Babies are born with flexible skulls that allow them to pass through the birth canal. At birth, the four upper plates in the skull and the single one at the back, known as the occipital bone, are connected by flexible ligaments called sutures. These allow the head to grow as the brain grows inside, which it does rapidly in early life. At the ‘corners’ of the bones, where three or more meet, there is a more open area called a fontanelle, otherwise known as a soft spot. Most people know about the one at the central front of the head, the anterior fontanelle, but there are actually six in the upper part of the head when the baby is born. Two on each side at the lower part of the skull, one at the back above the occipital bone, and the one that most people know about, the anterior fontanelle at the top front. We break down the different things to be aware of when it comes to your baby’s soft spot, aiming to answer questions such as how long do babies have soft spots?
When Should a Baby’s Soft Spot Close?
Many parents ask, when does the soft spot close? A baby’s fontanelles close at different times. The four at the lower side close at around three to six months of age, the posterior fontanelle at six to twelve months of age, and the anterior soft spot closes between 6 and 18 months of age.
The anterior soft spot can be felt as a flexible and springy area at the top front of the head. You can feel it by using light finger pressure to test it. Don’t worry, there is a tough flexible membrane between the skull bones. Some babies have quite large soft spots and some have very small ones, the difference in size is not unusual at all and is nothing to worry about. As the baby gets older the fontanelles gradually become smaller and eventually close. This doesn’t mean that your baby’s head has finished growing, it just means that the bones are becoming firmer and more protective of the brain. The sutures between the skull plates have to remain flexible throughout childhood to allow the brain and facial structures to grow and develop. So the fact that you can feel (or using the medical term, palpate) the soft spot is natural and nothing to worry about.
The soft spot can offer important clues into your baby’s health so keeping an eye on your baby’s soft spot will allow you to recognise these signs:
Baby’s Soft Spot Moving
Pulsating fontanelles aren’t a medical or health indication, and instead, represent a healthy blood flow in the brain. This pulse is absolutely normal and shows ‘brain pump’ around that area. Because there is no skull underneath the soft spot, your baby’s soft spot can be seen to move as a result of blood flow.
Sunken fontanelles can be a sign of dehydration. If you do notice that your baby has a sunken fontanelle, you should just take notice and think about whether your baby has had enough fluid, particularly in hot weather. However, while a sunken fontanelle can occur when your baby is severely dehydrated, there are many other signs of dehydration that happen before a fontanelle becomes sunken, such as fewer wet nappies and being less alert and responsive. This can also sometimes happen if your baby is not feeding well, has diarrhoea, or is vomiting and not taking in enough fluid. If these are the case, take your baby to the doctor. So, a sunken soft spot is an indicator of concern but not a concern in its own right.
Bulging Fontanelles can indicate serious illness. The bulge can be a sign of brain swelling and so is considered to be a medical emergency. Common medical causes of a bulging soft spot are brain inflammation (encephalitis) caused by a viral or bacterial infection; hydrocephalus which is excess fluid within the brain or skull and can be present at birth or develop in the early weeks; meningitis, which is the inflammation of brain or spinal cord tissue as a result of a viral or bacterial infection. These are the main concerns but there are also several other causes of swelling of the fontanelle and all should be investigated urgently. If you do notice a tense, bulging soft spot, it is extremely important that you seek medical help for your baby.
Please read our blog post that outlines 6 things you should know about your baby’s soft spot.
Does a Baby’s Soft Spot Affect Their Overall Head Shape?
Babies’ soft spots allow for a flexibility that gives the head and brain room to grow after birth. Because of this, a baby’s head shape will change before all of the sutures in their skull have fused together. Babies are often born with a birth moulding as a result of fitting through the birth canal, but this should correct itself during the first few days of life. To encourage the development of a normal head shape, parents can try repositioning techniques.
In cases where the head shape does not begin to correct, helmet treatment can help the process. Working alongside a baby’s natural head growth, helmet treatment can guide a baby’s head towards growth in the right areas. This relies on the softness of a baby’s skull.
A baby’s head shape has fully developed when the sutures in their head have closed. Although soft spots remain flexible throughout childhood, it is no longer possible to mould a baby’s head after their soft spot has closed.
Soft spots are completely normal and necessary for a baby’s head to grow naturally. Parents needn’t be worried about their baby’s soft spot in the majority of cases. However, keep an eye out for the tell-tale signs that your baby’s soft spot may be trying to tell you.
If you are worried about your baby’s head shape and think they may require helmet treatment, book a free consultation at your nearest clinic!
5 Warning Signs From Your Baby’s Soft Spot – Cleveland Clinic Health Essentials
When you’re a new parent, you learn that you need to protect that soft spot, or fontanelle, on your baby’s head. It rarely requires much attention, but it reminds you just how fragile your infant is.
That’s why, if something changes — is the soft spot sunken in a little? — you may worry there’s something wrong.
A change in the fontanelle isn’t always a major problem, but it can sometimes reveal internal issues, says Violette Recinos, MD, Section Head of Pediatric Neurosurgery at Cleveland Clinic.
“It is a good indicator of the baby’s potential hydration status and brain status,” she says. “It’s like an automatic pressure sensor.”
What is the fontanelle?
The fontanelle is the space between different plates of a baby’s skull that will eventually come together. This aspect of an infant’s skull structure typically allows for easy delivery through the birth canal and for rapid head growth during the first year of life, Dr. Recinos says.
There are actually two soft spots — one at the back of the head and another on top. The posterior one closes within a few months of birth, while the top fontanelle typically remains until just past a child’s first birthday.
Dr. Recinos explains what changes in the fontanelle can tell you about your infant’s health.
Sunken in soft spot
This is often a sign of dehydration, she says. It may occur if your child is sick and not getting enough fluids.
What you should do: See your pediatrician if the sunken appearance persists and you can’t get your baby to take in more fluids.
Swollen soft spot
After a fall, a swollen soft spot (particularly if it’s accompanied by vomiting) is sometimes a sign of head trauma.
What you should do: Seek medical treatment right away.
Bulging soft spot
Fluid buildup (hydrocephalus) can cause rapid head growth and can make the soft spot look “full,” Dr. Recinos says.
A bulging fontanelle also might signal internal bleeding or a tumor or mass causing pressure in the head.
What you should do: If their soft spot is bulging, that’s a reason to seek care from your pediatrician, she says.
Seek emergency care if your infant exhibits fatigue, vomiting or unusual mental status along with the fontanelle’s fullness. Treatment for these conditions may include surgery to insert a shunt that relieves fluid buildup or to remove any underlying mass, Dr. Recinos says.
Disappearing soft spot
Most of the time the soft spot is obvious, particularly on a newborn. But at times it can seem to disappear quickly.
This may scare parents, but it typically means it’s just a “quiet fontanelle,” not that it has fused together prematurely, Dr. Recinos says.
As long as your child’s head is growing normally, all is probably well, she says. But your pediatrician may suggest an imaging test to make sure the fontanelle is still open.
Occasionally, though, the skull bones do close earlier than normal on one side, causing craniosynostosis. Depending on which bones fused, the baby may develop an abnormal head shape. For example, sagittal craniosynostosis, the most common form, results in a longer head that is shaped somewhat like a football.
What you should do: Children with craniosynostosis may need surgery to open the fused bones and reshape the skull. In some cases, the child will wear a helmet afterward until the site heals and the head shape normalizes.
Soft spot that doesn’t close
If the soft spot stays big or doesn’t close after about a year, it is sometimes a sign of a genetic condition such as congenital hypothyroidism.
What you should do: Talk to your doctor about treatment options.
The bottom line? If you have any questions or concerns about your baby’s soft spot, it’s a good idea to check in with your pediatrician to make sure all is well.
When a child's fontanel overgrows, why does it pulsate, sink, when it should close
Good day, dear readers of the blog. I decided to write an article on one of the topical topics about children's health - about the fontanel. So, let's start... The fontanel on the head of babies seems to all parents to be a very vulnerable place, and they are worried if it suddenly starts to sink. Why does this happen and what should be done in such cases?
What it is
Fontanelles are called soft parts of the skull, which are necessary for the child in order to more freely bypass the birth canal of the mother. They make it possible to stretch the baby's head a little, protect his brain from injury and facilitate childbirth. The shape of the skull of infants becomes normal over time, and the soft spots on the head harden.
Few people know that newborns have six fontanelles - two large and four small, which disappear during the first days of life. Large ones are located on the crown and on the back of the head. The occipital softenings close within three months, the parietal fontanelles disappear completely, usually by two years, but can also be by the year.
At the same time, the anterior softening sometimes slightly increases in the first months of the child's existence, which is due to the rapid growth of the medulla.
Although touching large fontanelles causes concern in parents, they are quite well protected by an elastic membrane located under the skin. It is able to absorb shocks, protecting the baby from concussions. As it closes, the membrane gradually stiffens and hardens.
If the child is healthy, the soft spot on his head pulsates slightly due to the movement of blood through the vessels. The fontanel may bulge slightly or be slightly sunken. This is fine. It is worth worrying when it begins to noticeably swell, sink too much, grow slowly or too quickly. This may be a symptom of disease or developmental abnormalities.
Causes of irregular shape and overgrowth
If the condition of the fontanel, which should be regularly checked by a pediatrician, is not quite normal, this is not a reason to panic. The main thing is that the child feels well and develops normally. The reasons for this situation may be hormonal disruptions or a temporary metabolic disorder.
Slow overgrowth of the fontanel is often due to a lack of calcium or some hereditary factors. Sometimes it is associated with rickets, a lack of vitamins and minerals, which caused a slowdown in the formation of the bones of the skull.
If it closes too quickly, doctors prescribe additional examinations, because in this case the reasons are always individual.
Too sunken fontanel.
When to worry
When the fontanelle becomes too sunken, it means that the baby's body is dehydrated. Similar situations arise with infectious diseases, diarrhea, and malfunctions in the digestive processes.
It must be said that the fontanel can sink heavily if the baby starts crying and is under stress. This is the norm.
But if it sinks in a child who is completely at rest, there is a possibility of developing some kind of disease.
Parents who notice that the recession of the fontanel has become more than usual should first measure the pulse by gently touching the child's carotid artery with your fingers. This is done using a stopwatch.
In children under one year old, the normal pulsation is approximately 130 beats in 60 seconds. If the indicator is increased, it is necessary to pay attention to the color of urine and the amount of its excretion per day.
Its decrease and the dark color of the liquid are evidence of its deficiency in the child's body.
These include dry skin and fever, lethargy, muscle weakness, dry mucous membranes of the baby.
All this may arise simply because the child is overheated, but some disease cannot be ruled out. Therefore, it is advisable to contact the doctors, avoiding a high degree of dehydration.
What should parents do if the fontanel in the baby has begun to sink heavily
When it sinks slightly, it is advisable to give the baby purified water first.
Babies often get enough breast milk, but if the room is hot in a dry place or they are breastfeeding, babies need to be supplemented.
In cases of high risk of dehydration, breastfed babies should be fed more frequently, almost on demand. They can not be wrapped up to prevent overheating.
If the ambient temperature does not exceed 33 C, even a light cap should not be worn on babies.
Such a soft spot on the head is responsible for the process of thermoregulation of the brain, and a cap or scarf can disrupt it. All of these actions will only benefit if you are mildly dehydrated.
If the fontanel sinks too noticeably, the baby develops a high temperature, diarrhea, vomiting, you should try to give him a drink, and then immediately call an ambulance.
Doctors will select the most appropriate way to normalize the water-salt balance and prescribe medications. In this case, you should not rely on your own strength or on someone else's advice.
If the baby remains active with a strongly retracted fontanel, has a good appetite, it cannot be considered a serious deviation.
You can go to a consultation with a pediatrician who will determine the true cause and find a way to eliminate it.
In general, in order to avoid such problems, the baby needs to provide proper nutrition and monitor the level of vitamin D3 and calcium in his body. Their deficiency, which is often observed in premature babies, causes slow formation of bone mass and can cause the fontanel to recede.
It must be replenished with vitamin complexes prescribed by the doctor after the examination. The drugs will enable full development, straighten the fontanel and make the baby healthy, calm and joyful.
When the fontanel in newborns overgrows
The process of giving birth to a baby is so meticulously “thought out” by nature that it provides for all the moments so that the child can be born healthy.
In order for the small body to pass through the mother's birth canal, its head takes on an oblong shape and is slightly flattened laterally. The baby has gaps between the bones of the skull, which fill the plates of connective tissue.
These gaps are called fontanelles, and parents have a lot of different questions about them. However, most of them - and there are six fontanelles after birth - quickly overgrow. Therefore, often parents simply do not notice that there were so many of them.
But the main one - the frontal or large fontanelle (abbreviated - BR) remains for a longer period. After all, its function is also to provide cushioning, protecting against injuries and fractures during a fall.
When the crown of the newborn overgrows and how this process occurs, we will discuss in the article below.
When does the fontanel grow in newborns?
Young parents often worry about whether everything is going well and look for information about when a large fontanel is overgrown. The older the baby becomes, the more parents experience this.
But in fact, even after the baby is one year old, and the crown remains, there is no need to worry. After all, in children, this process is normally completed before 1.5 years.
But if you are still overwhelmed by a certain anxiety about the fact that the process is progressing with a delay, it is better to visit a doctor who will help determine when the fontanel in a child overgrows in a particular case.
After all, we can talk not only about a disease, but also about a certain feature of development. Therefore, sometimes the answer to the question of what age the fontanel in a child overgrows is not so categorical. In any case, visiting the doctor with the baby, the mother should ask him all the questions about how much the fontanel should grow in the child.
What should be the crown?
The characteristics of the fontanelle are assessed by the doctor immediately after the baby is born, as well as at every monthly examination. The pediatrician necessarily pays attention to the size of the crown, the rate of its decrease, the density of the bones surrounding it.
How big should a healthy baby's fontanel be? In a full-term baby, its dimensions are 2.5-3 cm. The doctor determines this by palpating the skull and taking measurements between opposite sides of the rhombus.
In premature babies, these sizes are larger - about 3.5 by 3.5 cm. But if a large baby was born at 41-42 weeks, then the crown may be smaller. Interestingly, a 1-month-old baby may have even more BR than at birth. The thing is that during this period the brain is actively growing, and therefore the bones diverge a little.
Therefore, it is difficult to determine exactly what kind of BR a baby should have at a certain age. However, in some sources you can still find certain indicators:
at three months - 1.8-2 cm;
in six months - 1.8-1.6 cm;
at nine months - 1.3-1.4 cm;
in one year - 0.4-0.8 cm.
But it should be understood that these figures are just a rough guideline. This is due to the fact that:
the size of the fontanel in all children is different initially;
how the fontanel is tightened in children does not depend on its size; a large one can drag on for a year, a small one sometimes does not grow up to a year and a half.
But it is very important to make sure that the fontanelles are at the level of the cranial bones and are not too tense. It is assumed that the spring will sink or swell a little, its pulsation is also possible.
It is also important that the parietal and frontal bones surrounding the crown are firm and free from softening areas.
If the fontanel does not close, what should I do?
Visit a doctor and consult with him if the fontanel has not closed by 18 months. This condition may be normal for the baby. However, we can talk about certain pathologies.
What does the fontanel look like?
What research is needed?
How to proceed?
Lack of calcium leads to softening of the bones, including the skull. The BR remains open for a long time, the edges of the bones are soft to the touch. The child becomes lethargic, often sweats during sleep, the back of his head becomes bald. Bone growths appear on the wrists and ribs, there is a curvature of the lower leg.
Pediatric examination, Sulkovich urine sample, blood test for phosphorus, calcium, alkaline phosphatase.
The use of therapeutic doses of vitamin D is practiced.
BR does not heal for a long time due to a deficiency of thyroid hormones that regulate, among other things, bone growth. Constipation is disturbing, the voice becomes nasal, umbilical hernias develop. The fontanel does not drag on for a long time.
It is necessary to consult a pediatrician and a pediatric endocrinologist, conduct a blood test for TSH, T3 and T4, ultrasound of the thyroid gland.
Thyroid hormone replacement therapy underway.
A disease of bone tissue that results in impaired growth. The skeleton becomes disproportionate, the head becomes massive and wide, the limbs become short. The fontanel does not drag on for a long time. A genetic consultation is required.
PCR cranial x-ray to determine gene mutation.
Growth hormone somatotopin is used.
Due to the increased pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid, the cranial bones cannot "converge". The fontanel rises above the bones, the circumference of the head increases. Possible manifestation of convulsions, hearing and vision disorders, developmental delays.
Observation of a pediatric neurologist, EEG, MRI, ultrasound of the brain is indicated.
Anticonvulsants, diuretics, nootropics are prescribed. Sometimes shunting is indicated.
What to do if the fontanelle overgrows very quickly?
If a baby has a very small fontanel, parents need to show the child to specialists - a pediatrician, endocrinologist, neurologist. Sometimes there are cases when the fontanel of a newborn heals as early as 3 months. This happens rarely - in about 1% of cases. If at the same time the baby has all other indicators in the norm, then we are not talking about deviations.
However, in some cases, too low a BR may be indicative of pathology. The table below shows the possible conditions in which the baby's fontanel is too small.
What does the fontanel look like?
What research is needed?
How to proceed?
The sutures of the skull and fontanelles fuse very early and quickly. Probably deformity of the skull, jaw, secondary hydrocephalus.
Perform MRI, head CT, skull X-ray.
Surgical dissection of sutures.
Increased parathyroid function
Due to impaired calcium and phosphorus metabolism, the calcium content in the blood increases. The baby's BR closes early, the pain in the bones worries, the kidneys and gastrointestinal tract are affected, and arrhythmia manifests itself.
Conduct a blood test for phosphorus and calcium, determine the content of parahormone in the blood. They also conduct x-rays of the bones of the skull, ultrasound of the thyroid and parathyroid glands.
Surgical methods of treatment.
Due to abnormal development of the brain, the bones of the medullary part of the skull stop growing, while the growth of the facial bone continues. The brain remains underdeveloped. There is a delay in development.
The child is observed by a neurologist, electroencephalography, ultrasound of the brain are performed. It is important to consult a geneticist.
What should I do if my child's fontanelle is too large?
A fontanel is considered too large if its size exceeds 3.5 cm. But for immature or premature babies, this may be the norm. In such cases, a large fontanel in a child closes up to one and a half years. Often at age 3 months or older, the BR begins to actively decrease, and by this age it gradually closes.
In other cases, it is necessary to consult a pediatric neurologist, conduct ultrasound of the brain and other necessary studies to rule out hydrocephalus and increased intracranial pressure.
Why does the baby's fontanel pulsate?
Since the brain is actively supplied with blood, and its vessels are located close to the heart, there is strong pressure and, accordingly, tremors during the flow of blood.
Such a pulsation is transmitted to the liquor, to the membranes of the brain and to the plate that closes the BR. Therefore, if the fontanel pulsates a little at 3 months or at a different age, this is normal.
But if the BR pulsates very strongly in a child, this may indicate developing diseases. But in this case, as a rule, there are other unpleasant symptoms - intoxication, dehydration, fever, vomiting, etc.
In such a situation, you need to see a doctor, establish a diagnosis and carry out the correct treatment.
What does it mean if the fontanel of a baby has fallen?
When the BR sinks, this is an indication that the baby is malnourished or dehydrated. A sunken fontanel in a child due to loss of fluid can be observed:
in extreme heat;
due to overheating, if the child is wrapped too tightly;
as a result of fever or intoxication of the body;
after severe vomiting or diarrhoea.
It is very important to replenish lost fluids immediately. If the baby is overheated, it should be cooled down and given liquids to drink. With an intestinal infection, manifested by severe symptoms, treatment is carried out in a hospital.
If the fontanel sticks out - what does it mean?
Bulging (rise above the level of the bones) fontanel may be evidence of increased intracranial pressure - a symptom characteristic of meningitis, encephalitis, tumors, intracranial bleeding. There may be other reasons for this phenomenon.
Parents should be very careful and call for emergency assistance if, in addition to bulging fontanel, the following signs are observed:
diarrhea and vomiting of an infant;
disturbances of consciousness;
swelling after head injury;
In the absence of such symptoms and swelling for a long time, a specialist should also be consulted. In such a situation, an ultrasound of the brain in the baby may be needed. Whether this is normal or not, the test results will show.
Is special care required?
It is not necessary to practice any temechka care activities. Although the plate covering it is very thin, it is quite durable. Therefore, parents can safely comb the baby, cut, inspect his head, bathe him. True, you still need to use the comb carefully, since the baby may experience discomfort with sudden movements.
Despite the fact that normally the BR closure process is completed by one and a half years, sometimes certain deviations can occur in healthy children. Therefore, the answer to the question of when the fontanel in a child should close is not always unambiguous.
Parents should be alert when the fontanel closes in infants under 3 months of age. If parents have certain doubts about the ongoing process, it is better to ask the pediatrician about when the fontanel closes in the child.
The process of closing the BR is faster if the baby is fully fed, quickly gaining weight. More often than not, breastfed babies close faster.
Fontanelles in a baby. A large fontanel in a child. Overgrowth and size of the fontanel
Many fears of a young mother are associated with fontanels - soft areas on the head of a newborn baby. It’s scary to even touch the fontanelles - what if a careless movement injures the child’s brain? In addition, there are rumors that fontanelles that are too large or small can be signs of serious diseases ...
A bit of anatomy
lines). In the intrauterine period, the bones of the skeleton are laid down as plates of dense membranous tissue, which are later replaced by cartilaginous tissue, and then by bone.
Ossification of the flat bones of the roof (upper and lateral parts) of the skull, in contrast to the long tubular bones of the extremities, bypasses the cartilage stage, i.e. ossification points appear in the center of the membranous plates. Subsequently, the ossification process spreads to the sides, capturing an increasing area of \u200b\u200beach bone, until it reaches its edges.
This process almost entirely takes place during the period of intrauterine development, therefore, by the time the baby is born, most of the roof of the skull is already represented by bone tissue, although the latter differs significantly from the bone tissue of adults: it is much thinner, more elastic, rich in blood vessels.
However, even before the start of extrauterine existence, the baby will face an important and difficult test - the birth process. And nature, of course, perfectly prepared a small organism for it. The fact is that some marginal parts of the bones do not ossify by the time of childbirth and are still represented by plates of connective, or membranous, tissue.
These are areas at the junction of several bones, they are called fontanelles.
By the time of birth, the baby, as a rule, has six fontanelles - two unpaired and two paired. The most "famous" is a large, frontal, or anterior, fontanel located on the top of the head, at the junction of two frontal and two parietal bones. It has a diamond shape, its dimensions at the time of birth are about 3 cm (from 2.2 to 3.5 cm).
Another unpaired fontanel, called the small, posterior, or occipital fontanel, is located on the back of the head, at the junction of the two parietal and occipital bones. It has a triangular shape and small dimensions - about 5 mm. In half of the cases, it may already be closed by bone tissue by the time of birth, in the rest it closes during the first month of the baby's life.
Paired fontanelles located on the sides of the head. Known wedge-shaped fontanel, located in the temporal region, at the convergence of the frontal, parietal, sphenoid and temporal bones of each side. Behind the ear, at the junction of the occipital, temporal and parietal bones, is the mastoid fontanel.
Enlarged fontanelles at birth may be due to prematurity or impaired intrauterine ossification process, as well as a symptom of congenital hydrocephalus (expansion of fluid spaces in the brain).
Complete closure of the lateral and occipital fontanelles at birth, combined with small anterior fontanels, may be a sign of congenital microcephaly (a pathological reduction in the size of the head and, as a rule, the brain).
The occipital and lateral fontanelles, unlike the anterior, normally close shortly after the birth of the baby, therefore, when they say “fontanelle” in the singular, they mean the anterior, or large, fontanel.
So, the integuments of the brain in the area of the fontanelles are represented by the membranes of the brain (pia mater, arachnoid and dura mater), membranous connective tissue, a thin layer of adipose tissue and skin.
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Why do we need fontanelles?
Fontanelles, being pliable areas, perform a very important function: they allow the bones of the skull to overlap each other during childbirth (this is called the “head configuration”), which greatly facilitates the passage of the head through the narrow birth canal.
After childbirth, the large fontanel, which remains open, acts as a shock absorber in case of accidental bumps of the baby's head. And finally, the fontanel is actively involved in thermoregulation in general and in the heat exchange of the brain in particular.
When the temperature rises above normal, additional natural cooling of the brain and meninges occurs through the large fontanel.
Due to the imperfection of the mechanisms of thermoregulation, the infant's body, in comparison with the body of adults, overheats much more easily, and the brain of infants is much more sensitive to all sorts of negative influences. That is why the additional role of the fontanelle in heat transfer is so important.
Dimensions and timing of fontanel closure
Large fontanel has a maximum size (from 2.2 to 3.5 cm) at the time of birth.
In the first days after childbirth, due to the "straightening" of the skull bones and interosseous sutures, the absolute size of the fontanel may increase slightly, but this does not reflect the true growth of the fontanel, but is associated with a slight change in its shape.
Subsequently, the size of the fontanelle begins to steadily decrease, closing it occurs in a period of 6 to 18 months. There are cases when, normally, the closure of the fontanel occurs at an earlier (from 3 to 6 months) or later (up to 2 years) dates.
The size of the large fontanel and the speed of its closure are genetically determined factors. No one has yet managed to change the genetic predisposition of a person. These conclusions were reached by a special commission of WHO, which in 1982 conducted a worldwide statistical study on the dependence of the physical and mental development of the child on the size of the fontanel and the speed of its closure.
Nevertheless, perhaps, the largest number of parental experiences is associated with the size and timing of the closure of the fontanel. And to this day you can hear "horror stories" and myths about this.
Neither kissing nor combing the hairs above the fontanel area can harm the baby.
The first myth. "If the fontanel is too large, it's most likely rickets." The size of the fontanel in no way correlates with this disease. In the phase of "blooming" rickets, when there is a significant softening of the bones, softening of the bony edges of the fontanel can also be noted, but this will not affect the size of this formation. In addition, rickets has other symptoms.
The second myth. "If the fontanel is too small, vitamin D should not be given, even if it is accompanied by clear signs of rickets."
If the baby has obvious signs of rickets - increased neuro-reflex excitability, decreased muscle tone, sour smell of sweat, growth of frontal and parietal tubercles on the skull bones, a change in the ratio of calcium and phosphorus ions according to a biochemical blood test (we do not add to this list consider nape baldness as an independent symptom, since significant hair loss occurs in all infants at the age of about 3 months), he is shown the appointment of vitamin D and calcium preparations (homeopathic preparations that normalize calcium-phosphorus metabolism in the body can serve as a worthy alternative). This therapy, subject to the correct dose regimen, is not able to accelerate the closure of the fontanel.
The third myth. “If the fontanelle does not grow over for too long, it is either rickets or hydrocephalus.” The size and timing of the closure of the fontanel are very ambiguous indicators. The fontanel may be larger than the average size, but close rather quickly, and vice versa. We have already talked about the symptoms of rickets above.
An increase in intracranial pressure may be accompanied by restlessness of the baby, sleep disturbances, muscular dystonia, changes in the fundus vessels. At the same time, parents may notice common symptoms - drowsiness or sleep disturbances, anxiety, tearfulness.
And doctors will pay attention to muscle tone, fundus, fontanel, measure head growth, etc. the edges of the cranial sutures, the divergence of the edges of an already overgrown fontanel. That is why doctors are guided not by the size of the fontanel, but by the growth rate of the baby's head.
The fourth myth. “If the fontanelle closes too quickly, the brain will have nowhere to grow and mental disability will develop.” It has long been proven that the growth of the skull is carried out not so much due to the area of the fontanel, but due to the sutures, so the "early" closure of the fontanel does not harm this process at all.
The fifth myth. “It’s better not to touch the head in the fontanel area - you can damage the brain.” Such fears are also unfounded. Despite the apparent vulnerability of this area, the brain is reliably protected by numerous layers of tissues. Therefore, neither kissing, nor wiping with a towel, nor combing hairs over the fontanel area can harm your baby.
What will the doctor pay attention to?
When examining the baby, the doctor will definitely evaluate the area of the fontanelles. In doing so, he will face the following questions:0004
Are the corresponding fontanelles open or closed? Is it appropriate for the child's age?
If the fontanelles are open, what are their dimensions? Have they increased or decreased since the last inspection? Is the shape of the fontanels symmetrical?
Are the edges of the fontanel soft or too soft? Normally, the edges of the fontanel should be elastic and pliable. If they are excessively soft, this may indicate the development of rickets - a typical growth disease, manifested by a lack of formation and mineralization of bones and their softening, mainly due to a lack of vitamin D during the period of the most active growth of the baby.
What is the condition of the soft (webbed) area of the fontanel? Normally, the fontanel repeats the configuration and level of standing of the bones of the skull (if you examine the baby in the prone position) or slightly sinks (if you take it on the handles in an upright position). On palpation, it is easy to push it with the fingertips, while the arterial pulsation is clearly felt. When crying, the fontanel bulges a little, becomes a little more tense. Significant bulging and tension of the fontanel, accompanied by a decrease or cessation of arterial pulsation and remaining at rest, raises the suspicion of increased intracranial pressure and / or an increase in the amount of cerebrospinal fluid in the spaces of the brain (this condition is known as hypertensive-hydrocephalic syndrome). The cause of this condition can be complications during pregnancy and childbirth, and even an overdose of vitamin D. Bulging and tension of the fontanel can also be one of the symptoms of meningitis (inflammation of the meninges). As a rule, the listed changes in the state of the fontanel are accompanied by other symptoms - anxiety and crying, or, on the contrary, increased drowsiness of the baby, vomiting, fever, refusal of food and / or difficulties in taking it. That is why you should inform the pediatrician about all the features of the baby's behavior that you have noticed, and in emergency cases, do not delay calling an ambulance. Significant retraction and lethargy of the fontanel (when fingers almost do not meet resistance when pressing on this area) develop as a result of dehydration against the background of severe diarrhea and / or vomiting.
Once again, I would like to note that only a doctor with his knowledge and experience can examine and evaluate the fontanelles, while parents should observe the condition and behavior of the baby as a whole, since the symptoms from the sutures and fontanelles themselves are never the only isolated manifestations of a particular condition or disease.
However, if parents have questions or concerns about the appearance and condition of their baby's fontanelles, a doctor should be consulted
Dorofeya Apaeva, pediatrician, Moscow
Comment on the article "Fannels in infants"
"Myths" about fontanelles in children
But this is actually this SPRING HOUSE!
What are fontanelles and what do they consist of?
The skull of a newborn baby consists of a large number of individual and rapidly growing bones. The flat bones of the skull grow in the center and along the edges. A suture is formed at the meeting point of the two bones of the skull. Where three or more bones of the skull meet, a gap in the shape of a polygon is formed. Such gaps covered with strong connective tissue are commonly called fontanelles.
The basis of the fontanel is an extremely strong connective tissue, which gradually ossifies along the edges, which leads to a gradual decrease in the size of the fontanel and its complete closure.
Newborns have 6 fontanelles: anterior (largest), posterior (second largest), two mastoid and two wedge-shaped. In most term babies, only the first two fontanelles are visible - the other four either close very quickly after birth, or are so small that there are very few of them.0004
The main role of the fontanelles is to ensure the elasticity of the baby's skull during childbirth and during the first years of life. Thanks to the fontanelles, the bones of the skull of a newborn child remain very mobile, and the size of the child's skull easily adjusts to the size of the mother's small pelvis during childbirth.
What should fontanelles be like in a norm?
The large anterior fontanel is usually well visible and always of great interest. A large number of misconceptions are associated with the “normal size” and “terms for closing” a large fontanel, which often frighten inexperienced parents, and often frighten the doctors themselves or worried relatives, friends (whose children had “not so”).
Here are some of them:
- At birth, the size of the large fontanel is the same for all children. - In fact, the normal size of a large fontanelle varies greatly. The normal range of a large fontanel in newborns is 0.5 cm to 4 cm. -In fact, due to the rapid development of the brain, the size of the large fontanel increases somewhat during the first months of a child's life.
— There is a certain period when the large fontanel should close -In fact, the timing of the closure of the large fontanelle is as individual as other parameters of a child's development (the beginning of walking, teething, the beginning of coherent speech). Observations on healthy children showed that in 1% of cases the large fontanel closes at three months, in a year the large fontanel is closed in about 40% of children, and in two years in more than 95% of children.
But I repeat once again, even if the fontanel is closed at 3 months or at 3 years, and there is no clinic and according to the study of the brain (NSG, TUS) everything is normal, don't worry !
- The smaller the fontanel at birth, the faster it closes. -In fact, there is no directly proportional relationship between the initial size of the fontanelle and the proximity of the moment of its closure.
-Complete closure of the spring means a complete cessation of the growth of the skull and leads to an increase in intracranial pressure - The bones of the skull grow mainly due to an increase in their central part and expansion of the edges in the suture area.
— The speed of fontanel closure depends on the intake of calcium and vitamin D in the child's body —
this process is laid down at the genetic level, therefore, the recommendations of doctors that in case of a rapidly growing fontanel, calcium-containing foods should be removed from the diet, or vice versa, they should be increased in case of a non-overgrowing fontanel, they have no basis.
It is impossible to influence the speed of fontanel closure in healthy children.
Appearance of a large fontanel in a healthy child
Outwardly, a large fontanel in a healthy child looks like a pulsating or non-pulsating diamond-shaped, slightly sunken or slightly convex area of the scalp.
Most inexperienced parents are afraid to touch the fontanel and watch with bated breath as the doctor boldly probes it with his fingers.
In fact, the large fontanel is much stronger than it seems, and its careful probing cannot cause no harm to the child.
The baby's fontanel does not require any special care or protection. The fontanel area can be safely washed while the child is bathing
I emphasize that a slightly sunken fontanel is the norm (especially if the child is calm or sleeping), in the same way, a slightly filled fontanel is the norm and this can be observed when crying, straining the child.
I really hope that I have answered some of your questions, and if there is anything else that I missed, ask, I will be happy to answer.
Fontanelles on the child's head. The child's fontanel pulsates. When a child's fontanel overgrows norm
The appearance of a baby is extremely exciting for a young mother. There are so many questions about caring for a baby, I want to do everything right, without harming the baby. Of particular concern is the fontanel on the head of the child. Do you need special care for the fontanel, when should it overgrow, what symptoms and changes should alert parents - our article will help you sort out these issues.
How many fontanelles do children have
The fontanel of a newborn child is a soft formation of the head, where the cranial bones do not completely converge. This is physiological for a newly born baby.
During childbirth, the bones of the skull in the area of the fontanel are slightly deformed, allowing the head to pass through the birth canal.
In addition, the child's brain will increase in size over time and the fontanel will be a kind of reserve for this.
The head of the fetus on the eve of birth has six fontanelles. The largest fontanel - anterior or large, is located in the parietal part of the baby's head.
The second largest is the posterior or small fontanel, located in the back of the head.
On the sides of the cranium there are small fontanelles: mastoid and wedge-shaped, which by the time of birth of the crumbs are tightened or their traces are observed after birth.
Size of the fontanel in children
The size of the fontanel is influenced by the following factors:
the amount of calcium in the child's body
Fontanelle in a one-month-old baby
Monthly examination of the baby includes a mandatory examination of the fontanel areas of the head. Such an examination gives the pediatrician the opportunity to track how the brain develops and the child's skull is strengthened. There are specially designed tables that allow you to determine the optimal size of the fontanel, depending on the age of the crumbs.
So, a large fontanel in a newborn baby, upon reaching the age of one month, can measure from 2.6 to 2.8 cm. And at the age of 1 to 2 months - 2.2-2.5 cm. Slight deviations from the tabular data are not critical, since each child is unique and has its own developmental characteristics.
After birth, the size of the fontanel may increase slightly during the first month. And that's okay. During childbirth, the baby's cranium is strongly compressed, then the dimensions of the head restore their original dimensions, due to the elasticity of the tissues. In addition, in the first month of life, the baby’s brain grows intensively.
At this age, the fontanel should clearly pulsate with a frequent and even rhythm, since the heart in newborns beats faster than in adults. The alarm should be sounded when the size of the fontanel is much different from physiological standards, there is a sinking, or vice versa - a protrusion of the fontanel, a strong pulsation, or other alarming symptoms.
Fontanelle at 6 months in a child
When a child is half a year old, the size of the fontanel decreases. At this age, the parietal fontanel zone grows well, the edges of the parietal bones converge, the fontanel at this age has a size of 1.6-1.8 cm. In some children, already at this age, the fontanel can completely disappear. Parents should not worry about this if development is normal and the baby feels good.
A child's fontanel per year
In the interval from six to eight months, the size of the anterior fontanel decreases imperceptibly, and until the age of one, the fontanel averages the following dimensions: Due to the peculiarities of the development of the child, deviations in the closure of the fontanel in one direction or another are permissible.
The child's fontanel is pulsating, why
The fontanel on the child's head is a kind of indicator of the baby's health in the first year of life. Therefore, parents should monitor the state of the fontanel and respond to the slightest changes. In the normal state, the soft parietal membrane is located in the same plane with the cranial bones.
Pulsation in the area of the fontanel should not cause concern to parents if the child develops correctly, sleeps well, sucks actively, does not suffer from appetite. In many European countries, a pulsating fontanel is translated as a "fountain". For example, in the UK, the fontanel is called "fontanelle".
The thin but dense tissue of the fontanel reflects the natural processes that take place in the baby's body. Pulsation occurs simultaneously with the baby's heartbeat, as well as during fluctuations in the fluid (liquor), which is caused by intracranial vessels. When the crown of the baby is tightened, the bones will completely cover the fontanel area, then the pulsation will no longer be visible.
Thus, pulsation is a physiological process that should not be feared. In some cases, the fontanel may bulge slightly, recede, or pulsate intensely, which worries parents very much. Let's look at the reasons why this happens.
Scream and strong crying. When the baby cries and experiences stress, there is a pulsation of the fontanel - it either protrudes slightly, then sinks. In a calm state, the surface of the fontanel takes on an even shape. In this case, the pulsation of the fontanel is not a pathology.
Active and uneven pulsation of the fontanelle at rest or during sleep should alert parents.
The child should be shown to a pediatrician or pediatric neurologist without fail in order to diagnose possible diseases in time: hydrocephalic syndrome (fluid accumulation in the meninges) or increased intracranial pressure.
Cardiac pathologies are sometimes accompanied by strong pulsation and erratic rhythm.
A sunken fontanelle indicates that the baby is not getting enough fluid or the baby is undernourished. Retraction of the fontanel may be associated with infectious diseases and diarrhea, which causes dehydration.
Post-term babies usually have a slightly sunken fontanel. With the growth of the child, this depression is leveled.
Persistent swelling and protrusion of the fontanel may indicate the presence of a brain tumor.
When the fontanel overgrows in a child norm
Normally, in a full-fledged full-term child after birth, only one fontanel is observed - the parietal. The rest of the fontanelles are usually closed. You should not be scared if your child has traces of an occipital fontanelle. The occipital membrane usually grows in the first 2-3 months of a child's life.
The lateral fontanelles close in the first days of the baby's birth. But the parietal fontanel usually hardens later, when the child turns one, one and a half, or even later. Upon closing the largest fontanel, the pediatrician makes a conclusion about the state of development of the baby.
IMPORTANT: According to statistics, 1% of three-month-old babies have a closure of the fontanel.
In some babies, the fontanel may close by six months of age, in others by 18 months. In premature babies, those who have had rickets or children with other pathologies, the fontanel often closes by 20-22 months.
IMPORTANT: The existing norms for closing the fontanel in newborn babies are approximate and averaged. The process of closing the parietal zone occurs purely individually for each child. Therefore, you should not panic if your baby has slight deviations in the closure of the fontanel. The main thing is that the child develops well, gains weight and is healthy.
Fontanelle in a child, pediatrician's advice, video:
Measuring the fontanel in children
During a planned monthly examination of a child, the district pediatrician must examine the baby's head. In addition to measuring the circumference of the head, due attention is paid to the examination of the fontanel. By palpation, the doctor determines the size, elasticity and state of pulsation of the large fontanel.
Since the fontanel is diamond-shaped, palpation is carried out between the midpoints of the sides of the diamond, bounded by the frontal and parietal bones, but not between its corners. In a newborn, this distance should not exceed 2.5 × 3.0 cm, which corresponds to approximately the width of 1-2 fingers. Then the fingers are moved between the other sides of the fontanel rhombus. The data is entered into the child's card.
Measuring the size of the fontanel makes it possible to track the development of the child's brain and identify pathology in time. Accelerated overgrowth of the fontanel may signal pathological processes of the central nervous system. If the size of the fontanel is above normal, this may be the result of:
congenital hydrocephalus (hydrocephalus)
increased intracranial pressure
In addition to determining the size, it is important to trace the degree of tension of the connective tissue of the fontanel. During this procedure, the baby should be relaxed, calm and not cry. Palpation is carried out in a vertical position. With the index and ring fingers, the doctor slightly presses on the area of the fontanel membrane and determines the nature of the resistance of the connective tissue of the fontanel.
Why a child's fontanel does not grow over
Young mothers often worry about the slow overgrowth of the fontanel in their beloved baby, especially if this process has come to an end for a friend's baby. We repeat that you should not worry if everything is fine with the child in other developmental parameters. Let us indicate the important factors influencing the overgrowth of the fontanel.
Breastfeeding, in comparison with artificial mixtures, contributes to a faster tightening of the fontanel, because mother's milk is perfectly balanced so that the baby develops harmoniously.
IMPORTANT: In girls, the fontanel ossifies more slowly than in boys.
Genetic predisposition and genomic pathologies: congenital hypothyroidism, Down's syndrome and other diseases contribute to the late overgrowth of the fontanel.
The birth of a premature baby is another factor in the slow closure of the fontanel zone. Such babies lag behind in development in the first year of life, but soon catch up with their peers who were born on time.
Metabolic disorder, lack of vitamin D can cause insufficient mineralization of bone tissue and cause rickets. With this disease, the bones framing the fontanel are softened, the fontanel is large and does not overgrow for a long time.
Intensive growth of the baby in the first months can also affect the overgrowth of the fontanel faster than the tabular norms.
To find out the reasons for the slow or rapid overgrowth of the fontanel, the pediatrician may recommend tests and examinations to identify or exclude possible diseases. So, a reduced level of calcium and phosphorus in the blood can be detected with rickety changes in bone tissues.
Early diagnosis of rickets allows you to choose the best treatment. Often, with passive closure of the fontanel, babies are prescribed vitamin D according to the age and physical condition of the child.
Komarovsky fontanel in a child
Popular Ukrainian pediatrician Yevhen Komarovsky deserves great trust from young parents. Many mothers listen to his advice and recommendations.
On his Instagram page, Dr. Komarovsky shares tips on the upbringing, care and treatment of babies, preventive measures to protect against diseases, explains how the physiological processes in the child's body go, etc.
Here the topic of a large fontanel is also touched upon in detail.
Let's share Dr. Komarovsky's main concepts about fontanel closure.
The closure of the fontanel is a sign of the growth of the baby.
An unossified area on the baby's head (fontanelle) overgrows with time. This indicates the growth of bone tissue and the correct metabolism in the child.
The terms of overgrowth of the fontanel are individual for each specific baby. Usually this process affects the age period from 10 to 14 months.
It is possible to close the fontanel at 3 months and even at a year and a half. This is normal and parents should not worry that something is wrong with the child. The main thing is that the baby develops properly, is active and healthy.
If the fontanel does not close well, while the baby does not eat and sleep well, has a temperature, shows anxiety, you should contact a pediatrician who will examine the baby and give appropriate recommendations.
We hope that our article will be useful and will help young parents to understand the issue of the child's fontanel. And finally - two more videos about the closure of the fontanel from Dr. Komarovsky.
Everything about the closure of the fontanel, Dr. Komarovsky tells:
Myths about the fontanel, is it worth believing? Dr. Komarovsky explains:
A baby's fontanel. All you need to know about the fontanel for young parents - Articles
Baby's fontanel. Everything you need to know about the fontanel for young parents
Education and development
The baby's fontanel often worries young parents. This gentle pulsating place on the top of the head gives rise to many questions related to care, health and proper development. And everyone is worried about the correct timing of the closure of the fontanel. In order not to worry and worry in vain, parents should know what a fontanel is and why it is needed.
The structure of the fontanel in a baby
In a newborn baby, the skull consists of separate bones, between which there are small gaps. So nature took care of mom and baby. Thanks to the movable bones of the skull, at the time of birth, the baby's head, changing its shape, can pass through the narrow birth canal.
After birth, when the child begins to develop intensively - the head develops rapidly too - the bones of the skull begin to grow together. In the area of the connection of two bones of the skull, a seam is formed, and where three or more bones are connected, small gaps are formed, covered with a strong membrane. Such gaps are called fontanelles. A gentle pulsating place on the top of the crumbs is the fontanel.
As the fontanelle grows and develops, the connective tissue hardens at the edges. So there is a complete closure of the space connecting the bones of the skull.
A newborn has 6 fontanelles in total. The 4 smallest ones close before the baby is born or in the first 3 days of the baby's life. The other two are a bit later. The posterior (small) fontanelle is triangular in shape, located at the junction of the occipital and parietal bones. It has a tiny size and completely closes up to three months of life. The anterior (large) diamond-shaped fontanel is located at the junction of the parietal and frontal ossicles. This is the largest fontanel in a baby, which requires special attention in the development process.
Development of the skull and the importance of the fontanelle in a baby's life
A child's brain develops rapidly in the first two years of life. The bones of the skull develop and form along with the enlargement of the brain. The presence of fontanelles is not of particular importance in the formation of the cranium. The bones continue to grow in the central part and along the edges until the final formation of the skull.
The main ability of the fontanels is the ability to shrink and change the shape of the head during birth and in the first years of life. The fontanelles help the bones of the head move and adjust to the mother's birth canal during birth. Therefore, the head of a newborn may be slightly flattened, elongated or egg-shaped. In a few days, thanks to the spaces between the bones of the skull, the head of the crumbs will have a normal appearance.
Until the age of two, children actively explore the world and often fall and hit their heads. "Soft crown" allows the bones of the skull to be elastic and avoid serious damage to the head during impacts. By the time the fontanel closes, the baby will already be more confident in owning his body, which will allow him to be less injured.
Another function of the fontanelles is to help in the body's thermoregulation. In infants, hypothermia and overheating can often occur. If the baby is hot from too warm clothes, then you can free the head from the cap and normalize body temperature.
Due to the soft area on the parietal region of the head, it is possible to do an ultrasound of the brain - neurosonography. This is a very important and completely harmless study for children, which allows you to identify congenital brain problems and assess your health at the moment.
What should be the baby's fontanel?
According to the rules, pediatricians assess the condition of the posterior (small) and anterior (large) fontanels in a newborn and at further examinations.
The posterior fontanel of newborns most often does not exceed 0.7 cm. Closing of such a fontanel occurs by the third month of life.
The sizes and rates of closing of the anterior fontanelle in children are different. The “soft crown” closes with some features that are outlined below:
All children are born with different sizes of the anterior fontanel. The extreme limits of the norm correspond to 0.6 and 3.6 cm.
Anterior fontanel in a baby may slightly increase in the first months. This is due to the rapid development and increase in brain volume.
There is no specific deadline for the closure of a large fontanel. For all children, this happens at different times. This is due to the individual characteristics of development. Observations have shown that in 1% of healthy children the fontanel closes by 3 months, in 40% of babies - by the year, and by about 2 years the fontanel is closed in 95% of babies. It is noticed that in girls the closure of the soft area is slower than in boys.
The speed of fontanel closure does not depend on the intake of vitamin D and calcium from food. If the fontanel, according to doctors, closed ahead of time, you should not stop taking the vitamin and do not exclude calcium-rich foods from the diet. Knowing that the fontanel normally closes from 3 to 24 months, be sure that there is most likely no quick closure. In this case, it will be much more dangerous for a child not to close the fontanel, but to refuse vitamin D, which is used to prevent rickets.
What does a healthy baby's fontanel look like?
A large fontanel in a healthy baby has a diamond shape; it can sink quite a bit or protrude above the scalp. The pulsation of the fontanel reflects the work of the child's heart and should not alert parents.
Some new parents feel that the soft area on the head is fragile and can be damaged, and therefore they are afraid to even lightly touch the baby's head. Gentle stroking and light combing will not harm the baby, as a strong membrane reliably protects the brain from external influences. Also, there is no need to worry when a pediatrician carefully feels the baby’s head at the reception, this will not harm him.
External changes in the baby's fontanel, indicating illness
External indicators of the fontanel, its size, can tell a lot about the health of children. At preventive examinations, pediatricians must examine the head and evaluate the type of fontanel.
Large volume of the anterior fontanel
If the doctor determines that the fontanel is very large in relation to other indicators, this indicates a slow closure and indicates the following problems:
Rickets - a possible cause of long overgrowth of the soft area. Premature babies who have little exposure to the sun and do not receive vitamin D therapy are at risk. When the diagnosis is confirmed, sunlight exposure and vitamin therapy are usually prescribed.
Congenital hypothyroidism is a disease in which the thyroid function of the newborn is reduced. Since thyroid hormones are important for the formation of the skeletal system, a sign of this pathology may be the slow overgrowth of the fontanel. Other symptoms of hypothyroidism include: lethargy, persistent constipation, swelling, and poor appetite. This disease is treated with thyroid hormone preparations.
Down's Syndrome is established almost immediately after the baby is born according to characteristic features. One of these signs is a large fontanel and its slow overgrowth. Children with Down syndrome should be under special supervision.
Other rare pathologies of the development of the skeletal system also affect the long overgrowth of the fontanel and its size. The final diagnosis of such diseases is established after examination in special medical institutions.
Small size of the anterior fontanel
In the event that the space between the bones of the skull is completely overgrown before the age of three months, then a rapid closure of the fontanel can be diagnosed. To correctly assess the development of the fontanel in a baby, you need to take into account the size of the soft area in relation to the circumference of the baby's head. If the fontanel decreases before three months, but its size corresponds to the circumference of the head, then such a closure of the fontanel up to three months can be considered the norm.
Rapid closure of the fontanel indicates such problems as:
Craniosynostosis is a rare pathology of bone tissue. It can be congenital or acquired as a result of endocrine disorders. With this pathology, early ossification of the membrane of the soft spot on the crown and sutures of the skull occurs. Signs of this disease will be a small volume of the head, a violation of the growth of the skeletal system and various other signs. The diagnosis of this disease is established in a medical institution after a thorough diagnosis.
Another reason for the rapid ossification of the soft area may be an anomaly in the development of the brain. Such a pathology is treated in the neurological departments of medical institutions.
A sunken or protruding fontanel in a baby
The state of some functions of a child's body can be reflected in the appearance of the fontanel.
If the anterior fontanelle looks sunken and too soft, then the baby is most likely dehydrated due to an intestinal infection. Dehydration develops against the background of vomiting, diarrhea and fever. Such a condition can be very dangerous to life and health, therefore, with a sunken soft spot on the head, it is very important to provide the baby with plenty of fluids and urgently show the pediatrician.