Ovulation occurs when hormonal changes signal your ovaries to release a mature egg. It usually happens once a month in the middle of your menstrual cycle, but it can occur more than once a month or not at all.
Ovulation can sometimes be associated with bloating, tender breasts, and a slight increase in your basal body temperature. Not everyone experiences these changes, though.
Keep reading to learn how to recognize the typical signs and symptoms of ovulation.
Ovulation happens when an egg leaves your ovaries and travels to the fallopian tubes, where it can be fertilized by sperm.
This process is driven by reproductive hormones. Prior to ovulation, your levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) rise. This is known as the LH surge.
The LH surge causes the follicle to swell and rupture. This releases an egg that then travels through the fallopian tube.
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels also rise during ovulation, but its role is less well-understood.
When do you ovulate?
Ovulation usually occurs in the middle of your menstrual cycle. It happens after the follicular phase and about 2 weeks before your period starts. The follicular phase is when egg-containing pods ripen and one of the eggs matures,
However, this process can vary a lot from person to person and month to month. In general, you should ovulate about 2 weeks before the start of your period.
Ovulation sometimes happens more than once a month. In other cases, it does not occur at all, even when menstruation takes place. This can make it hard to track, but paying attention to physical changes may help you identify when you’re ovulating.
Listed below are the most common signs and symptoms of ovulation. However, these can vary a lot from one person to the next. It’s typical to notice some of them one month and not the next.
Also, keep in mind that not experiencing any of these signs or symptoms does not mean you’re not ovulating.
Ovulation pain (mittelschmerz)
Some people experience slight pelvic discomfort or mild cramps before or during ovulation. Often referred to as mittelschmerz, pelvic discomfort that’s associated with ovulation may be caused by the rupturing of the follicle and the release of tiny amounts of blood or fluid.
These sensations are sometimes described as a twinge or pop. They can be felt in either ovary and may vary in location and intensity from month to month.
Some people may experience ovarian pain on alternating sides of their body each month, but it’s a myth that your ovaries take turns releasing eggs.
The discomfort may last for only a few moments, but some people feel mild discomfort for longer periods of time.
You may also feel a burning sensation caused by the release of fluid from the follicle when the egg is expelled. This fluid sometimes causes irritation in the abdominal lining or surrounding area. A feeling of heaviness in the lower abdomen may also accompany these sensations.
Ovary pain may also be unrelated to ovulation.
Changes in body temperature
Basal body temperature (BBT) refers to your temperature when you first wake up in the morning, prior to getting up and moving around.
Your BBT rises by about 1°F or less during the 24-hour window after ovulation occurs. This is caused by the secretion of progesterone.
If pregnancy does not happen, your BBT will remain raised until your period starts.
Tracking your BBT may provide clues about your ovulation pattern from month to month, but this method is not foolproof.
An older study of over 200 women found that late ovulation cannot be predicted by any method and that no signs of ovulation, including BBT, correspond perfectly with the release of an egg.
BBT charting can also be unreliable for people who have even slightly irregular periods.
Changes in cervical mucus
Cervical mucus consists primarily of water. It changes in consistency during your fertile window because of changes in the levels of hormones like estrogen and progesterone and may provide clues about ovulation.
The change in cervical mucus consistency around the time of ovulation helps transport sperm to an egg.
During your fertile window, this nutrient-rich, slippery fluid increases in volume. It also becomes thinner, stretchy in texture, and clear in color. Cervical mucus is often described as having an egg-white consistency during this time.
In the days leading up to ovulation, you may notice more discharge than usual because of an increase in cervical mucus volume.
When you’re at your most fertile, cervical mucus may help keep sperm alive for an average of 3 days but potentially up to 5 days. This increases your chance of conception and provides lubrication for intercourse.
You can check the consistency of cervical mucous by observing it in your underwear liner.
Changes in saliva
Estrogen and progesterone can alter the consistency of dried saliva before or during ovulation, causing patterns to form. These patterns may look similar to crystals or ferns in some people with periods.
However, smoking, eating, drinking, and brushing your teeth can all mask these patterns, making them a less reliable indicator of ovulation.
Other possible signs of ovulation
Some more potential signs of ovulation include:
Tender breasts. Some people report breast tenderness or sore nipples around the time of ovulation.
Bloating. Some people feel bloated before and during ovulation. Since bloating occurs at other moments during your cycle, particularly during menstruation, it’s not necessarily a reliable indicator of ovulation.
The ovulation phase of your menstrual cycle typically lasts between 16 and 32 hours, starting with the LH surge and ending when the egg is released.
Ovulation generally occurs 24 to 48 hours after the LH surge.
You can become pregnant both before and after ovulation. This is called the fertile window.
Your fertile window starts up to 4 days prior to ovulation and extends for 1 day after ovulation. You are most fertile on the day before ovulation and the day of ovulation.
If you’re trying to get pregnant, you may find it helpful to track your ovulation. Even if you are not trying to conceive, monitoring your cycle may be a useful way of understanding more about your overall health, energy levels, mood changes, and when you can expect your period to start.
To track ovulation, try to keep a record of the following information:
your menstruation dates
descriptions of your menstrual blood
descriptions of your cervical mucus
your BBT readings
physical changes, such as cramps, pain, bloating, or breast tenderness
other relevant information, such as your mood, libido, and energy levels
You can use any calendar or journal to track ovulation. There are a number of printable templates to track your menstrual cycle available online. In addition, organizations such as the American Pregnancy Association and the March of Dimes provide online ovulation predictors.
Fertility charts are another option. They require you to plot your morning temperature readings on a graph, providing a handy visual of the rise in your BBT after ovulation.
Finally, there are a number of apps you can use to help you track your cycle. While these apps may help you determine when you’re most likely to be fertile, they may not be able to reliably predict the day of ovulation, according to a 2018 study.
Most at-home ovulation tests measure LH levels in your urine, a relatively reliable predictor of ovulation. There are many different types of tests you can use, including:
Ovulation tests. This type of test lets you know if you’re fertile on the day you take the test. Like a pregnancy test, it involves urinating on a stick for a positive (fertile) or negative (not fertile) result. Digital versions are also available.
Ovulation predictors. Predictor kits measure and track your levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) over several months to determine when you’re most fertile. This test typically requires daily urine testing outside of menstruation.
BBT monitors. You can track your temperature orally each day and record it in a journal or with an app.
Saliva tests. Saliva tests indicate when you’re nearing ovulation. However, these tests tend to be less effective than urine tests. They tend to be most effective if used daily over several months, first thing in the morning.
Fertility kits. At-home fertility kits offer a comprehensive look at both you and your partner’s fertility. In addition to analyzing reproductive hormones such as LH in urine, they may also analyze sperm quality via an ejaculate.
At-home ovulation tests and fertility kits can be helpful if you’re trying to conceive. Many claim a high level of accuracy, but it’s important to follow package instructions in order to maximize their effectiveness.
Keep in mind that ovulation tests cannot diagnose fertility issues. For example, it’s possible to experience an LH surge without ovulating.
Similarly, at-home ovulation predictor tests do not provide information about non-hormonal causes of infertility, such as:
blocked fallopian tubes
hostile cervical mucus
Finally, at-home sperm tests are not definitive indicators of sperm quality. If you suspect that you or your partner have fertility issues, it’s important to talk with a doctor or fertility specialist.
People who have irregular periods often have irregular ovulation or do not ovulate at all. You can also have regular periods and still not ovulate.
Your physician may order bloodwork and imaging tests such as a sonogram to try and determine if you’re ovulating.
If you’re thinking about conceiving, consider talking with a doctor before you start trying. They can help determine if there are any obvious reasons that you may have trouble conceiving.
Fertility declines with age, but even young people can have infertility issues. Talk with a fertility specialist if you’re having difficulty conceiving if:
you’re under 35 and unable to get pregnant within 1 year of actively trying
you’re over 35 and unable to get pregnant within 6 months of actively trying
It’s also important to note that 70 to 80 percent of couples will get pregnant after 12 months of trying to conceive, but this can vary with age.
Many infertility issues in either partner can be resolved without expensive or invasive procedures. Keep in mind that the longer you wait, the more stress you might feel. If you’re having sex during your fertile window and not getting pregnant, you do not have to wait to get help.
Some people experience signs and symptoms of ovulation. These can include abdominal pain or cramps, bloating, slightly elevated body temperature, changes in cervical mucus and saliva, and breast tenderness.
Ovulation is a part of your fertile window, but pregnancy can happen up to 5 days prior and 1 day after you’ve ovulated.
Ovulation predictor kits may help you pin down when you’re ovulating but should not be used long-term if you do not become pregnant. There are many causes of infertility that are not associated with ovulation. Many of these can be managed or treated with medical and infertility support.
Ovulation Symptoms: 9 Signs of Ovulation
If you’re getting ready to grow your family and learning more about conception, you’ll want to get familiar with ovulation. Exactly when you ovulate varies for each woman, but luckily there are ways to recognize the signs of ovulation and time sex accordingly to increase your chances of getting pregnant. Even if you’re not trying to conceive yet, it’s still important to have a good grasp on ovulation signs. Not only can they help you better understand your menstrual cycle, but they can also help you identify any abnormal ovulation symptoms down the road. (In fact, some women keep track of their ovulation patterns as part of their contraception method to avoid getting pregnant.)
Want to learn more about exactly what happens during ovulation, which signs of ovulation to look out for and how those ovulation symptoms might make you feel? Keep reading to learn from experts what to expect and when to expect it.
In this article: What is ovulation? When do you ovulate? How to predict ovulation Ovulation symptoms
What Is Ovulation?
Let’s get down to brass tacks: What happens on your ovulation day? You probably learned way back in health class that ovulation is the phase in your menstrual cycle when a mature egg is released from the ovary, setting the stage for fertilization. Every woman is born with millions of immature eggs that wait to be released, normally one at a time, every month. During ovulation the egg travels down the fallopian tube, where it may meet up with a sperm and become fertilized. For most healthy women, ovulation generally happens once a month, a few weeks after menstruation begins.
Watch, Ovulation Signs and Symptoms:
When Do You Ovulate?
Now that we’ve reviewed what ovulation is, you’re probably wondering when ovulation occurs. You may have heard that ovulation typically happens on day 15 of your menstrual cycle, but it’s not the same for everyone.
If you’re like most women of childbearing age, your menstrual cycle lasts between 28 and 32 days, and ovulation usually hits between days 10 and 19 of that cycle—about 12 to 16 days before your next period. “In healthy women, ovulation occurs 14 days before the onset of your period,” says Donnica L. Moore, MD, president of Sapphire Women’s Health Group in Chester, New Jersey. So if your cycle is 35 days, ovulation will happen on day 21 of that cycle—but if your cycle is 21 days, ovulation will happen on day seven.
The timing of ovulation can vary from cycle to cycle and from woman to woman, adds Shannon M. Clark, MD, associate professor at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston in Galveston, Texas. This is why it’s a good idea to get familiar with your body’s menstrual calendar for at least three months or so, to help you better estimate your own ovulation cycle.
For some women, ovulation doesn’t always take place, or it can be irregular. In general, if you’re pregnant, have gone through menopause or you take birth control pills consistently and on time, you won’t ovulate. Certain diseases or disorders (such as polycystic ovary syndrome or premature ovarian failure, among other conditions) and certain medications (including some antidepressants, anti-nausea medications and chemotherapy) may also cause a woman to stop ovulating for periods of time. Other lifestyle factors—such as stress or being significantly underweight or overweight (measured by body fat percentage)—may affect menstruation and ovulation as well.
If you’re dealing with irregular menstrual cycles or ones that are particularly short (fewer than 21 days) or long (more than 35 days), Clark recommends you get evaluated by a physician to rule out any medical conditions that might be causing those irregular cycles. It’s true that tracking ovulation with irregular cycles can be more difficult, but keep in mind that ovulation occurs 14 days before the onset of menstruation, so even with irregular periods, you could still conceive at some point in your cycle.
If you’re planning to breastfeed exclusively (meaning baby won’t get any other source of nutrition), be aware that you likely won’t ovulate during that time. But there are always exceptions, so you can’t depend on breastfeeding as a method of birth control. Once baby is introduced to other foods or the occasional bottle, ovulation is likely to resume. Plan your birth control accordingly, unless you want to give baby the possible surprise of a new brother or sister!
How long does ovulation last?
So you’re probably wondering, for how many days do women ovulate? Once the mature egg is released from the surface of the ovary, it can potentially be fertilized for about 24 hours, explains Patricia Pollio, MD, director of OB-GYN at Good Samaritan Hospital in Suffern, New York.
That said, you don’t have to have sex on the exact day of ovulation in order to get pregnant. In reality, there’s a six-day “fertile window” in your cycle—the five days leading up to ovulation and the day you ovulate, Moore says. Of those six days, you’re most fertile during the two to three days prior to ovulation and the day of ovulation itself.
Beyond 24 hours after ovulation, the egg is no longer viable and you typically can’t get pregnant until your next menstrual cycle. (If you’re not trying to conceive, though, you should still use birth control at all times as a precaution. )
How to Predict Ovulation
Whether you’re trying to conceive or merely want to get to know your body’s signs of ovulation, these indicators, including at-home and over-the-counter (OTC) tests, can help you learn how to tell if you’re ovulating (or are about to).
1. Basal body temperature monitoring
Sometimes referred to as BBT, your basal body temperature is the temperature of your body at rest. At the beginning of your cycle, basal body temperature remains fairly consistent and averages between 97.2 and 97.6 degrees Fahrenheit. As you get closer to ovulation, there’s a slight dip in basal body temperature followed by a sharp increase, typically of about 0.4 to 1.0 degrees, just after ovulation. One way to know if you’re ovulating is to track your basal body temperature over a series of months. Take your temperature with a digital thermometer designed for basal body (you can get one online as soon as you wake up—even before you get out of bed—and jot down the reading every morning. Keep in mind that from day to day, your BBT can fluctuate by half a degree or more, so don’t be fooled by a little blip—look for a sustained rise to confirm that you’ve ovulated. After several months the info will give you a good sense of when you usually ovulate so you can plan babymaking accordingly.
2. Menstrual charting
Another simple and inexpensive way to track ovulation is to record the days your period begins and ends for several months. If you have normal menstrual cycles—between 25 and 35 days—you’re likely to be ovulating regularly, with ovulation occurring about 14 days before menstruation. Make sure to write down whenever you experience potential signs of ovulation: Typical ovulation symptoms could include cramps, an increase in cervical mucus, breast tenderness, fluid retention, and appetite or mood changes. Keep reading for more about ovulation symptoms.
3. Ovulation kit
OTC ovulation predictor kits measure your levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), which can be detected in your urine. These kits work because ovulation typically hits about 10 to 12 hours after LH peaks—on day 14 to 15 of the menstrual cycle if your cycle is 28 days long. Your LH concentration should stay elevated for 14 to 27 hours to allow for full maturation of the egg.
Here’s how the ovulation kit works: Pee on the stick and wait for a line to appear. If the color of the line matches the shade shown on the instructions, ovulation is imminent—within 24 to 48 hours. If it’s too close to call, retest within the next 12 hours. Most kits come with a five-day supply of sticks, to be used in as many days, but check their expiration date: Most of them have a shelf life of only two years. While the majority of ovulation predictor tests can be used any time of day, many of them suggest testing first thing in the morning. For best results, test around the same time each day, and cut back your liquid intake for four hours beforehand, so your pee will be more concentrated and your LH easier to detect.
The real trick to finding success with an ovulation predictor kit is knowing when to start using it. If your cycle is regular, the charting you’ve been doing can help you identify that optimum window. If your cycles are irregular, your best bet is to pay attention to ovulation symptoms. Even if you’ve confirmed that ovulation is happening (through tests or other signs), try to wait to have sex until you notice an increase in cervical mucus, which will heighten the chances of conceiving.
4. Fertility monitor
While an ovulation predictor kit can identify when ovulation is expected to occur (giving you 24 hours for possible conception), a fertility monitor can identify your five most fertile days. The monitor measures LH and estrogen levels to identify your two peak fertile days, plus the one to five fertile days leading up to them. Some versions of the monitor store information from your previous six cycles to customize your fertility reading. Be aware, though, that because monitors give you more advanced information, they’re pricier than ovulation kits.
Now, you’re probably wondering, can you feel ovulation happening? And what exactly does ovulation feel like? It can differ from woman to woman, but there are several common ovulation symptoms you may sense. Before and during ovulation, hormonal shifts can affect the entire body, prompting ovulation symptoms. These can be a powerful way to know when you’re ovulating. Many women will experience those ovulation symptoms for up to five days before ovulation as well as the day of, Pollio says, and they may last for a day after ovulation.
But if you don’t notice any signs you’re ovulating, don’t worry—it doesn’t mean it’s not happening. “Most women have no clue,” Moore says. If you can learn to recognize the common signs of ovulation listed below, it could help you predict when ovulation is likely to occur.
1. Cervical mucus changes
Cervical mucus changes are one ovulation symptom you may experience. As you near ovulation, your body produces more estrogen, causing cervical mucus to become stretchy and clear, like egg white, which helps sperm swim to the egg that’s released during ovulation. Cervical mucus changes happen in most women, Moore says, but you have to know what you’re looking for. The amount of cervical mucus and what it looks and feels like varies from woman to woman. To test it for ovulation, insert a clean finger into your vagina, remove some of the mucus and then stretch out the secretion between your thumb and finger. If it’s sticky and stretchy or very wet and slippery, that’s a good sign you’re in a fertile phase.
2. Heightened senses
For some women, a more sensitive sense of smell in the latter half of a normal menstruation cycle can be a sign of ovulation. In this fertile phase, your body is primed to be more attracted to the male pheromone androstenone. Some women also report a heightened sense of taste.
3. Breast soreness or tenderness
Tender breasts or sore nipples can be another sign of ovulation, thanks to the rush of hormones entering your body right before and after ovulation. Some women will experience this tenderness just before ovulation, while others may feel it right after ovulation occurs.
Mild pelvic or lower abdominal pain
A lot of women wonder, can you feel ovulation? And for some, the answer is actually yes—typically as a mild ache or pain in the lower abdomen, usually on one side or the other (not the same side each time). So what are ovulation pains like? Called Mittelschmerz, ovulation pain can feel like a sharp or dull cramp on the side of your abdomen where the ovary is releasing the egg. This ovulation side effect can last anywhere between a few minutes and a few hours. You might also experience light vaginal bleeding, discharge or nausea along with the ache or pain, which is usually mild and short lived.
There’s no need to worry about ovulation pain that goes away with an OTC, anti-inflammatory medication (such as Motrin), Moore says. But if ovulation pain is persistent or severe, see a doctor to rule out conditions such as endometriosis or an ovarian cyst. Moore suggests monitoring and recording your ovulation symptoms every month to get a sense of what is normal for your body, so you can more easily spot any abnormal ovulation signs and symptoms. “When in doubt, check it out,” she adds.
Many women wonder whether ovulation pain is a sign of fertility. It can be, since it indicates that an egg is being released (although there’s no guarantee it’ll be fertilized that cycle.) But you can still be fertile without feeling any pain, so it’s best not to rely on this ovulation side effect as a way of assessing your fertility.
5. Light spotting or discharge
Brown discharge or spotting during ovulation is normal, if not that common. This ovulation symptom can occur when the follicle that surrounds and protects the developing oocyte (the egg) matures, grows and then ruptures, resulting in a small amount of bleeding. As blood gets older, it turns brown, which is why the ovulation discharge may range from red to dark brown. It’s not a cause for concern unless the spotting persists, in which case you should see a physician to check for signs of infection and the possibility of an ectopic pregnancy if you’ve been sexually active.
6. Libido changes
A change in libido is another common ovulation symptom. Some women notice that their sex drive increases during ovulation, which might be Mother Nature’s way of ensuring we keep the species alive and well! But, as Moore says, “sex drive can be influenced by just about anything, including whether you had a glass of wine or are just in the mood.”
7. Changes in the cervix
During ovulation, your cervix may become higher, softer and more open. You can check your cervix, along with your mucus, for ovulation symptoms, but it can take time to learn the differences you’re feeling for and is often more difficult than watching for the other signs of ovulation mentioned above. If you’d like to try and get more comfortable checking for cervical changes as a sign of ovulation, Moore recommends standing in whatever position you use to insert a tampon (for example, next to the toilet with one foot up on the closed seat) and using your finger to feel inside. In many women with a regular cycle, right before ovulation the cervix will be softer, like touching your lips, but after ovulation it will feel harder, more like touching the tip of your nose. An OB can also check for cervical changes using a speculum and help give you more guidance on how to do it at home.
8. Nausea and headaches
Many women ask, “can ovulation make you feel sick?” The answer is yes. Nausea and headaches are two possible ovulation side effects due to the change in your estrogen and progesterone levels.
9. Changes in your basal body temperature
While you may not actually feel this symptom, it can still be a sign of ovulation. As mentioned above, your basal body temperature will rise during ovulation and stay elevated during that time. After tracking your basal body temperature for a few months, you’ll begin to more easily notice the patterns and identify notable changes.
Understanding when you ovulate is key to getting pregnant, but it can also give you clues about why you’re suddenly experiencing certain symptoms. When you know the signs of ovulation, you can be better prepared, regardless of whether or not you’re trying to conceive. The more in tune you are with your body, the better you’ll be able to predict when ovulation will occur.
About the experts:
Donnica L. Moore, MD, is a women’s health expert and advocate, as well as president of Sapphire Women’s Health Group in Chester, New Jersey. She has been a women’s health contributor for NBC’s Later Today and guest on NBC’s Weekend Today Show, The Oprah Winfrey Show, The View, Good Morning America and CNN-International.* She received her medical degree from the State University of New York at Buffalo School of Medicine.
Shannon M. Clark, MD, MMS, is an OB-GYN and maternal fetal medicine specialist, as well as an associate professor at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston in Galveston, Texas. She earned her medical degree from the University of Louisville School of Medicine, in Louisville, Kentucky, and completed her residency at Allegheny General Hospital in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Patricia Pollio, MD, is the director of OB-GYN at Good Samaritan Hospital in Suffern, New York. She received her medical degree from Joan Sanford I Weill Medical College Of Cornell University in 1989 and has been in practice for more than 30 years.
Please note: The Bump and the materials and information it contains are not intended to, and do not constitute, medical or other health advice or diagnosis and should not be used as such. You should always consult with a qualified physician or health professional about your specific circumstances.
Plus, more from The Bump:
8 Signs of Fertility to Look For Each Month
What Affects Your Fertility (and How to Boost It)
Sex Ed for Baby-Making
Fertile signs of the zodiac when sowing
Already at the dawn of civilization, people deliberately cultivated many different plants. After many hundreds of years, people began to notice that the moon "affects" plants. So, sowing various crops at different phases of the moon gave different crop volumes. As a result, a "Lunar calendar" was developed for summer gardeners, according to which, it is desirable to take care of various plants, coordinating with this calendar. This will help increase the chances of getting a bigger harvest. Recognize the four main "phases of the moon": a new moon, a full moon, and between them the moon is rising and falling. And in the last two centuries, a connection was also revealed between the projection of which constellation the Moon is on, and the calendar was updated.
How can fertile zodiac signs help?
Yes, and not only for flowers. But also for fruits and seeds. It was found that the presence of a natural satellite of the Earth in any symbol of the zodiac belt of constellations is expressed differently in the formation of plants planted or sown in this period of time. And it happens that combinations of the phase and the symbol of the Zodiac contribute to the increase in fees, and the opposite happens. Of course, in the end, it is inevitable to take into account not only the time when planting takes place, but also the care of plants, atmospheric data, the period of the year, the specifics of the adaptability of any kind, soil properties.
See also: Dates of planting seedlings in 2016
Even in antiquity, almost all the necessary sowing and planting work was linked precisely with the moon calendar. At the same time, fertile and barren signs of the zodiac were found. In some constellations, when the disk of the Moon is in them, transplant picks take root, while others are already good for landing. And with some combinations of phases and stars, in principle, it is impossible to work on the site.
Unlike a large celestial body, a small one takes only 3 days to jump from one zodiac constellation to another. And the sun needs much more days. But a year is not like a year, and the lunar disk jumps through the constellations with a shift, so that they, of course, will repeat themselves, somewhere in ten years, and then not completely. In addition, this “jumping” also differs by months, i.e. May doesn't look like June, etc. In a month, the Moon will be able not only to change its face from a disk to a barely noticeable sickle, but to go around the entire circle of the 12 constellations of the Zodiac and visit each sign. The position of the Moon, in the conditioned zodiacal symbol, determines what garden work is best done on this day. Knowing the position of the Moon relative to the signs of the zodiac, it will be possible to say that the Moon and the sowing calendar according to the signs of the zodiac are the heavenly helpers of each person.
The fact that the signs of the zodiacal belt are divided into categories - infertile and prolific, and also signs of mediocre fertility.
It may be interesting
In this case, every adherent of a garden-garden should fix in memory what is considered to be signs.
So, the most full-fledged harvest will be if you sow or plant at the time of the Moon, when there will be fertile signs of the zodiac when sowing, these are the constellations of Cancer, Scorpio and Taurus.
Mediocre results (neither this nor that) will be with the constellations, Libra, Sagittarius, Capricorn and Pisces.
All other constellations do little to increase the yield, sometimes (on the melting moon) they can reduce it. Therefore, for seedlings, vegetatively propagated flowers and planting trees, they should be avoided.
See also: Seedlings for a greenhouse when to plant
Signs of the zodiac and their influence on nature
We need to consider these signs closer. Since, when the owner of a garden or garden plot knows what fertile signs of the zodiac will be in each month, he will be able to adjust his calendar so that these days coincide as much as possible with those types of agricultural work that are performed on such days will bring maximum benefit to the garden or vegetable garden. . And even if a person has significant positive experience, and he has information about the secrets of gardening, even formed his own technology for obtaining an excellent harvest, he will in no way be hindered by the recommendations of the lunar sowing calendar for each year.
Fertile signs of the zodiac when sowing and not only:
Capricorn allows you to plant all types of plants, but it is better to collect only root crops;
Aquarius is not a garden sign, but a country one;
Fish "allow" the sowing of what grows quickly and is also quickly eaten;
Aries is similar to the previous sign, when it is impossible to collect anything for storage;
Taurus is the most prolific and sowing and planting give hope for a maximum harvest;
Gemini is good for berry growers, not gardeners;
Crayfish is good, like melons, and for all nightshades, as well as radishes;
Leo favors the garden or tub crops, and also for sowing sunflower seeds;
Virgo permits the planting of everything that can be enjoyed by the eyes, but not eaten;
Only corn, sunflower, cereals and tubers will thank the scales with a harvest;
Scorpio, suitable for sowing all nightshades, spicy and melons, as well as many medicinal herbs;
Sagittarius allows you to sow grass, lawn, all types of green and deciduous.
See also: Do-it-yourself garden and garden are not like everyone else's interesting ideas
GDZ around the world 3 class 1 part Pleshakov A.A. Novitskaya М. and Novitskaya M.Yu. for the 2021-2022 academic year. We hope that this "reshebnik" will help in the preparation of homework on the subject of the world around us.
Joy of knowledge
Page 3 — 5 — Light of knowledge
1. Pick up the proverbs of the peoples of your land about the power of mind, knowledge, skillful hands. Write them down.
Proverbs about the power of the mind - Mind will win. - Any advice to the mind is good. - What is the mind, such are the speeches. - The mind is more beautiful than gold, but the truth is the light of the sun. - With a fist you will defeat one, and with your mind - thousands. more proverbs about mind and reason Proverbs about the power of knowledge - Literacy is not evil, but the truth is strong. - Knowledge is better than wealth. - The bird is red with feathers, and the man with knowledge. - Knowledge is more valuable than wealth. - Knowledge and wisdom adorn a person. Proverbs about skillful hands - Skilful hands are assistants to science. You can't buy golden hands with silver. - A hundred tips will not replace a pair of experienced hands. - A craftsman and a needleworker brings joy to himself and to people.
2. Questions “how?”, “why”, “why?” mankind owes most of the great discoveries. Make up and write down questions about what you would like to learn in the classroom at school?
How do black holes appear? How were the pyramids built in Egypt? Why is Japan called the Land of the Rising Sun? Why are planes disappearing in the Bermuda Triangle? Why explore space? Why does a woodpecker knock on a tree? Why do birds fly in a school?
3. Look at the corner of nature in the photo above. Tell her what you already know about this plant. Make up and write down questions about what else you would like to know about him. Try to find answers to your questions.
Douglasia or pseudosuga tissolista or pseudosuga Menzies
Douglasia The picture shows Douglas. She is also called a liar tissolist or false suga of menzies, pseudosuga of Ienzies, Douglas fir, pseudo-hemlock tissolist, Douglas fir, Oregon pine, Douglas fir. - Where can I meet Menzies' false sugu? - Pseudosuga Menzies is found in North America as well as Asia. - What is the maximum height of a douglas? - Douglas can reach a height of up to 100 meters. - Why does this plant have so many names and how did they come about? - During a trip to North America in 1791, a biologist and medic Archibald Menzies saw a large tree that looked like a fir. The message about this tree went unnoticed. But in 1827 this the tree was rediscovered by the English botanist David Douglas, who brought him to Europe. Then the tree was given the name "Douglas fir". The study found that despite the similarity with fir there are a number of differences that made it possible to distinguish the genus - pseudo-hemlock in pine family. So "Douglas fir" became Douglas pseudo-hemlock, and even later - pseudo-hemlock yew-leaved. Then the decision was made name the tree in honor of the discoverer, that is, the Menzies pseudo-hemlock, however, the old names: "Douglas fir" or "Douglas fir" survived and used by foresters.
4. Based on the photo on page 5, tell us what you already know about Red Square in Moscow. Compose and write down questions about what else you would like to know about the cultural monuments depicted in the photograph. Try to find answers to your questions.
Red Square in Moscow
The picture shows Red Square. Temple is on the left Basil the Blessed, and on the right is the Spasskaya Tower. In front of the Temple there is a place of execution, where in the old days issued royal decrees. On Red Square there are other sights, for example, the Mausoleum of V. I. Lenin is located there. - What is the total area of Red Square in Moscow in kilometers and how much is people can fit in the square? - The length of Red Square is 330 meters long and 70 meters in width, while the total area is 23,100 square meters or 0.023 square kilometers. If we translate square meters to hectares, it turns out that the area of Red Square is 2.31 hectares. One person occupies an area - 0.21 m2, then it turns out that on Red Square can fit: 23100: 0.21 = 110,000 people. At the same time, the entire population of Moscow, which is 12,380,664 people for 2017 on Red Square will not be able to fit on Red Square. - Why is the red square in Moscow called red? - Often in fairy tales there is an expression "beautiful maiden", which means beautiful girl. In terms of area, red means beautiful. According to another version, he believes that when Moscow was founded there were many wooden buildings in it, which burned very often. The area next to the Kremlin was no exception. Yes, due to frequent fire area was called Pozhar, and later became known as "Red Square" because it is the color of fire. - What is the height of the Spasskaya Tower? - The height of the Spasskaya Tower together with the star is 71 meters.
5. Color the illustration for the ancient Greek myth of Daedalus and Icarus.
Illustration for the ancient Greek myth of Daedalus and Icarus
>> read the myth of Daedalus and Icarus
Page 6 — 11 — How to study the world around us
1. What methods of studying the world around do these textbooks use? Sign yourself or use words for reference.
Identification of natural objects
Words for reference: observation, measurement, determination of natural objects, modeling. 2. Practical work "Observation". Purpose of work: to master the stages of observation. Observe the behavior of aquarium fish (or other animals) during feeding. Think through the steps and take notes.
Purpose of observation: observation of the behavior of aquarium fish during feeding.
feed goldfish dry food on the surface of the water,
monitor the behavior of the fish,
record the results of the observation.
Observation results: if goldfish have not eaten all the poured food within 5 minutes, then they are overfed and food leftovers will spoil the water.
Summary: It is important that goldfish get enough food, but not too much.
Make up questions for each other to find out if the goal of the observation has been achieved. Evaluate your progress by putting a "+" sign in the appropriate boxes. We managed to formulate the purpose of observation. We have a clear plan of observation. We have successfully completed the observation plan and recorded the results. We were able to draw conclusions from the observation.
3. Practical work "Experience". The purpose of the work: to master the stages of the experiment. Experiment with a magnet. Think through the steps and take notes.
Purpose of the experiment: to find out if a magnet can attract any metal.
Take a magnet.
Scatter objects made of metal (pins), gold (earrings), silver (pendant) on the table.
Place a magnet on each item.
Results of the experiment: the magnet attracts objects made of metal, but not any.
Conclusions: a magnet can attract objects made of metal, but not any. Objects made of gold and silver, which are also metals, cannot be attracted by a magnet.
Make up questions for each other to find out if the goal of the experience has been achieved. Evaluate your progress by putting a "+" sign in the appropriate boxes. We were able to formulate the purpose of the experiment. We made a clear plan for the experiment. We successfully completed the experiment plan and recorded the results. We were able to draw conclusions from experience. 4. What device (instrument) will be required for each case? Point with arrows.
5. Practical work "Measurement of mass". Purpose of work: to learn how to measure mass using scales. 1. Use the illustration to study the balance.
2. Examine the set of weights for the scale. Record the mass of each weight. 3. Measure the weight of the items given by the teacher. Enter the measurement results in the table.
Balance is an instrument for measuring weight.
Make up questions and tasks for each other to find out if the goal of the work has been achieved. Evaluate your progress by putting a "+" sign in the appropriate boxes. We learned how the balance works. We understand how scales work. We have learned how to measure mass. We have learned how to record measurement results. 6. Practical work "Measurement of length". The purpose of the work: to learn how to measure the length using a ruler (roulette).
Ruler and tape measure
1. Use the illustration to study the structure of the ruler and tape measure. Compare them. Consider when you should use a ruler and when you should use a tape measure.
The ruler should be used to measure short objects. When the subject is large, it is advisable to use a tape measure.
2. Fill in the blanks.
Make up questions and tasks for each other to find out if the goal of the work has been achieved. Evaluate your progress by putting a "+" sign in the appropriate boxes. We learned how the ruler and tape measure work. We figured out when to use a ruler and when to use a tape measure. We learned how to measure length. We have learned how to record measurement results.
Page 12 - 13 - Book - the source of knowledge
1. Write down the information about the popular science book that you especially liked:
Surname, name, patronymic of the author: Yakov Isidorovich Perelman Title: Entertaining mathematics
2. Draw an illustration for this book. Instead of a picture, you can stick a photo on the topic of the book.
3. Read the statements about the importance of books and the native language in a person's life, which are posted on the Reading Moscow train of the Moscow Metro.
A house without books is like a body without a soul. caecerone True love for one's country is unthinkable without love for one's language. K. G. Paustovsky
Find information about the authors of these statements in reference books. Write them down according to the model: “Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleev is a great Russian chemist. Information taken from the Great Russian Encyclopedia. Volume ..., page ... ".
Cicero Mark Tullius - Roman politician, orator and writer. Information taken from the New Illustrated Encyclopedic Dictionary, page 798. Paustovsky Konstantin Georgievich - Russian writer. Master of the lyric prose. Information taken from the New Illustrated Encyclopedic Dictionary, page 545.
4. Make up your own statement about the benefits of books and reading. Write it down.
All human wisdom is hidden in books, and only by reading you can comprehend it.
5. In what reference publications can one find out what the ancient Greek city of Troy is famous for? Write it down.
- The Ancient World, The Complete Encyclopedia, Hardman S., Steele F., Tames R. , 2007 - A. B. Preobrazhensky. I know the world: Children's encyclopedia: Ancient world history. 2001.
Page 14 - 15 - Going on a tour
1. Find the description and point with arrows.
2. Give 1-2 examples.
Art museums: Tretyakov Gallery, Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts Prokofieva
Reserves, national parks: Moscow State Museum-Reserve Kolomenskoye , Izmailovsky Island - Museum-Reserve
3. Think of and write down the questions you would like to ask at the zoo or botanical garden.
Why do hippos have pink milk?
Is it true that elephants are afraid of mice?
What color is a giraffe's tongue?
After how many years do acorns appear on an oak tree?
Why is a walnut called a walnut?
Find out what questions the other guys have prepared. Can you answer them? 4. On your own or with the help of additional literature, on the Internet, determine which museums are shown in the photographs in the Appendix. Cut and paste them into the appropriate boxes.
Fine Art Museum
House-Museum of K.I. Chukovsky
L.N. Tolstoy in Yasnaya Polyana
5. Think and write down where you can go on an excursion in your region. Underline the name of the place that seems most interesting to you.
Garage Museum of Contemporary Art
Moscow Kremlin Museums Armory
Upside Down House Museum
Page 16 — 17 — Our tour
Write down how you rate the tour and why. I liked the excursion. I learned a lot of new and interesting things.
Page 18 — 21 — What the plan will tell you about
1. Use the textbook to complete the definition.
Site plan is an accurate drawing of the site made by with the help of symbols.
2. On your own or with the help of a textbook, sign the symbols of the plan.
3. Cut out the symbols of the plan from the Appendix and paste them into the appropriate boxes.
Mixed forest. Clearing.
1 - Arable land. 2 - Vegetable garden.
Highway. Telegraph line.
River. Wooden bridge.
Seryozha: "One centimeter on the plan corresponds to one meter on the ground." Nadia: "One centimeter on the plan corresponds to 50 meters on the ground." Vitya: "One centimeter on the ground corresponds to 10 meters on the plan." Ira: One centimeter on the plan corresponds to 100 meters on the ground.
Who answered correctly? Mark with a tick.
6. Practical work "Tourist plans".
Purpose of work: to learn how to read travel plans.
1) Review the plan of the zoo in your textbook.
Plan of the zoo
Orient yourself on the sides of the horizon and determine in which parts of the zoo they live:
a) tigers - in the north b) lions - in the south c) bullfinches and other birds - in the west d) camels - in the east
2) Consider a fragment of the plan of Moscow in the textbook.
Fragment of the plan of Moscow
Write down what sights of the city are depicted on it.
Sparrow Hills Stadium "Luzhniki"
3) Consider the plan of the central part of St. Petersburg. Determine how to get from the Moscow railway station to the Winter Palace. Write what you can see on this route.
Plan of the central part of St. Petersburg pass by the Anichkov Bridge, and after the Alexander Column turn right. And then we will find ourselves near the Winter Palace. Following this route, you can see the Anichkov Bridge, Kazan Cathedral, Alexander Column and Palace Square.
Put any other route on the plan. Describe it orally.
From St. Isaac's Cathedral to the Peter and Paul Fortress
If you brought other travel plans to class, consider them. Make up questions and tasks for each other to see if you have learned how to read travel plans.
Evaluate your progress, put a "+" sign in the appropriate boxes.
We have learned to determine the sides of the horizon on the plan. We have learned how to find various sights on the map. We have learned to determine according to the plan how to get to one place or another. We have learned how to draw a certain route on the plan.
Page 22 — 23 — Planet on a sheet of paper
1. Use the textbook to complete the definition.
A map is a miniature representation of the earth's surface on the plane with the help of conventional signs.
2. Mark the sides of the horizon on the world map.
3. Color as indicated on the map:
fill in the textbook) using the definitions.
Mainland is a huge piece of land, on all sides surrounded by water. It is also called the continent. Part of the world is the mainland or part of the mainland with nearby islands. 9Australia
Fill in any color that does not match the names of the continents and parts of the world.
6. Using the textbook map, give examples (3-4 names in each paragraph).
Seas: Barents Sea, Arabian Sea, Norwegian Sea, Beaufort Sea. Rivers: Lena, Amazon, Volga, Ob. Islands: Aleutian Islands, New Zealand Islands, Madagascar island, Tasmania island.
Page 24 — 25 — Countries and peoples on the political map of the world
1. Look at the wall political map of the world. Determine the name and borders of the country where the capital is Rome - an ancient city, about the culture of which you already know a lot. What are the names of its neighboring countries? Write down the information obtained through the study of the political map of the world:
Let's turn to the map and see that the neighboring countries are: France, Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia. Rome is the capital of Italy Italy's neighbors are Austria, Switzerland, France and Slovenia.
2. Read the story about Heinrich Schliemann. Find on the wall political map of the world the countries whose languages he learned, where he lived and worked. Check them off.
Heinrich Schliemann was born in 1922 in Germany . A childhood dream to find the ancient city of Troy led him at the age of 18, a sailor on the ship Dorothea, which bound for Venezuela . The ship was caught in a storm and sank, and Heinrich miraculously escaped and ended up in Amsterdam . Here he worked in a trading office and for two mastered 9 years0003 Russian , English , French , Dutch , Spanish , Portuguese and Italian . Then Heinrich Schliemann went to Petersburg and 20 years conducted his trading business in the Russian capital. Over this time he learned Polish , Swedish , Greek , Arabic and other languages, got rich in gold mining in America . And finally left at Greece - fulfill your dream. To read the Iliad in the original, he Weeks learned the ancient Greek language. Homer's text became guide for him. And the ancient land of Greece revealed to the archaeologist his secret. G. Schliemann was buried in Athens.
Mark on the map with flags all the countries whose languages G. Schliemann learned, where he lived and worked.
Political map of the world - click to enlarge the image
3. Look at the representatives of different countries in traditional costumes. Find the country of their native language on the political map of the world. Write down the names of these countries and their capitals.
Purpose of the trip: to learn about the death of the royal family. Place of travel: Temple on the Blood Sources of information about the place of travel: the Internet. Reference literature: Pilgrims from all over Russia will go in July along the route "Shrines of the Yekaterinburg Diocese, Royal Days. Pravoslavie.ru; E. Gilbo "The Secret of Death royal family”, article 2004; Greg King, Penny Wilson "The Romanovs. The fate of the royal dynasty. Publishing house "Eksmo", Moscow, 2005 Maps, diagrams, plans, guides: map of the city of Yekaterinburg. Equipment: camera, navigator. Weather forecast: find out on the website gismeteo. ru. Dress code: loose, comfortable shoes. My companion (companions): parents.
2. After the trip, choose the most interesting things from the diary and write down on these lines.
The tragic death of Emperor Nicholas II was the end of the great Russian Empire. The fateful events that took place in Yekaterinburg, in the house of the engineer Ipatiev gave rise to many legends. There's a lot left mysteries for historians to solve.
3. We will learn the art of beekeeping in the farm "On the Edge" of the Belgorod Region. Cut out the drawings from the Application. Complete the photo story with them, observing the order in the work of working bees and in the worries of the beekeeper.
Page 28 — 29 — Transport
1. Draw an ancient means of transportation for the peoples of your region or paste a photo.
Photo of an ancient vehicle - a sled pulled by a troika
2. Sort the vehicles by type. Mark land transport with a red circle, water transport with a blue circle, and air transport with a yellow circle.
Which of these vehicles are old and which are modern? Answer verbally.
3. Curious Passenger project. Read the story and look at the photos.
You already know about the Reading Moscow train. And also in the Moscow metro there is a train "Aquarelle". You sit in the car and as if you find yourself in a picture gallery. With the interest of young men, girls and boys of your age consider the creations of Russian artists. Often the passengers of this train move from the car to wagon to see as many paintings as possible. Many take pictures of what they especially liked. Train "Watercolor" is a wonderful gift for all connoisseurs art and just curious people.
Think of a project for one of the modes of transport for inquisitive passengers. What phenomena of nature and culture of your region would you like to present in your project? Draw and describe the project on pages 30-31.
Project name : Classical music tram Vehicle name : Tram Appearance :
Description : Classical music will be played in the tram. In between compositions, the announcer will talk about various interesting facts related to writing works, the composers who wrote them, their lives, and performers.
Page 32 — 33 — Media and communications
1. Come up with symbols to convey information. Draw them on the flags.
Symbols for the transmission of information
Swap notebooks with a friend and decipher the information on the flags. Write it down in words.
On the left is a sign warning of some event, which requires attention. On the right is an arrow to the right - indicating the direction further movement.
2. Imagine that you are sending a letter to a friend. Complete the mailing envelope using the required information.
3. Frame information from a local newspaper or magazine about natural phenomena or cultural events that interest you, about the people of your region.
Tropical downpour and hail in Moscow
4. Write down from memory the names of information and communication media. Check yourself in the textbook.
Media and communications Postal service, telegraph, telephone, radio, television, internet.
The world as a home
Page 34 — 35 — The world of nature in folk art
1. Using the text of the textbook on p. 46 complete the sentence:
The word "ekos" ("oikos") in Greek means " house, dwelling ". The word "logos" in Greek means knowledge . The word "oecumene" the ancient Greeks called inhabited and part of the world developed by man .
2. Color the fragment of an old spinning wheel. Determine how many tiers of the universe it depicts. Describe them orally.
Fragment of an old spinning wheel
3. Make up a chain of questions and answers on the model of the song “Where are you going, Thomas?”, using knowledge about the nature and life of people in your region. For the final answer, use the hints of the textbook or put the name of the person to whom you are writing this song. You can make a drawing for the text as a gift (on a separate sheet).
Option #1 - Where are you going, shepherd? Where are you taking your sheep? - On the field. - Why are you on the field? - Feed the sheep. Why feed the sheep? - To give wool. Why do you need wool? - To keep the kids warm in winter. Option #2 - Where are you going, Anya? - Collect mushrooms. Why do you need mushrooms? - To cook soup. - Why do you need soup? - To feed yourself and treat your friends!
Page 36 — 37 — What it's all about
1. Find the extra photo in each row and circle it. Explain (verbally) your choice.
Natural objects - everything related to nature. In addition, we are surrounded by countless objects, created by man. The first picture shows natural objects, except for the mug, which are items created by man, respectively she will be redundant in this row. The second picture shows objects created by man, except for the tit, which is a natural object, respectively it will be redundant in this row.
2. Give examples of natural objects (3-4 in each row). Objects of inanimate nature: planets, waterfalls, stones. Objects of wildlife: trees, animals, birds, insects. 3. Fill in the table using the text and illustrations from the textbook. You can add your own examples.
- This substance is added to many products - sweets, cakes, pastries. In nature, it is found in plants.
- This substance is our helper in the kitchen because it burns well. But in the event of a leak, it can spread throughout the apartment, but it is very dangerous.
— These substances are artificially created. They are used to make household items, window frames, toys and many other products.
5. Underline the names of solids with a blue pencil and the names of substances with a green pencil: salt, nail, iron, horseshoe, aluminum, wire, copper, gasoline can, plastic, gasoline, icicle, water, ice floe, candy, sugar, salt shaker.
Page 38 – 39
6. Practical work (experiment) "Water - solvent".
Purpose of the experiment: to determine which substances water dissolves and which does not. 1) Suggest a plan (order) for the experiment.
Pour water into 4 glasses.
Put sugar in the 1st glass.
Put salt in the 2nd glass.
Put chalk into the 3rd glass.
Put the clay into the 4th glass.
Observe the result.
2) Look at the picture. Select the equipment that we will need for the experiment. Mark the selected items with a checkmark.
3) Follow the instructions.
Pour the water from the flask into 4 beakers. Pour sugar into glass No. 1, salt into glass No. 2, crushed chalk into glass No. 3 (grind chalk in a mortar), and clay into glass No. 4. Stir all the substances with a glass rod. What are you watching? Describe verbally.
4) Record the results of the experiment by putting a "+" sign in the appropriate columns of the table. We proposed the correct plan for the experiment. We have chosen the right equipment. We have accurately recorded the results of the experiment. We correctly concluded from experience.
Page 40 — 41 — World of celestial bodies
1. Using the textbook information, write the numbers into the text.
The diameter of the Sun is 109 times the diameter of the Earth. The mass of the Sun is 330 thousand times the mass of our planet. The distance from the Earth to the Sun is 150 million kilometers . The temperature on the surface of the Sun reaches 6 thousand degrees , and in the center of the Sun - 15-20 million degrees .
Tell your classmates about the Sun. Include in your story the data written out from the textbook.
2. Complete the table. Take one example from a textbook (figure on p. 56). Try to find other examples (1-2 in each column) in additional literature, on the Internet.
Star color difference
Model of the solar system
4. Solve the crossword puzzle.
1) The largest planet in the solar system. 2) A planet with rings that are clearly visible in a telescope. 3) The closest planet to the Sun. 4) The planet farthest from the Sun. 5) The planet we live on. 6) Planet - a neighbor of the Earth, located closer to the Sun than the Earth. 7) Planet - a neighbor of the Earth, located farther from the Sun than the Earth. 8) A planet located between Saturn and Neptune.
5. Using various sources of information, prepare a report about a star, constellation, or planet that you would like to learn more about. Write down the basic information for your message. Specify sources of information.
Aldebaran Star One of the brightest stars in the night sky, the main, brightest star in the constellation of Taurus, called Aldebaran. In Arabic and this word means "following". Aldebaran is an orange-red giant star. Its brightness is 150 times greater than that of the Sun. Located from us 65 light years away. Source: Tarasov L.V., Tarasova T.B. Space: encyclopedia - M.: Eksmo, 2015.- 96 p.: ill. - (Your first encyclopedia).
Page 42 — 43 — Invisible Treasure
1. In the text of the textbook, find the paragraph that explains the origin of the wind. Read it carefully. Imagine and draw a diagram of the occurrence of wind.
In nature, the moving air is the wind. As you know, the earth in different places is heated differently by the sun. Air is heated from the ground. Warm air is lighter than cold air; it rises, and cold air rushes to its place. This is where the wind comes in.
Scheme for generating air
Look at the schemes the other guys have suggested. Evaluate your work and the work of your comrades. Whose scheme is correct, accurate, understandable? Who made mistakes? Tell us about the occurrence of wind according to the most successful schemes. 2. Write on the diagram the names of the gases that are part of the air. Check yourself in the textbook.
Underline with a green pencil the names of the gas that living organisms take in when they breathe. Underline with a red pencil the name of the gas that living organisms give off when they breathe. 3. Study the properties of air and write down your conclusions.
1) Is air transparent or opaque? The air is transparent. 2) Does the air have color? Air has no color. 3) Does the air smell? The air is odorless. 4) What happens to air when it is heated or cooled? This experience shows that hot air expands .
This experience shows that cold air is compressed. 5) How does air conduct heat? Air is a poor conductor of heat.
4. What is the name of the equipment used in these experiments? Point with arrows.
Equipment for experiments
Page 44 — 45 — The most important substance
Practical work "Investigation of the properties of water. "
Purpose of work : to determine the properties of water.
Examine equipment prepared for practical work. Indicate the names of objects with arrows. Explain (verbally) what they are used for.
Equipment for practical work
Experiment 1. Dip a glass rod into a glass of water. Is she visible? What property of water is this talking about?
Conclusion: water is clear.
Experience 2. Compare the color of the water with the color of the stripes shown on this page. What do you see? What does it say?
Conclusion: water is colorless.
Experience 3. Smell the clean water. What property of water can be established in this way?
Conclusion: water has no smell.
Experience 4. Immerse a flask with a tube filled with colored water into hot water. What are you watching? What does this indicate?
Conclusion: when heated, water expands.
Experience 5. Place the same flask in a plate with ice. What are you watching? What does this indicate?
Conclusion: As water cools, it contracts.
General conclusion : water is clear, colorless, odorless, expands when heated, contracts when cooled.
Determine the purpose of each experiment. Describe (verbally) its course. Check your conclusions on the Appendix.
Rate your work by ticking the appropriate boxes.
We have chosen the right experimental equipment. Our conclusions coincided with those given in the Appendix. We correctly determined the properties of water, but formulated the conclusions inaccurately. We made mistakes in determining some properties of water.
Page 46 — 47 — Natural elements in folk art
1. Cut out a photo from the Application. Stick them under the names of natural elements. At the bottom of the table, draw images of fire, water and air, characteristic of the fine and applied arts of the peoples of your region.
2. Write down riddles about fire, water and air, created by the creativity of the peoples of your region. Guess them to members of other working groups.
Riddles about fire The firebird flies, drops golden feathers. (Fire) Lives without drinking. But it is necessary to drink - dies. (Fire) The scarlet rooster went out in the water. (Fire) Chewing - I do not chew, but I eat everything. (Fire) Riddles about water Falls in winter, murmurs in spring, rustles in summer, drips in autumn. (Water) In hot weather, the most desirable day happens. (Water) What can’t be rolled uphill, carried away in a sieve and held in hands? (Water) Riddles about air What are we breathing? What do we not see? (Air) What can you not see in the room or on the street? (Air)
3. Consider patterns of folk embroidery. Define the images of fire, water and air.
Orally compose a fairy tale about natural elements.
Page 48 – 49— Pantry lands
Complete the definitions on your own or with the help of a textbook.
Minerals are natural substances Rocks are natural compounds of minerals.
2. Practical work "Composition of granite".
The purpose of the work: to determine the minerals that make up the granite.
Examine and compare mineral samples: feldspar, quartz, mica. Orally describe their properties (color, transparency, gloss).
Examine a piece of granite with a magnifying glass. Find colored grains. It is the mineral feldspar. Find translucent grains. It is the mineral quartz. Look for black shiny grains. This is the mineral mica.
Based on the results of the study, fill in the chart.
Composition of granite
4. Make a conclusion (orally). Check yourself on the Application.
Make up questions and tasks for each other to find out if the goal of the work has been achieved. Evaluate your progress by putting a "+" sign in the appropriate boxes.
We have correctly described the properties of minerals. We correctly identified the minerals that make up granite. We have correctly filled out the “Granite Composition” chart. Our conclusion coincided with that given in the Appendix.
3. Do you know what is stored in the pantries of the Earth? Cut out photos from the Application and paste them into the appropriate boxes.
4. Write down the names of the minerals in your region.
Gold, gas, oil, granite, asbestos, iron ore.
Page 50 — 51 — Miracle under your feet
Practical work "Investigation of soil composition".
The purpose of the work: to determine what is in the composition of the soil.
Examine equipment prepared for practical work. Indicate the names of objects with arrows. Explain (verbally) what they are used for.
Equipment for practical work
Experiment 1. Throw a lump of dry soil into the water. What are you watching? What does it say?
Terminal : The soil contains air.
Experience 2 . Heat some fresh soil over a fire. Hold a cold glass over the soil. What are you watching? What does it say?
Conclusion : The soil contains water.
Experience 3 . Keep heating the soil. Wait for smoke and bad smell to appear. This burns the humus of the soil, which is formed from the remains of plants and animals. The humus gives the soil a dark color. What does this experience indicate?
Conclusion : the soil contains humus.
Experience 4 . The calcined soil, in which the humus burned down (it is gray), pour into a glass of water and stir. Watch what settles to the bottom first and what after a while. What does this experience say?
Conclusion : the soil contains clay and sand.
Experience 5 . Place a few drops of water on the glass, in which the soil has been for a long time. Hold the glass over the fire. What happened to the water? What's left on the glass? These are mineral salts. What does this experience say?
Conclusion : the soil contains mineral salts.
General conclusion : the composition of the soil includes air, water, humus, clay, sand, mineral salts.
Determine the purpose of each experience. Describe (verbally) its course. Check your conclusions on the Appendix. Rate your work by putting a "+" sign in the appropriate boxes. We correctly named the experimental equipment. Our findings are consistent with those in the Appendix. We correctly determined the composition of the soil, but formulated the conclusion inaccurately. We made mistakes in determining the composition of the soil.
Page 52 — 53 — World of plants
1. Find out the groups of plants according to the descriptions. Write the names of the groups in the boxes.
These plants have roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits in which seeds ripen - 9 letters. Answer: flowery.
Flowering plants have flowers and fruits. They have there are all other parts: roots, stems, leaves. These plants are the most diverse. The group includes 250,000 species. Examples of flowering plants Narcissus, calendula, marigolds, willow, lily of the valley, aster, sunflower, pear, potatoes, linden, coltsfoot, dandelion.
These plants do not have roots, stems, leaves, flowers or fruits. Their body is called the thallus - 9 letters. Answer: algae.
Algae - inhabitants of the water. An example of algae is seaweed. Algae do not have roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits. The algae body looks like on long brown ribbons, it is called the thallus. The group includes 100,000 species.
Plants of this group have stems and leaves, but no roots, flowers and fruits with seeds - 3 letters. Answer: moss.
Mosses grow in damp places. They have stems and leaves, but they do not have roots, flowers and fruits with seeds. The group includes 27,000 species.
These plants have all parts except flowers and fruits. Their seeds ripen in cones - 7 letters. Answer: conifers.
Conifers have roots, stems, leaves (needles), but do not have flowers and fruits. On site fruits have cones in which seeds ripen. The group includes 600 species. Examples of conifers Pine, arborvitae, larch, spruce.
Plants in this group have roots, stems and leaves that look like large feathers. But they do not have flowers, fruits and seeds - 11 letters. Answer: ferns.
Ferns are easily recognizable by their beautiful leaves, for big feathers. In addition to leaves, ferns have roots and stems. They do not have flowers, fruits or seeds. happens. The group includes 10,000 species.
2. At the lesson the teacher asked for examples of flowering plants. The children answered like this:
Which of the guys answered correctly? Who made one mistake, two mistakes, three mistakes?
Nadya has the right answer, Seryozha has one mistake, Ira has two mistakes, Vitya has three mistakes.
3. Identify these plants. Write the names of the plants and the groups they belong to.
Burdock, aka burdock
Many plants: lilies of the valley, snow-white water lilies - disappear from the face of the earth, but not burdock. Due to the fact that its fruit baskets are firmly attached to human clothing and spread everywhere, burdock grows everywhere.
If you arm yourself with a magnifying glass and examine this plant carefully, then inside the ball-basket there are small purple flowers, and outside there are special leaves. They end with spikes-thorns, thanks to which they are easily attached to humans and animals.
Page 54 — 55 — Our journey into the world of plants
On these pages, prepare a photo story about the amazing world of plants in your area or other places you have visited. In photographs and captions, try to convey your attitude to the world of plants.
Plants of the Urals
Blue cornflower is an annual plant. It occurs along the edges of forests, glades, roadsides, as a weed plant in vegetable gardens and fields of cereal crops.
Blueberry is a shrub up to 120 cm high. It is a close relative of cowberry. Blueberries bloom in June-July, and bear fruit in August-September. Its fruits are very tasty. They are widely used for cooking various dishes.
Oregano is a perennial herbaceous plant. In Russia, it grows everywhere (with the exception of the Far North): in glades, forest edges, among shrubs, in dry open grassy places, along hillsides. In Europe, it is called oregano, it is a distant relative of mint, lemon balm, sage, basil and other herbs. Oregano is almost the most important spice for making the legendary Italian pizza and Greek salad.
Page 56 — 57 — Fertile land and plants in folk art
1. Color the patterns on the antique towel. Define the images of the earth and plants. Decorate the second towel with ancient patterns typical of the fine and applied arts of the peoples of your region.
Patterns on an old towel
Now let's offer several options for embroidery on old towels. But first of all, we note that mainly white and red colors were used for embroidery. This is due to the fact that there were simply no other dyes.
The following rules were used for Old Russian embroidery.
The earth was displayed at the bottom of the towel, while black colors were allowed. As a reflection of the Earth, geometric figures were used: squares, rhombuses.
Plants were embroidered on the top of the towel, as a rule, this is an image of flowers, leaves. The image of ears of corn was allowed in the middle part of the towel.
2. Draw an illustration for a fairy tale of the peoples of your region, in which the plant plays an important role in the development of the action.
Before doing this task, let's remember the fairy tales in which the plant plays an important role in the development of the action.
First of all, the Russian folk tale "The Turnip" comes to mind.
Russian folk tale "Rejuvenating apples".
Russian folk tale "Tops and Roots".
Russian folk tale "Spikelet".
Russian folk tale "Golden Ears".
"The Toad and the Rose" by Vsevolod Garshin.
"The Scarlet Flower" by Sergei Aksakov.
"Semi-flower" Valentina Kataeva.
"Unknown flower" by Andrey Platonov.
"Twelve Months" by Samuil Marshak.
And now let's give a few drawings to the named fairy tales.
TurnipRejuvenating applesTops and rootsSpike of gold earsToad and roseScarlet flowerSeven-flower flowerUnknown flowerTwelve months
3. Pick up and write down the riddles and proverbs of the peoples of your region about the land-nurse and plants.
Proverbs and sayings about the land-nurse and plants The plant is an ornament to the earth. The earth loves care. Who cherishes the earth, the earth pities. Fertilize the land more - the harvest will be higher. In the land of crumbs, from the land of cakes. The deeper the seed is buried, the better it will be born. Grass without clover is like porridge without butter.
And now riddles
Riddles about the feeding ground and plants It breathes and grows, but cannot walk. (Answer: plant) *** Hey blue bells! With a tongue, but no ringing! (Answer: bluebell flowers) *** Head on a leg, peas in the head. (Answer: poppy) *** Sisters stand around Yellow eyes, white eyelashes. (Answer: daisies) *** The whole world feeds. (Answer: earth)
Page 58 — 59 — World of Animals
1. Write the names of the groups of animals listed. Use reference words if necessary.
Frog, toad, newt are amphibians . An earthworm, a beer is worms . Snail, slug, octopus, squid are molluscs . Crayfish, crab, shrimp - these are crustaceans . Starfish, sea urchin, sea lily are echinoderms . Spider, scorpion, haymaker - this is arachnids . Lizard, snake, crocodile, turtle - these are reptiles .
2. Identify the animals. Write the names of the animals and the groups they belong to. Use reference words as needed.
Page 80 - 81 - how to preserve the wealth of nature
1. Using the textbook of the textbook, fill the right column of the table.
Negative human impact on nature
Nature protection measures
Poisonous emissions from industrial enterprises and vehicles into the air
Construction of installations that trap harmful substances. Creating cars that pollute less (running partly on gasoline and partly on electricity).
Ingress of domestic waste, waste from industrial enterprises, farms into water
Construction of a treatment plant in which polluted water will pass through various filters. In addition, at the treatment facilities it is worth using invisible bacteria that neutralize toxic substances.
Losses of minerals during extraction, transportation, processing
Carefully and economically use minerals during their extraction, transportation and processing.
Destruction of plants that protect the soil
Plants strengthen the soil with their roots, so it is important to protect and plant plants to preserve the soil .
Collection of rare plants by the population
Protect rare plants by establishing reserves, national parks and botanical gardens.
Excessive hunting of animals, poaching
Prohibit and restrict the hunting of rare animals. Guard animals, building nature reserves and national parks. Zoos also help animal protection.
proposed by other groups. Choose the most successful ones.
Tell about the protection of natural communities using conventional signs.
Page 82 — 83 — Nature protection in the culture of the peoples of Russia and the world
1. Write down (optional) proverbs, legends, fairy tales of the peoples of your region, which say that it is necessary to love and protect nature.
Proverbs that say that it is necessary to love and protect nature - Fire is the king, water is the queen, earth is the mother, the sky is the father, the wind is the master, the rain is the breadwinner.