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Is cerebral palsy a physical disability
Screening and Diagnosis of Cerebral Palsy
Diagnosing cerebral palsy (CP) at an early age is important to the well-being of children and their families. Diagnosing CP can take several steps:
Developmental and Medical Evaluations
Developmental monitoring (also called surveillance) means tracking a child’s growth and development over time. At each well-child office visit, the doctor monitors the child’s development. The doctor does this by asking parents if they have any concerns about their child’s development, taking or updating the child’s developmental history, and watching the child during the exam to see how he or she moves.
It is important for doctors to monitor the development of all children, but especially those who are at a higher risk for developmental problems due to preterm birth or low birthweight.
If any concerns about the child’s development are raised during monitoring, then a developmental screening test should be given as soon as possible.
During developmental screening a short test is given to see if the child has specific developmental delays, such as motor or movement delays. Some developmental screening tests are in the form of interviews or questionnaires completed by parents, others are tests that the doctor gives to the child. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all children be screened for developmental delays during regular well-child office visits at:
24 or 30 months
When a child is 9 months of age, many issues involving movement can be seen easily. However, mild movement delays that were not found at the 9-month screening might be easier to see when the child is 18 months of age. By the time the child is 30 months of age, most movement delays can be found.
A developmental screening test also can be given whenever the child’s parents or doctor or others involved in the care of the child have concerns about the child’s development. If the results of the screening test are cause for concern, then the doctor will make referrals for:
Developmental and medical evaluations
Early intervention or early childhood services
Developmental and Medical Evaluations
The goal of a developmental evaluation is to diagnose the specific type of disorder that affects a child. To evaluate movement or motor delays, the doctor will look closely at the child’s motor skills, muscle tone, reflexes, and posture, and take a careful medical history from the parents. The doctor will try to rule out other disorders that could cause similar problems.
Because many children with CP also have related developmental conditions such as intellectual disability; seizures; or vision, hearing, or speech problems, it is important to evaluate the child to find these disorders as well.
The developmental evaluation can be performed by the primary care doctor or by a specialist. Specialists who can do this type of developmental evaluation include:
Developmental pediatricians or neurodevelopment pediatricians (doctors with special training in child development and in evaluating children developmental problems).
Child neurologists (doctors with special training in childhood diseases of the brain, spine, and nerves).
Pediatric physiatrists or pediatric rehabilitation doctors (doctors with special training in physical medicine and rehabilitation for children).
In addition to the developmental evaluation, additional tests can be done to look for a cause of CP. Specialists might suggest brain imaging tests, such as x-ray computed tomography (CT scan) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An electroencephalogram (EEG), genetic testing, or metabolic testing, or a combination of these, also might be done.
CP generally is diagnosed during the first or second year after birth. But if a child’s symptoms are mild, it is sometimes difficult to make a diagnosis until the child is a few years older.
Visit the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) Cerebral Palsy Information Page to learn more about how CP is diagnosed external icon
If You’re Concerned
If you think your child is not meeting movement milestones or might have CP, contact your doctor or nurse and share your concerns.
If you or your doctor is still concerned, ask for a referral to a specialist who can do a more in-depth evaluation of your child and assist in making a diagnosis.
At the same time, call your state’s public early childhood system to request a free evaluation to find out if your child qualifies for intervention services. This is sometimes called a Child Find evaluation. You do not need to wait for a doctor’s referral or a medical diagnosis to make this call.
Where to call for a free evaluation from the state depends on your child’s age:
If your child is not yet 3 years old, contact your local early intervention system. You can find the right contact information for your state by calling the Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center (ECTA) at 919-962-2001 or visit the ECTA websiteexternal icon.
If your child is 3 years of age or older, contact your local public school system. Even if your child is not yet old enough for kindergarten or enrolled in a public school, call your local elementary school or board of education and ask to speak with someone who can help you have your child evaluated. If you’re not sure who to contact, call the Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center (ECTA) at 919-962-2001 or visit the ECTA websiteexternal icon.
Learn more about early intervention
Cerebral palsy - Symptoms and causes
Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that affect movement and muscle tone or posture. It's caused by damage that occurs to the immature, developing brain, most often before birth.
Signs and symptoms appear during infancy or preschool years. In general, cerebral palsy causes impaired movement associated with exaggerated reflexes, floppiness or spasticity of the limbs and trunk, unusual posture, involuntary movements, unsteady walking, or some combination of these.
People with cerebral palsy can have problems swallowing and commonly have eye muscle imbalance, in which the eyes don't focus on the same object. They also might have reduced range of motion at various joints of their bodies due to muscle stiffness.
The cause of cerebral palsy and its effect on function vary greatly. Some people with cerebral palsy can walk; others need assistance. Some people have intellectual disabilities, but others do not. Epilepsy, blindness or deafness also might be present. Cerebral palsy is a lifelong disorder. There is no cure, but treatments can help improve function.
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Signs and symptoms of cerebral palsy can vary greatly from person to person. Cerebral palsy can affect the whole body, or it might be limited primarily to one or two limbs, or one side of the body. Generally, signs and symptoms include problems with movement and coordination, speech and eating, development, and other problems.
Movement and coordination
Stiff muscles and exaggerated reflexes (spasticity), the most common movement disorder
Variations in muscle tone, such as being either too stiff or too floppy
Stiff muscles with normal reflexes (rigidity)
Lack of balance and muscle coordination (ataxia)
Tremors or jerky involuntary movements
Slow, writhing movements
Favoring one side of the body, such as only reaching with one hand or dragging a leg while crawling
Difficulty walking, such as walking on toes, a crouched gait, a scissors-like gait with knees crossing, a wide gait or an asymmetrical gait
Difficulty with fine motor skills, such as buttoning clothes or picking up utensils
Speech and eating
Delays in speech development
Difficulty with sucking, chewing or eating
Excessive drooling or problems with swallowing
Delays in reaching motor skills milestones, such as sitting up or crawling
Delayed growth, resulting in smaller size than would be expected
Damage to the brain can contribute to other neurological problems, such as:
Problems with vision and abnormal eye movements
Abnormal touch or pain sensations
Bladder and bowel problems, including constipation and urinary incontinence
Mental health conditions, such as emotional disorders and behavioral problems
The brain disorder causing cerebral palsy doesn't change with time, so the symptoms usually don't worsen with age. However, as the child gets older, some symptoms might become more or less apparent. And muscle shortening and muscle rigidity can worsen if not treated aggressively.
When to see a doctor
It's important to get a prompt diagnosis for a movement disorder or delays in your child's development. See your child's doctor if you have concerns about episodes of loss of awareness of surroundings or of unusual bodily movements or muscle tone, impaired coordination, swallowing difficulties, eye muscle imbalance, or other developmental issues.
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Cerebral palsy is caused by abnormal brain development or damage to the developing brain. This usually happens before a child is born, but it can occur at birth or in early infancy. In many cases, the cause isn't known. Many factors can lead to problems with brain development. Some include:
Gene mutations that result in genetic disorders or differences in brain development
Maternal infections that affect the developing fetus
Fetal stroke, a disruption of blood supply to the developing brain
Bleeding into the brain in the womb or as a newborn
Infant infections that cause inflammation in or around the brain
Traumatic head injury to an infant, such as from a motor vehicle accident, fall or physical abuse
Lack of oxygen to the brain related to difficult labor or delivery, although birth-related asphyxia is much less commonly a cause than historically thought
A number of factors are associated with an increased risk of cerebral palsy.
Certain infections or toxic exposures during pregnancy can significantly increase cerebral palsy risk to the baby. Inflammation triggered by infection or fever can damage the unborn baby's developing brain.
Cytomegalovirus. This common virus causes flu-like symptoms and can lead to birth defects if a mother has her first active infection during pregnancy.
German measles (rubella). This viral infection can be prevented with a vaccine.
Herpes. This infection can be passed from mother to child during pregnancy, affecting the womb and placenta.
Syphilis. This is a sexually transmitted bacterial infection.
Toxoplasmosis. This infection is caused by a parasite found in contaminated food, soil and the feces of infected cats.
Zika virus infection. This infection is spread through mosquito bites and can affect fetal brain development.
Intrauterine infections. This includes infections of the placenta or fetal membranes.
Exposure to toxins. One example is exposure to methyl mercury.
Other conditions. Other conditions affecting the mother that can slightly increase the risk of cerebral palsy include thyroid problems, preeclampsia or seizures.
Illnesses in a newborn baby that can greatly increase the risk of cerebral palsy include:
Bacterial meningitis. This bacterial infection causes inflammation in the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
Viral encephalitis. This viral infection similarly causes inflammation in the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
Severe or untreated jaundice. Jaundice appears as a yellowing of the skin. The condition occurs when certain byproducts of "used" blood cells aren't filtered from the bloodstream.
Bleeding into the brain. This condition is commonly caused by the baby having a stroke in the womb or in early infancy.
Factors of pregnancy and birth
While the potential contribution from each is limited, additional pregnancy or birth factors associated with increased cerebral palsy risk include:
Low birth weight. Babies who weigh less than 5.5 pounds (2.5 kilograms) are at higher risk of developing cerebral palsy. This risk increases as birth weight drops.
Multiple babies. Cerebral palsy risk increases with the number of babies sharing the uterus. The risk also can be related to the likelihood of premature birth and low birth weight. If one or more of the babies die, the survivors' risk of cerebral palsy increases.
Premature birth. Babies born prematurely are at higher risk of cerebral palsy. The earlier a baby is born, the greater the cerebral palsy risk.
Delivery complications. Problems during labor and delivery may increase the risk of cerebral palsy.
Muscle weakness, muscle spasticity and coordination problems can contribute to a number of complications either during childhood or in adulthood, including:
Contracture. Contracture is muscle tissue shortening due to severe muscle tightening that can be the result of spasticity. Contracture can inhibit bone growth, cause bones to bend, and result in joint deformities, dislocation or partial dislocation. These can include hip dislocation, curvature of the spine (scoliosis) and other orthopedic deformities.
Malnutrition. Swallowing or feeding problems can make it difficult for someone who has cerebral palsy, particularly an infant, to get enough nutrition. This can impair growth and weaken bones. Some children or adults need a feeding tube to get enough nutrition.
Mental health conditions. People with cerebral palsy might have mental health conditions, such as depression. Social isolation and the challenges of coping with disabilities can contribute to depression. Behavioral problems can also occur.
Heart and lung disease. People with cerebral palsy may develop heart disease, lung disease and breathing disorders. Problems with swallowing can result in respiratory problems, such as aspiration pneumonia.
Osteoarthritis. Pressure on joints or abnormal alignment of joints from muscle spasticity may lead to the early onset of this painful degenerative bone disease.
Osteoporosis. Fractures due to low bone density can result from several factors such as lack of mobility, inadequate nutrition and anti-epileptic drug use.
Other complications. These can include sleep disorders, chronic pain, skin breakdown, intestinal problems and issues with oral health.
Most cases of cerebral palsy can't be prevented, but you can reduce risks. If you're pregnant or planning to become pregnant, you can take these steps to keep healthy and minimize pregnancy complications:
Make sure you're vaccinated. Getting vaccinated against diseases such as rubella, preferably before getting pregnant, might prevent an infection that could cause fetal brain damage.
Take care of yourself. The healthier you are heading into a pregnancy, the less likely you'll be to develop an infection that results in cerebral palsy.
Seek early and continuous prenatal care. Regular visits to your doctor during your pregnancy are a good way to reduce health risks to you and your unborn baby. Seeing your doctor regularly can help prevent premature birth, low birth weight and infections.
Avoid alcohol, tobacco and illegal drugs. These have been linked to cerebral palsy risk.
Rarely, cerebral palsy can be caused by brain damage that occurs in childhood. Practice good general safety. Prevent head injuries by providing your child with a car seat, bicycle helmet, safety rails on the bed and appropriate supervision.
Cerebral palsy is a group of diseases in which there is a violation of motor functions and posture. This is due to a brain injury or a violation of the formation of the brain. This disease is one of the most common causes of permanent disability in children. Cerebral palsy occurs in about 2 cases for every thousand people.
Cerebral palsy causes reflex movements that the person cannot control and hardening of a muscle that can affect part or all of the body. These impairments can range from moderate to severe. There may also be intellectual disability, convulsive seizures, impaired vision and hearing.
It is sometimes difficult for parents to accept a diagnosis of cerebral palsy.
Cerebral palsy (CP) is the result of an injury or abnormal development of the brain. In many cases, the exact cause of cerebral palsy is not known. Damage or impaired brain development can occur during pregnancy, birth, and even during the first 2 to 3 years after birth.
A possible cause of cerebral palsy during pregnancy or birth may be genetic problems, infections or health problems in the mother or fetus during pregnancy, or complications associated with childbirth and delivery. Any of these problems can affect the development of the fetus, blood supply, providing the fetus with the necessary nutrients that it receives through the blood. For example, systematic hypoglycemia can lead to the development of cerebral palsy.
One of the possible causes of cerebral palsy may be prematurity associated with early birth (preterm birth), and, accordingly, with underdevelopment of the brain. Babies born too early are at high risk of bleeding in the brain (intraventricular bleeding). A condition called periventricular leukomalacia (leukomalacia), in which damage to the white matter of the brain occurs, is also more likely in premature babies than in full-term babies. Both conditions increase the risk of cerebral palsy. • Possible causes of cerebral palsy during the first 2 or 3 years after birth are usually related to brain damage from a serious illness such as meningitis; brain injury due to an accident or brain hypoxia.
The cause of cerebral palsy (CP) is sometimes unknown. But certain risk factors have been identified and proven to be associated with the incidence of cerebral palsy. Some of these risk factors can be avoided. Fulfilling certain conditions during pregnancy helps reduce the risk of brain damage in the fetus. These recommendations include:
Do not smoke.
Do not come into contact with toxic substances
See your doctor regularly.
Recommendations after childbirth:
Minimize injury from accidents
Determine neonatal jaundice
Do not use substances containing heavy metals (lead)
Isolate the child from patients with infectious diseases (especially meningitis)
Immunize the child in a timely manner.
Even when the disease is present at birth, symptoms of cerebral palsy (CP) may not be noticed until the child is 1 to 3 years old. This is due to the growth of the child. Neither doctors nor parents may not pay attention to violations of the child's motor sphere until these violations become apparent. Children may retain the reflex movements of newborns without age-appropriate development of movement skills. And sometimes the first to pay attention to the underdevelopment of the child are nannies. If cerebral palsy has a severe form, then the symptoms of this disease are already found in the newborn. But the appearance of symptoms depends on the type of cerebral palsy.
The most common symptoms of severe cerebral palsy are
Swallowing and sucking disorders
Unusual postures of a child. The body can be very relaxed or very strong hyperextension with spread of the arms and legs. These postures are significantly different from those that occur with colic in newborns.
Some problems associated with cerebral palsy become more apparent over time or develop as the child grows. They may include:
Muscle wasting in injured arms or legs. Problems in the nervous system impair movement in the affected arms and legs, and muscle stiffness affects muscle growth.
Pathological sensations and perception. Some patients with cerebral palsy are very sensitive to pain. Even normal daily activities, such as brushing your teeth, can be painful. Pathological sensations can also affect the ability to identify objects by touch (for example, to distinguish between a soft ball and a hard one).
Skin irritation. Drooling, which is common, can irritate the skin around the mouth, chin, and chest.
Problems with teeth. Children who have difficulty brushing their teeth are at risk for gum disease and tooth decay. Anti-seizure medications can also contribute to gum disease.
Accidents. Falls and other accidents are risks associated with impaired coordination of movements, as well as in the presence of convulsive attacks.
Infections and somatic diseases. Adults with cerebral palsy are at high risk for heart and lung diseases. For example, in severe cerebral palsy, swallowing problems occur and when choking, part of the food enters the trachea, which contributes to lung diseases. (pneumonia)
All patients with cerebral palsy have certain problems with body movement and posture, but many babies do not show signs of cerebral palsy at birth and sometimes only nannies or nurses are the first to pay attention to deviations in the child's movements that contradict age criteria. The signs of cerebral palsy may become more apparent as the child grows. Some developing disorders may not become apparent until after the child's first year. The brain injury that causes cerebral palsy does not show up for a long time, but the effects may appear, change, or become more severe as the child gets older.
Certain effects of cerebral palsy depend on its type and severity, level of mental development and the presence of other complications and diseases.
The type of cerebral palsy determines the movement disorders in a child.
Most patients with cerebral palsy have spastic cerebral palsy. Its presence can affect both in all parts of the body, and in individual parts. For example, a child with spastic cerebral palsy may develop symptoms mainly in one leg or one half of the body. Most children usually try to adjust to motor impairments. Some patients can even live independently and work, needing only occasional assistance. In cases where there are disorders in both legs, patients require a wheelchair or other devices to compensate for motor functions.
Complete cerebral palsy causes the most severe problems. Severe spastic cerebral palsy and choreoathetoid cerebral palsy are types of complete paralysis. Many of these patients are unable to care for themselves due to both motor and intellectual impairments and require constant care. Complications such as seizures and other long-term physical effects of cerebral palsy are difficult to predict until a child is 1 to 3 years old. But sometimes such predictions are not possible until the child reaches school age, and in the process of learning, communicative intellectual and other abilities can be analyzed
The severity of mental impairment, if any, is a strong indicator of daily functioning. Slightly more than half of patients who have cerebral palsy have some degree of intellectual disability. Children with spastic quadriplegia usually have severe mental impairments.
Other conditions, such as hearing loss or problems, often occur with cerebral palsy. Sometimes these disorders are noted immediately; in other cases, they are not detected until the child is older.
In addition, just like people with normal physical development, people with cerebral palsy experience social and emotional problems during their lives. Since their physical defects exacerbate problems, patients with cerebral palsy need the attention and understanding of other people.
Most patients with cerebral palsy survive to adulthood, but their life expectancy is somewhat shorter. Much depends on how severe the form of cerebral palsy is and the presence of complications. Some patients with cerebral palsy even have the opportunity to work, especially with the development of computer technology, such opportunities have increased significantly.
Cerebral palsy is classified according to the type of body movement and postural problems.
Spastic (pyramidal) cerebral palsy
Spastic cerebral palsy is the most common type. A patient with spastic cerebral palsy develops muscle stiffness in some parts of the body that are unable to relax. In damaged joints, contractures occur, and the range of motion in them is sharply limited. In addition, patients with spastic cerebral palsy have problems with coordination of movements, speech disorders and swallowing disorders.
There are four types of spastic cerebral palsy, grouped according to how many limbs are involved. Hemiplegia - one arm and one leg on one side of the body, or both legs (diplegia or paraplegia). They are the most common types of spastic cerebral palsy.
Monoplegia: Only one arm or leg is impaired.
Quadriplegia: Both arms and both legs involved. Usually in such cases it happens, and damage to the brain stem and, accordingly, this is manifested by swallowing disorders. Newborns with quadriplegia may have problems with sucking, swallowing, weak crying, the body may be cottony or vice versa tense. Often, when in contact with a child, hypertonicity of the body appears. The child may sleep a lot and not show interest in the environment.
Triplegia: Either both arms and one leg or both legs and one arm are called.
Non-spastic (extrapyramidal) cerebral palsy
Non-spastic forms of cerebral palsy include dyskinetic cerebral palsy (subdivided into athetoid and dystonic forms) and ataxic cerebral palsy.
Dyskinetic cerebral palsy is associated with moderate to severe muscle tone. In some cases, there are uncontrollable jerky twitches or involuntary slow movements. These movements most often involve the muscles of the face and neck, arms, legs, and sometimes the lower back. The athetoid type (hyperkinetic) type of cerebral palsy is characterized by relaxed muscles during sleep with slight twitches and grimaces. When the muscles of the face and mouth are involved, there may be disturbances in the process of eating, salivation, choking on food (water) and the appearance of inadequate facial expressions.
Ataxic cerebral palsy is the rarest type of cerebral palsy and affects the entire body. Pathological movements occur in the torso, arms, legs.
Ataxic cerebral palsy is manifested by the following problems:
Violation of precise movements. For example, the patient is unable to place their hand on the desired object or perform even simple movements (for example, bring the cup exactly to the mouth). Often only one hand is able to reach the object; the other hand may tremble from trying to move that object. The patient is often unable to fasten clothing, write, or use scissors.
Movement coordination. A person with ataxic cerebral palsy may walk with too large steps or legs wide apart.
Mixed cerebral palsy
Some children have symptoms of more than one type of cerebral palsy. For example, spastic legs (symptoms of spastic cerebral palsy related to diplegia) and problems with facial muscle control (symptoms of dyskinetic CP).
Total (complete) cerebral palsy of the body affects the entire body to one degree or another. Complications of cerebral palsy and other health problems are most likely to develop when the whole body is involved rather than isolated parts.
Symptoms of cerebral palsy may not be present or not detected at birth. Therefore, the attending physician observing the newborn needs to carefully monitor the child so as not to miss the symptoms. Nevertheless, it is not worth overdiagnosing cerebral palsy, since many motor disorders in children of this age are transient. Often the diagnosis can be made only a few years after the birth of the child, when it is possible to notice movement disorders. Diagnosis of cerebral palsy is based on monitoring the physical development of the child with the presence of various deviations in physical and intellectual development, analysis data and instrumental research methods such as MRI. Diagnosis of cerebral palsy includes:
Collection of information about the child's medical history, including pregnancy details. Quite often, the presence of a developmental delay is reported by the parents themselves or it is detected during professional examinations in children's institutions.
A physical examination is required to look for signs of cerebral palsy. During a physical examination, the doctor evaluates how long the reflexes of newborns in a child last compared to normal periods. In addition, an assessment of muscle function, posture, hearing function, vision is performed.
Samples for the detection of a latent form of the disease. Developmental questionnaires and other tests help determine the extent of developmental delays.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head, which may be done to identify abnormalities in the brain.
The complex of these diagnostic approaches allows making a diagnosis.
If the diagnosis is not clear, additional tests may be ordered to assess the state of the brain and to rule out possible other diseases. Analyzes may include:
Computed tomography (CT) of the head.
Ultrasound examination of the brain.
Evaluation and control of cerebral palsy
After cerebral palsy is diagnosed, the child must be further examined and other diseases that may be simultaneously with cerebral palsy should be identified.
Other developmental delays in addition to those already identified. Developing abilities should be assessed periodically to see if new symptoms appear, such as speech delay, as the child's nervous system is in continuous development.
Intelligent delay can be detected using certain tests.
Convulsive episodes. Electroencephalography (EEG) is used to detect abnormal activity in the brain if the child has a history of seizures.
Feeding and swallowing problems.
Vision or hearing problems.
Problems of behavior.
Most often, a doctor can predict many of the long-term physical aspects of cerebral palsy when a child is 1 to 3 years old. But sometimes such predictions are not possible until the child reaches school age, when deviations can be detected in the course of learning and development of communication capabilities.
Some children need repeat testing, which may include:
X-rays to look for hip dislocations (subluxations). Children with cerebral palsy usually have several X-rays between the ages of 2 and 5 years. In addition, x-rays may be ordered if there is pain in the hips or if there are signs of hip dislocation. It is also possible to prescribe an x-ray of the spine to detect deformities in the spine.
Gait analysis, which helps to identify disorders and correct treatment tactics.
Additional examination methods are prescribed if necessary and if indicated.
Cerebral palsy is an incurable disease. But a variety of treatments help patients with cerebral palsy minimize motor and other impairments and thus improve their quality of life. Brain injury or other factors leading to cerebral palsy do not progress, but new symptoms may appear or progress as the child grows and develops.
Exercise therapy is an important part of treatment that begins shortly after a child is diagnosed and often continues throughout the child's life. This type of treatment may also be given before a diagnosis is made, depending on the child's symptoms.
Medications can help manage some of the symptoms of cerebral palsy and prevent complications. For example, antispasmodics and muscle relaxants help relax spasmodic (spastic) muscles and increase range of motion. Anticholinergics help improve limb movement or reduce salivation. Other drugs may be used as symptomatic treatment (eg, anticonvulsants, if seizures are present)
Permanent treatment for cerebral palsy (CP) focuses on continuing and adjusting existing treatments and adding new treatments as needed. as mobile as possible. It may also help prevent the need for surgery. If the child underwent surgical treatment, then intensive exercise therapy may be necessary for 6 or more months. Drug treatment should be constantly monitored in order to avoid possible side effects of drugs.
Orthopedic surgery (for muscles, tendons, and joints) or dorsal rhizotomy (excision of the nerves of injured limbs), if there are severe problems with bones and muscles, ligaments, and tendons.
Special orthopedic devices (brackets, splints, orthoses).
Behavioral therapy, in which a psychologist helps the child find ways to communicate with peers, is also part of the treatment.
Massage, manual therapy can also be used in the treatment of both the main symptoms of cerebral palsy and complications associated with impaired movement biomechanics.
Social adaptation. Modern technologies (computers) have made it possible to employ many patients with the consequences of cerebral palsy.
Cerebral palsy | Bebbo
What is cerebral palsy?
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disability that affects a child's ability to control their muscles.
Children with cerebral palsy may have problems such as muscle weakness, stiffness, clumsiness, slowness and unsteadiness. They may also have balance issues.
Causes of cerebral palsy
Cerebral palsy can occur when there is damage to the brain or problems with brain development in the parts of the brain that control muscle movement.
Brain damage or developmental problems can occur when:
the baby's brain does not develop properly during pregnancy;
the baby is born premature and the brain is not yet fully developed;
the mother is exposed to certain viruses during pregnancy;
the baby does not get enough oxygen during labor;
the child has a stroke during pregnancy or after childbirth;
the baby gets a serious brain infection shortly after birth;
a child receives certain types of injuries in the first years of life - for example, a serious traffic accident.
Types of cerebral palsy
There are three different types of cerebral palsy.
Spastic cerebral palsy
Children with this type of cerebral palsy have stiff and tense muscles.
Dyskinetic cerebral palsy Children with this type of palsy produce a lot of involuntary twisting and repetitive movements. They can occur anywhere in the body and can get worse when children reach for a cup or talk, for example. These movements make it very difficult for children to sit, stand, reach, or grab.
Ataxic cerebral palsy In children with this type of paralysis, movements are shaky and unsteady, or trembling occurs. They also have problems with balance and may walk with their legs wide apart in order to maintain their balance.
Most children with cerebral palsy actually have a combination of two or more of the types of cerebral palsy listed.
Symptoms and effects of cerebral palsy
Every child with cerebral palsy various combinations of symptoms .
Some children have fairly mild symptoms and can walk well and communicate well. Children with severe cerebral palsy need to use a wheelchair at least for a while. About a third of children with cerebral palsy need extra help to get around, and a quarter cannot speak.
The effects of cerebral palsy may vary from child to child.
Infants Children with cerebral palsy may have:
slow or retarded development
unequal body movements - for example, they may not pay attention to one hand or prefer only one hand from the very beginning
poor muscle control
low muscle tone
muscle spasms or stiffness when trying to move the joints.
Brain damage in children with cerebral palsy will not worsen in the future. But as they get older, their bodies may find it harder to deal with the added challenges. For example, they may find it difficult to continue walking when they become taller during growth spurts during adolescence.
Children The most common problems in children with cerebral palsy:
Other problems may include:
mental retardation or learning problems in about 45% of children
Other health problems Many children with cerebral palsy also experience other health problems, including gastroesophageal reflux, constipation, epilepsy, orthopedic problems, and recurrent chest infections.
You know your child best. If you're worried about how your child is developing, trust your instincts and talk to your pediatrician or nurse about your concerns.
Diagnosis and testing for cerebral palsy
Cerebral palsy is a complex disease and it is not always easy to make an accurate diagnosis before 12 months of age.
To diagnose cerebral palsy, the doctor will take a complete medical history and carefully examine your child, and your child may need to see several specialists and take several tests to rule out other assumptions.
Early Intervention Services for Children with Cerebral Palsy
Although there is no cure for cerebral palsy, early intervention can treat your child's symptoms, improve their outcomes, and help them reach their full potential.
Through early intervention services, you can work with healthcare professionals to choose the treatment and intervention options that are best for your child.
The team of professionals involved in supporting you and your child may include pediatricians, physical therapists, speech therapists, occupational therapists, special education teachers, and a social worker who can provide information about possible financial assistance.