7 mm, etc. The core is too hard, the thickness is “not handy”, the ribbed edges are not only inconvenient, but require additional efforts, complicate the process developing writing skills.
The third reason is incorrect seating.
Correct posture: straight back, straight shoulders down, head slightly tilted at the right distance from the notebook. The chest should not be in contact with the table - this position makes it difficult to breathe.
The fourth reason is the position of the notebook.
No less important is how the paper or notebook lies. Not only the clarity of handwriting depends on its position, but also the ability to sit correctly. Try it yourself and with your child to put the notebook straight in front of you, then move it slightly to the right so that the lower left edge of the notebook (sheet of paper) is in the middle of the chest, and you can easily see that in the first position (the notebook lies straight) it is very difficult to write. The second option (the inclined position of the notebook) allows you not only to sit correctly, but more easily and freely move your hand along the line from the beginning to the end. As the sheet is filled, the notebook moves up. At first, the left hand supports the notebook from below, and when the page is filled from below, from above.
What else affects a child's handwriting?
A lot depends on the psychological attitude. You should not scold the baby for ugly lines, in no case should you compare his results with the results of other children. So you can completely discourage the desire to learn. Praise your child more for what he does!
First of all, tune in to a condescending attitude towards your child, because a novice student requires patience and accuracy. Do not forget, however, that fatigue can come to the baby after a five-minute lesson in calligraphy. At the same time, a child complaining of hand fatigue shows not only crumpled and stiff fingers, but also the muscles of the forearm. In this case, the hand must be stretched. Massage is the best.
Written work at first should be done together with the child, without fuss and haste.
The principle “Less is more” is particularly relevant in calligraphy. Believe me, the effectiveness of such a technique is much higher than inaccurate repeated repetition “for show”.
There is another little trick to teach a child to write beautifully. As a rule, a piece of tracing paper is inserted into modern prescriptions for the first class. This leaflet is very useful for practicing writing beautiful letters. How do first-graders usually write in copybook? First, they train on the "draft", and only then they write in the "clean draft". By the time you need to write in a “clean copy”, the child is already pretty tired, and not everything always goes smoothly. In a word, pain! What is good about calca? It saves you from exhausting work in the "draft". We put the tracing paper on top of the page on which the child is working. On a tracing paper on a printed basis, we write the necessary letter or element two or three times, then the next one once in the recipe. We put tracing paper again: we write twice on tracing paper, the third time in copybook. In the next line, you can write one letter each on tracing paper and in copybook. Thus, the hand gets used to writing beautiful correct letters, and the child does not get tired. If there is no tracing paper in the copybook, then it is worth buying it, you don’t need a lot of it.
It is very important that your child name the letter that each element of that letter spells out. Such pronunciation has a beneficial effect on the development of speech. Pronunciation of the letter as it is written allows the child to control the correctness of each element.
Writing is a complex type of learning activity. It consists of a number of structural components, many rules and skills, the mastery of which is a complex, lengthy, difficult process for elementary school students. A student, learning to write, must master three main groups of skills, namely:
a) technical - to use writing instruments correctly, coordinate hand movements, adhere to hygiene rules;
b) graphic - correctly depict letters, syllables, words, write letters with the desired slope, a certain height and width, evenly positioned on the working side, correctly connect them;
c) spelling - correctly determine the sound and letter composition of words, comment on their description.
Mastery of these groups of skills is the basis of good writing and good handwriting. Psychologists warn: illegible words are not remembered.
The student learns two alphabets - printed and handwritten, and in alphabets - lowercase and uppercase letters. Teaching reading and writing proceeds simultaneously (in parallel) and is closely related to the development of speech, the enrichment of vocabulary, the streamlining of the syntactic structure of speech, and pronunciation skills.
Learning to write is an integral part of the general Russian language program. It cannot be viewed in isolation. It is closely interconnected with learning to read, with the development of oral and written speech, spelling, fine arts, labor, and physical education.
A special requirement is to teach children from the first days to the correct fit at the desk (put their feet on the floor or the crossbar of the desk if they do not reach the floor, the back is straight, the spine is not curved; eyes from the notebook are at a distance of 30-35 cm; head slightly tilted forward; the shoulders of the students are horizontal, one shoulder cannot be lower than the other; the arms are pulled up to the waist to the width of the palm, lie on the desk, the elbows hang slightly (by 2-3 cm) so that the right hand moves freely when writing). The notebook should lie obliquely (to the left), the angle of inclination of the lower end of the page in relation to the line of the table or desk is approximately 25 °; the lower left corner of the page on which the student writes is located opposite the middle of the chest; gradually filling the page, the child moves the notebook to the left with his left hand.
The position of the pen in the hand when writing. The handle is held by three fingers: thumb, index and middle. It is located between the thumb and middle fingers, and the index finger holds it from above.
Children must not grip the handle tightly. The index finger should not bend. The fingers are slightly extended. The distance from the tip of the index finger to the ball is approximately 1.5-2 cm (as convenient).
The teacher checks how freely the children hold the pen in their hand, as they may develop the wrong habit of holding the pen with four fingers, in a fist. Children put their hands on the desk on the elbow and show how to hold the pen. The index finger is lifted up several times. The teacher reminds that the pen does not need to be squeezed, it is only necessary to hold it between the thumb and middle fingers. When writing, you need to lightly press the index finger on the pen. When in contact with paper, it leaves a noticeable mark.
The first letter, the first word. .. How much effort a first-grader sometimes spends, and only scribbles appear in the notebook. “What is the matter? - parents are worried - After all, the child is trying. The child is nervous, the parents are worried, the teacher is not happy. And the reason is insufficiently developed manual dexterity. This greatly complicates mastering the skill of writing, and subsequently improving it.
A child with poor coordination of hand movements draws worse, experiences difficulties in physical education and technology lessons. Therefore, it is very important to start developing this quality in a timely manner, even before entering school, and continue to improve it throughout the entire period of study in the first two grades.
The degree of development of manual dexterity in children of 5-7 years of age can be determined by the number of throws of a ball with a diameter of 10 centimeters against a wall from a distance of 1 meter. If in 30 seconds the child threw and caught the ball more than 24 times - the coordination of his hand movements is good, from 24 to 19 times - satisfactory, less than 19 times - poor.
Special physical exercises that need to be done daily help to improve hand coordination. At the same time, one should not forget about other physical education activities, since children with a low level of manual dexterity, as a rule, have poorly developed general coordination and speed of movements. Such children are very useful games and exercises with the ball. Parents should in every way encourage them to such games, and at the first opportunity to play ball with their children.
Teach your child to shift and then throw the ball to different heights and catch it with both and one hand; catch the ball after additional movements (clapping in front of you, behind your back, turning 360 degrees, squats). From time to time check how effective these exercises are. This can be done using very simple control exercises:
Hit the ball on the floor and catch it after the bounce, first with a grip from below, then from above.
Hit the ball on the floor while standing still and then moving in different directions. Catch alternately with each hand separately, then with both hands.
Throw the ball against the wall from a distance of one and a half to two meters and catch it with two, and then with one hand. Gradually accelerate the pace of throws.
Throw at a target located at a height of 1 meter, 1.5 meters, 2 meters, balls of different diameters alternately with the right and left hands.
As hand dexterity improves, the child will be able to master these tests more easily. The pace of their implementation will increase, as well as the number of repetitions of each exercise.
Manual dexterity exercises
I.p. - standing or sitting, arms extended in front of the chest, fingers apart. Strongly clench your fingers into fists, stay in this position for 2-3 seconds, then unclench and relax your hands and shake them. Repeat 4-6 times
I.p. - standing or sitting, arms extended in front of the chest, fingers of the right hand clenched into a fist. Unclench the fingers of the right hand and simultaneously clench the fingers of the left hand into a fist, return to I.p. Repeat 20 or more times, gradually speeding up the pace.
I.p. - standing or sitting, palms together, fingers intertwined. Alternately bend and unbend the fingers. Repeat 20-30 times.
I.p. – sitting, hands with spread fingers lie on a flat horizontal surface. For 30 - 60 seconds, alternately tap on the support with the fingers of one, then the other, then both hands.
I.p. - sitting or standing, arms bent in front of you. Touch the thumb alternately with the index, middle, ring, little fingers. The pace of execution and the pressure gradually increase. Repeat 15-20 times.
I.p. - sitting or standing, palms together, fingers intertwined. Flex them and unbend the hands in the wrist joints. Repeat 10-20 times.
I.p. - standing or sitting, arms extended in front of the chest, fingers apart. Turn palms outward, return to I.p. Repeat 15-20 times.
I.p. – standing or sitting, arms bent at the elbows in front of the chest, palms up. Shaking hands, bend and unbend relaxed hands. Repeat 15-20 times.
Games for preparing fingers and hands for writing
"Musicians" - children imitate playing various musical instruments with hand movements.
“The hen is drinking water” - elbows rest on the table, fingers are folded in the form of a beak, rhythmic inclinations of the hands forward.
“Fingers say hello” - the tip of the thumb touches the rest in succession. Alternately performed with the right / left hand.
A variation of this exercise: the palms of both hands are raised with the fingers up and facing each other, the fingers are spread apart. Alternately, the fingers touch, tapping each other. This exercise can be combined with saying nursery rhymes:
Once upon a time there were three penguins: Peak, Pak, Pok. Peak, Pak, Pok is washing his ice floe together.
/you can play with poems, draw funny facial expressions, animal figures with a felt-tip pen on your fingertips/.
"Fingers play football" - alternately bend and unbend the fingers
Fingers play football, Everyone overtakes each other Everyone scores a goal It's good to play football!
Exercises for the ability to navigate on a sheet of paper
In order for a child to acquire a graphic skill, he must consciously assimilate the visual image of a letter, imagine what elements it consists of and in what spatial and quantitative relations these elements are combined in each individual letter. For example, in order for a child to learn to distinguish between the top and bottom of a sheet on paper, he is offered tasks, “snowflakes are falling”, “butterflies in a meadow”.
“ Snowflakes are falling” - the children put snowflakes made of paper on top of the sheet, then take each snowflake and show where it falls. The child accompanies his actions with the words: “ Top - Down ”.
“ Butterflies in the meadow” - focusing on the adult’s display and his verbal instructions /instructions/, and then only the verbal instruction, the children move the butterfly across the sheet of paper, commenting on their actions: “ from bottom to top, top to bottom ” .
Game: “Kittens ran away” - Memorizing the words: “right - right, left - left, up - top, bottom - bottom” - on a flannelgraph / sheet of colored paper / there are figures of kittens of different colors. At the start of the game, they are all in the same place. The child names the location of the kittens: “in the middle of ...” The adult says: “ The kittens ran away ...” and moves the figures in different directions. The child must show, say, where each kitten is, for example, “ The gray kitten is sitting in the upper right corner, and the red one is at the bottom left .... ”. The game can be played in several versions:
Formation of graphic skills
Formation of writing skills is directly related to the cultivation of perseverance, the desire to achieve the best results, the cultivation of accuracy, respect for the notebook. Teaching writing is impossible without the development of attention and observation, as well as such complex forms of mental activity of students as analysis and synthesis.
The success of learning to write largely depends on how active the student is, which is determined by raising the right attitude of children to writing assignments / it is important to sit correctly while writing, correctly position the notebook, hold the pen /.
Drawing/tracing a snail, balls of thread, try to trace without lifting the pencil from the paper - “waves”, “algae”, “grasshopper jumps”, “fish scales”, hatching ...
Each the child's skills are formed at a different pace.Parents should conduct classes in a calm, friendly environment, celebrate any achievements of the child.First graders are happy and proud of their successes, reflect confidence in the effectiveness of their activities.Success awakens a further desire to learn.
The most important task of primary school is to teach children to read and write. The better the child learns this skill, the more effective further training will be. Unfortunately, not all children quickly master writing and reading. Difficulties in mastering writing and reading are commonly referred to as dyslexia. What is the essence of this diagnosis and how to deal with it - this question worries many parents.
Written speech is perhaps the most basic and one of the most complex mental processes that interacts with such psychological processes as attention, speech, emotions and memory. If one of the processes lags behind in its development, then the whole chain suffers. Initially, the child masters oral speech. He learns to speak and pronounce words correctly. Learns pronunciation and builds sentences, then the child begins to gradually master reading.
If parents notice incorrect pronunciation of certain sounds, a speech defect, then it is necessary to contact a speech therapist so that more serious problems do not begin to appear in the future. If speech defects are not resolved in time, then defects will appear in the study of literacy and writing. Even if the child pronounces everything correctly and no defects are heard in his speech, this does not mean that in the future a violation of sound analysis and synthesis cannot occur.
It will be possible to identify this violation only when studying grammar. This manifests itself in the form of skipping letters in words, rearranging sounds, replacing them with inappropriate letters or sounds. Such a violation of phonemic hearing can only be detected by a speech therapist.
To find out if a child's sound-letter analysis is impaired, home testing can be done before going to a specialist. To do this, you need to ask the baby to pronounce a series of syllables: KA-PA-TA, AT-ACH-AT, BA-BA-PA, SA-SHA-SA. If a child finds it difficult to repeat these words, gets confused and makes obvious mistakes, then there is a phonemic hearing impairment.
Very often one can observe such errors in the letter as the replacement of letters that are similar in spelling, non-observance of the line, slovenliness in handwriting. With this type of violation, you can fight with the help of finger gymnastics and the development of fine motor skills.
Let the child sculpt more with plasticine, collect small beads in a box or string them on a thread. All this contributes to the improvement of writing and the development of finger motor skills. It is very useful to assemble a LEGO constructor.
What should I do if my child has obvious difficulties in writing?
Do not scold the child and help in every possible way.
Show more care and attention.
Watch less TV and create a calm environment at home.
Work with your child at home more often and inspire confidence in yourself and your abilities.
Corrective work should be started as soon as difficulties in mastering writing become apparent. It is important for parents to know that the problem will not go away by itself. It is necessary to constantly train memory and develop attention, it is worth remembering that all these psychological processes are interconnected. It is necessary to start with the simplest exercises and tasks, even if they do not quite correspond to the age norm.
To master the correct writing, you must always pronounce the words. Highlight the meaning of the word, roots, find words with the same root. By giving various kinds of tasks, the thought process also develops, and soon the child will begin to independently notice his mistakes and correct them.
The main thing is willpower and the desire to help your child cope with this defect. Constant replenishment of vocabulary, memorization of tongue twisters and poems will also help speed up the process. Everything must be approached in a complex. Developing one psychological process, there is an influence on other not unimportant processes. It is important for parents to know that it is necessary to constantly expand the horizons of the child. More often go to various exhibitions, museums, theaters. Read more to the baby, show visual material and tell educational stories.
Constant work with the child will help him cope with all the problems and not face them again in the future.
How to help your child write words correctly
Writing is a very complex process in which several higher mental functions are involved at once:
● First you need to mentally divide the word into sounds;
● You need to remember which letter corresponds to a particular sound;
● conjure up the image of a letter, that is, remember how it is written;
● The brain gives a command to the hand;
● apply the appropriate rule, and part of the spelling is based on the selection of a test word, that is, the memory is again included in the work.
If at some stage a failure occurs, then the child begins to write with errors, despite all the efforts of teachers and parents.
Errors in writing are divided into specific speech therapy and errors into learned and unlearned rules of the Russian language.
Dysgraphia is a partial violation of written speech caused by the lack of formation of higher mental functions. The child will repeat the same mistakes, even if he learns all the rules of the Russian language. He simply cannot apply them where necessary. According to a rough estimate, dysgraphia in one way or another is observed in almost a third of primary school students.
Not all schoolchildren, especially younger ones, clearly understand why they need literacy. Therefore, the parent should explain why it is important to write without errors. For example, a literate person makes a good impression on others, people have more confidence in his professional qualities, etc. Good motivation will allow the child to be more attentive in class and learn the rules more diligently. And the result will not be long in coming.
Check your homework
To notice the mistake in time and work it out at home, check your homework. It is useful for the child to verbally formulate answers and explain by what rule he wrote this or that spelling. So the student will be able to notice mistakes and memorize the theory faster.
Get your child interested in reading
People have long understood that reading books improves literacy. For the development of literacy, scientists advise schoolchildren to read, first of all, classical literature. Therefore, make sure that the child does not ignore the reading of works of art according to the school curriculum and does not forget about books on weekends or during holidays.
Teach the student to understand the rules
We emphasize: I did not crammed, but taught with understanding. When reading the rules, it is important to memorize a clear algorithm why a certain word is written according to one paragraph of the rule, and the second word is written differently. For this, the parent does not have to be a teacher. It is enough to take an example from the rule and disassemble it step by step, as is done in the explanation. Suppose it is difficult for a child to remember why it is necessary to write the letter O in the word “mountain”. To do this, the word must be checked by choosing a single root for it or putting it in another form so that the emphasis falls on O.
Write dictations at home
It is not necessary to force a child to write poems every day. It is enough to dictate 3-5 sentences a day and parse the words in which mistakes were made. Even such a half-hour practice trains literacy well. Of course, it is better to dictate not just any text, but one oriented specifically to the age of your child.
Dictation is a terrible word for many schoolchildren. It would seem that it can be difficult to write a dictation. It turns out that this little word hides probably the most difficult and frequently used type of literacy test for our students.
Dictation is not the most pleasant job, but you can't do without it. Starting from the first grade, schoolchildren write dictations. First alphabetic, then syllabic, and then many different types of dictations appear: selective, explanatory, educational, and control.
How to prepare a child for dictation and help him cope with the fear of this work? Unfortunately, it is impossible to prepare for the dictation in one day. Any dictation is the result of long work and training. Therefore, if you want your child to write dictations correctly, you need to prepare for long work. But don't worry. The wolf is not as scary as it seems. The work, of course, will be long, but not very difficult.
Regular reading of fiction
To begin with, it should be noted that the more a child reads, the better he copes with this type of work. Therefore, it is necessary to start preparing for dictations by reading books. There are many different exercises that develop the spelling vigilance of a person, i.e. the ability to notice and remember how a word is spelled. A person with spelling vigilance writes words correctly, without thinking about the rules of the language, automatically. At the same time, visual memory is also of great importance, which can also be successfully developed by various game exercises.
The skill of writing under dictation must be developed and consolidated. And for this you need to write small dictations yourself at home more often. At the same time, it is not at all necessary to buy special collections of dictations; you can use a Russian textbook. Choose an exercise that the child has not yet passed or has passed for a long time and managed to forget. And dictate, and the child writes.
Why is it convenient to use a textbook? Because it uses words for the studied spellings and sentences of a certain level of complexity. You consolidate knowledge of spelling, vocabulary words and train your child in writing a dictation.
When writing a dictation, an adult first reads the entire text so that the child has an idea of what he will write. If you do not write a text, but simply separate sentences, then we read by sentence. Then we read one sentence and start writing. At the same time, for the 1st-beginning of the 2nd grade, it is better to focus the child's attention on each word: "The first word - Has come." When the child wrote, "The next word is cold." "The next word is winter. The sentence is over." So you draw the child's attention that the words are written separately and "remind" that a period should be put at the end of the sentence. In addition, when pronouncing words for first graders, you need to say them the way they are written, and not the way we speak. We will dictate: "The cow gives milk. The raven sat on the oak."
When the child has written down all the sentences, you need to check the dictation. You dictate everything from the beginning, and the child checks each letter and word. In order for him to do this better, you can suggest that the child imagine that this is someone else's notebook and carefully check each letter.
For students in grades 2-4, it is no longer necessary to separate words, but it is desirable that the child count the words when you read. If there are prepositions and conjunctions, then it should be noted that there are small helper words.
It is important that when writing a dictation, the child needs to pronounce everything that he writes. Speaking writing helps to avoid many mistakes and teaches the child to control his work. In grades 2-4, when children are already learning the rules for writing words, it is necessary that the child explain the spelling of dubious letters and orally select test words.
Perhaps now it seems to you that it is long and difficult. It can be difficult the first 2-3 times. Then the child will learn, get used to it and it will become a habit, by the way, very useful.