Pregnancy Complications | Maternal and Infant Health
Complications of pregnancy are health problems that occur during pregnancy. They can involve the mother’s health, the baby’s health, or both. Some women have health problems that arise during pregnancy, and other women have health problems before they become pregnant that could lead to complications. It is very important for women to receive health care before and during pregnancy to decrease the risk of pregnancy complications.
Make sure to talk to your doctor about health problems you have now or have had in the past. If you are receiving treatment for a health problem, your health care provider might want to change the way your health problem is managed. For example, some medicines used to treat health problems could be harmful if taken during pregnancy. At the same time, stopping medicines that you need could be more harmful than the risks posed should you become pregnant. In addition, be sure to discuss any problems you had in any previous pregnancy. If health problems are under control and you get good prenatal care, you are likely to have a normal, healthy baby.
Severe maternal morbidity in the United States
Pregnancy symptoms and complications can range from mild and annoying discomforts to severe, sometimes life-threatening, illnesses. Sometimes it can be difficult for a woman to determine which symptoms are normal and which are not. Problems during pregnancy may include physical and mental conditions that affect the health of the mother or the baby. These problems can be caused by or can be made worse by being pregnant. Many problems are mild and do not progress; however, when they do, they may harm the mother or her baby. Keep in mind that there are ways to manage problems that come up during pregnancy. Always contact your prenatal care provider if you have any concerns during your pregnancy.
The following are some common maternal health conditions or problems a woman may experience during pregnancy—
Anemiaexternal icon Anemia is having lower than the normal number of healthy red blood cells. Treating the underlying cause of the anemia will help restore the number of healthy red blood cells. Women with pregnancy related anemia may feel tired and weak. This can be helped by taking iron and folic acid supplements. Your health care provider will check your iron levels throughout pregnancy.
The Hear Her campaign supports CDC’s efforts to prevent pregnancy-related deaths by sharing potentially life-saving messages about urgent warning signs.
Urinary Tract Infectionsexternal icon (UTI) A UTI is a bacterial infection in the urinary tract. You may have a UTI if you have—
Pain or burning when you use the bathroom.
Fever, tiredness, or shakiness.
An urge to use the bathroom often.
Pressure in your lower belly.
Urine that smells bad or looks cloudy or reddish.
Nausea or back pain.
If you think you have a UTI, it is important to see your health care provider. He/she can tell if you have a UTI by testing a sample of your urine. Treatment with antibiotics to kill the infection will make it better, often in one or two days. Some women carry bacteria in their bladder without having symptoms. Your health care provider will likely test your urine in early pregnancy to see if this is the case and treat you with antibiotics if necessary.
Mental Health Conditions Some women experience depression during or after pregnancy. Symptoms of depression are:
A low or sad mood.
Loss of interest in fun activities.
Changes in appetite, sleep, and energy.
Problems thinking, concentrating, and making decisions.
Feelings of worthlessness, shame, or guilt.
Thoughts that life is not worth living.
When many of these symptoms occur together and last for more than a week or two at a time, this is probably depression. Depression that persists during pregnancy can make it hard for a woman to care for herself and her baby. Having depression before pregnancy also is a risk factor for postpartum depression. Getting treatment is important for both mother and baby. If you have a history of depression, it is important to discuss this with your health care provider early in pregnancy so that a plan for management can be made.
Hypertension(High Blood Pressure) Chronic poorly-controlled high blood pressure before and during pregnancy puts a pregnant woman and her baby at risk for problems. It is associated with an increased risk for maternal complications such as preeclampsiaexternal icon, placental abruption (when the placenta separates from the wall of the uterus), and gestational diabetes. These women also face a higher risk for poor birth outcomes such as preterm delivery, having an infant small for his/her gestational age, and infant death. The most important thing to do is to discuss blood pressure problems with your provider before you become pregnant so that appropriate treatment and control of your blood pressure occurs before pregnancy. Getting treatment for high blood pressure is important before, during, and after pregnancy.
Diabetes During Pregnancy
Learn about types of diabetes during pregnancy, the percentage of women affected, and what CDC is doing to address this important health topic. Managing diabetes can help women have healthy pregnancies and healthy babies.
Obesity and Weight Gain Recent studies suggest that the heavier a woman is before she becomes pregnant, the greater her risk of pregnancy complications, including preeclampsia, GDM, stillbirth and cesarean delivery. Also, CDC research has shown that obesity during pregnancy is associated with increased use of health care and physician services, and longer hospital stays for delivery. Overweight and obese women who lose weight before pregnancy are likely to have healthier pregnancies. Learn more about ways to reach and maintain a healthy weight before you get pregnant.
Infectionsexternal icon During pregnancy, your baby is protected from many illnesses, like the common cold or a passing stomach bug. But some infections can be harmful to you, your baby, or both. Easy steps, such as hand washing, and avoiding certain foods, can help protect you from some infections. You won’t always know if you have an infection—sometimes you won’t even feel sick. If you think you might have an infection or think you are at risk, see your health care provider.
Infections with HIV, viral hepatitis, STDs, and TB can complicate pregnancy and may have serious consequences for a woman, her pregnancy outcomes, and her baby. Screening and treatment for these infections, and vaccinations against viruses, such as hepatitis B and human papillomavirus, can prevent many bad outcomes.
Hyperemesis Gravidarumexternal icon Many women have some nausea or vomiting, or “morning sickness,” particularly during the first 3 months of pregnancy. The cause of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy is believed to be rapidly rising blood levels of a hormone called HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin), which is released by the placenta. However, hyperemesis gravidarum occurs when there is severe, persistent nausea and vomiting during pregnancy—more extreme than “morning sickness.” This can lead to weight loss and dehydration and may require intensive treatment.
Learn more about pregnancy complications from womenshealth.gov.external icon
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CDC’s Division of Reproductive Health conducts research to better understand pregnancy-related problems, with the aims of making pregnancy healthier, preventing or managing complications, and reducing poor pregnancy outcomes, including death—the most extreme adverse outcome. There are approximately 6 million pregnancies each year in the United States. Small advances in preventing pregnancy-related complications can improve the quality of life for thousands of pregnant women. We can further the development of evidence-based public health prevention with improved sources of maternal health data, and methods for measuring and studying the data. Highlights of some of our research follow
In the United States, obesity during pregnancy is common and it increases obstetrical risks. In collaboration with Kaiser Permanente Northwest, CDC conducted a study to assess associations between indicators of use of health care services and body-mass index before pregnancy or in early pregnancy and found that obesity during pregnancy is associated with increased use of health care services. A higher-than-normal BMI was associated with significantly more prenatal fetal tests, obstetrical ultrasonographic examinations, medications dispensed from the outpatient pharmacy, telephone calls to the department of obstetrics and gynecology, and prenatal visits with physicians. It was also associated with significantly fewer prenatal visits with nurse practitioners and physician assistants. Most of the increase in length of stay associated with higher BMI was related to increased rates of cesarean delivery and obesity-related high-risk conditions. (Association between obesity during pregnancy and increased use of health careexternal icon. N Engl J Med 2008;358:1444–53.)
CDC has supported university investigators from Brigham and Women’s Hospital to develop Balance after Baby, a lifestyle intervention program tailored specifically to meet the needs of postpartum women. The primary aim of this study was to assist women with a new baby to return to a normal weight through an Internet-based program of healthy eating and physical activity, which they could participate in at their convenience.
Severe maternal morbidity in the United States
Maternal morbidity includes physical and psychologic conditions that result from or are aggravated by pregnancy and have an adverse effect on a woman’s health. The most severe complications of pregnancy, generally referred to as severe maternal morbidity (SMM), affect more than 50,000 women in the United States every year. Based on recent trends, this burden has been steadily increasing.
Rises in SMM are likely driven by a combination of factors, including increases in maternal age, pre-pregnancy obesity, pre-existing chronic medical conditions, and cesarean delivery. The consequences of the increasing SMM prevalence are wide-ranging and include higher health service use, higher direct medical costs, extended hospitalization stays, and long-term rehabilitation. The review of SMM cases provides an opportunity to identify points of intervention for quality improvements in maternal care. Tracking SMM will help monitor the effectiveness of such interventions.
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4 Common Pregnancy Complications | Johns Hopkins Medicine
When you find out you’re pregnant, your thoughts and emotions may go into overdrive. You might be as excited about this new person you will bring into the world as you are terrified that something may go wrong.
Most pregnancies progress without incident. But approximately 8 percent of all pregnancies involve complications that, if left untreated, may harm the mother or the baby. While some complications relate to health problems that existed before pregnancy, others occur unexpectedly and are unavoidable.
It can be scary to hear that doctors have diagnosed a complication. You may be worried about your baby’s health and your own health. You may even feel panic that perhaps something you did (or didn’t do) caused this to happen. These feelings are completely normal. It may reassure you to know that nothing you did caused these complications. And beyond that —these complications are treatable. The best thing you can do for you and your baby is to get prenatal care from a provider you trust. With early detection and proper care, you increase the chances of keeping you and your baby healthy.
A Johns Hopkins obstetrician discusses some common pregnancy complications and how they can be managed.
What is it? While many pregnant women experience morning sickness (nausea, possibly with vomiting, generally in the morning hours) and other discomforts during pregnancy , women with hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) have morning sickness times 1,000. HG is severe nausea that results in significant weight loss and may require hospitalization. (Though it may not make you feel any better, know that if you have HG, you are in royal company — Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Cambridge, Kate Middleton, suffered from it.)
What are the symptoms? Women with HG have severe nausea and vomiting. The vomiting and reduced appetite leads to weight loss and dehydration. The major difference between HG and normal morning sickness is that HG results in a weight loss of 5 percent or more of your pre-pregnancy weight.
Who is at risk? Doctors do not yet fully understand HG, what causes it or who is more likely to experience it.
Can you prevent it? You cannot prevent HG, but you can take steps to control and manage it during your pregnancy. The most important thing you can do for you and your baby is to get regular prenatal care. HG can lead to not getting enough nutrients, which can be harmful to both you and your baby. However, with proper treatment, there are typically no long-term effects to either mom or child after the pregnancy.
How is it treated? If you have been diagnosed with HG, the priority is ensuring you have enough nutrients to keep you and your baby healthy. For some women, a diet of bland foods and fluids may be enough, while others may need to take medication to help relieve the nausea. In severe cases, you may need to be hospitalized to receive nutrients and fluids via intravenous (IV) line. You may feel down about having to be in the hospital during your pregnancy. But remember that you are just doing what you need to do to protect your and your baby’s health!
Many women start to feel better by the 20th week of pregnancy, while some continue to experience symptoms throughout the entire pregnancy.
What should I ask my doctor? If you’ve had HG in the past, talk to your doctor when you are thinking about getting pregnant again. It’s important to make sure you are physically, emotionally and psychologically ready to begin another pregnancy. If you had severe weight loss or other nutritional deficiencies, you’ll need to talk to your doctor about making sure you are healthy before getting pregnant.
What is it? Diabetes is a condition that prevents your body from breaking down sugar. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a type of diabetes that occurs during pregnancy. One of the biggest risks of gestational diabetes is that your baby may grow much larger than normal, a condition called macrosomia. During delivery, a baby’s shoulders can get stuck. If the baby is thought to be too big for a safe vaginal delivery, your doctor will recommend a cesarean section .
What are the symptoms? Gestational diabetes has no outward signs or symptoms. Doctors screen for it between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy, or earlier in high-risk women such as those who are overweight or have a history of gestational diabetes.
Who is at risk? Risk factors for gestational diabetes include being overweight or having a history of GDM in previous pregnancies. If you are at high risk, your doctor will screen for GDM earlier than 24 weeks, typically in the first trimester.
Can you prevent it? Losing weight before pregnancy, sticking to a healthy diet and getting regular exercise can lower your risk of developing GDM.
How is it treated? You and your doctor should discuss how you can best control the GDM. Good old diet and exercise seem to be a good place to start. A very high percentage of gestational diabetes can be controlled by diet. Still, some women with GDM will need to take medications (pills or even insulin) to control blood sugar levels.
Exercise during pregnancy , even just walking 30 minutes a day, is also great for controlling blood sugar. It’s best to do something you enjoy so you’ll stick with it, but you should let your doctor know what type of exercise you are doing.
What should I ask my doctor? If you’ve had GDM, you and your baby are both at risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. So talk to your doctor about steps you can take to reduce that risk.
What is it? While you are pregnant, the placenta provides your baby with oxygen and nutrients for proper development. The placenta normally attaches to the upper part of the uterus, but in placenta previa it either totally or partially covers the cervix (which is the opening between the uterus and vagina).
Who is at risk? You may be at higher risk if you have scarring on your uterus from previous pregnancies or from a uterine surgery, or if you have fibroids .
What are the symptoms? The main symptom is vaginal bleeding that is not accompanied by cramping or other pain. Some women, however, do not experience any symptoms. Your doctor will confirm a diagnosis using an ultrasound or physical exam.
Can you prevent it? There’s nothing you can do to prevent placenta previa. However, you can increase your and your baby’s health by getting regular prenatal care. If you are at high risk — because of a previous surgery, C-section or fibroids — make sure to tell your doctor. He or she may want to monitor you more closely during your pregnancy.
How is it treated? Placenta previa may result in bleeding during pregnancy. Some women have no bleeding, some have spotting and others may experience heavy bleeding. If the bleeding is heavy, you may need to stay in the hospital for a period of time. Women with placenta previa will require a C-section to deliver the baby, usually scheduled two to four weeks before their due date.
What should I ask my doctor? Always talk to your doctor if you notice any vaginal bleeding at any point during your pregnancy.
What is it? Preeclampsia is a condition that causes dangerously high blood pressure. It can be life-threatening if left untreated. Preeclampsia typically happens after 20 weeks of pregnancy, often in women who have no history of high blood pressure.
What are the symptoms? Symptoms of preeclampsia may include severe headache, vision changes and pain under the ribs. However, many women don’t feel symptoms right away. The first alert is usually when a woman comes in for a routine prenatal visit and has high blood pressure. In those cases, your doctor will test for things like kidney and liver function to determine whether it’s preeclampsia or just high blood pressure .
Who is at risk? Risk factors for preeclampsia include having a history of high blood pressure, being obese (having a body mass index, or BMI, greater than 30), age (teenage mothers and those over 40 are at higher risk) and being pregnant with multiples.
Can you prevent it? While you can’t prevent preeclampsia, staying healthy during pregnancy may help. If you have risk factors, experts recommend that you see your obstetrician either before you become pregnant or very early in your pregnancy, so you and your doctor can discuss ways that you can reduce your risk. For example, many women at risk for preeclampsia are prescribed a baby aspirin after the first trimester.
Regular prenatal visits are the best way to control preeclampsia. During those routine visits, your doctor will check your blood pressure. If it’s high, further tests can diagnose the condition so you can start getting the treatment you need.
How is it treated? The condition only goes away once the baby is born, so delivery is the best way to treat preeclampsia. However, delivering the baby too early can put the baby at risk for health problems. The decision about how to treat you will largely depend on how far along the pregnancy is. You may need to be hospitalized so your team can monitor you and your baby closely.
What should I ask my doctor? Your doctor will discuss the risks and benefits of delivering the baby early versus continuing the pregnancy and trying to manage the preeclampsia as long as possible through other methods. After delivery, the condition will go away, but you will be at greater risk for heart disease later in life. Talk to your doctor about what you can do to help reduce and manage those risks.
Pregnancy Complications: The Bottom Line
While these conditions may differ from one another, you may have noticed one common thread: Regular prenatal (even preconception) care is crucial. Women are encouraged to come in for a preconception consult to talk about what they can do to reduce their risks. Being healthy before pregnancy is the best thing you can do for your baby.
Psychology of pregnant women
The first months of pregnancy
The first months of pregnancy are a time of revolutionary changes not only in a woman's physiology, but also in her psychology. In the inner, innermost space of her “I”, the space of another person appeared, the existence of which must not only be reckoned with, but possibly rebuild her whole life, change all plans. Not everyone can unconditionally accept these changes. Even if the child is desired and long-awaited, the grandeur of the accomplished event captures all the woman’s thoughts, making her worry: “How will my life develop further? How will the pregnancy proceed? What will happen to my career? Will I be able to provide my child with a decent future? Will I be a good mother? Familiar questions, right? Such mental anguish can cause not only a feeling of fatigue and irritability, but even cause toxicosis or a threat of abortion.
First of all, don't try to solve all problems at once. Postpone them indefinitely, and perhaps some of them will be resolved without your participation. In general, pregnancy is a unique time when you can rightfully afford not to react to life's problems. And do not feel guilty for such irresponsible behavior. Remember that more than all material goods in the world, a child needs your attention, understanding and love.
Secondly, the most important thing now is to realize and accept your new state. Give yourself permission to be pregnant. Accepting your new state means accepting the appearance of a child in your life, learning to understand his needs. Indulge your little weaknesses - whether it's the desire to lie down in the middle of the day or buy yourself some delicacy. Let pregnancy enter your life not as a time of prohibitions, but as a time of new opportunities. A statement like “I won’t be able to wear my favorite skinny jeans” can be replaced with “Finally, I will update my wardrobe!”. It is enough to change the point of view to feel the taste for change.
Pregnancy makes a woman emotionally vulnerable, prone to anxiety, more sensitive to negative experiences. It seems that the reason for the frustration is insignificant, and the eyes are in a “wet place”, and nothing pleases. Many women are haunted by the feeling that you are “trapped” by incessant nausea, tiredness that has piled up from somewhere, and constant irritability. Doctors explain such an unstable emotional state by the rapid hormonal changes that occur in the body. Only the understanding that such a state is natural and quite physiological does not make this difficult period easier for a woman.
Increased irritability is a signal to the expectant mother that she needs to learn to relax. This valuable skill will come to the rescue not only during pregnancy or at the time of childbirth, but in general will have a positive effect on your life. The easiest way to relax is to turn on soothing music, lie down in a comfortable position, and focus on your breathing. Take a deep, calm breath and a slow, relaxed exhale. Imagine that with each exhalation comes relaxation and peace. By the way, moderate physical activity is an excellent remedy for the blues.
Even if before pregnancy a woman had a calm disposition, now she can easily panic from her doctor's abstract arguments about the complications of pregnancy or from the story of an eccentric friend about her childbirth. Scenes from some movies or TV news, a sharp remark from a boss or fellow traveler on public transport can bring you to tears. Do not be afraid to give vent to your emotions - cry, complain to someone, the main thing is not to drive gloomy thoughts and resentment into the depths of your soul. Such increased impressionability is just a reminder that it is time to change impressions.
Remember that your susceptibility has another side - it is an opportunity to take a fresh look at the world. As if during pregnancy, a woman becomes a little child who looks at the world with interest and surprise. Take this opportunity to enjoy the beautiful aspects of life. Through your impressions, you convey to the baby information about the world around him. Your impressions tell him about whether the world is good or evil, colorful or dull, cheerful or sad. So try to get out into nature more often, visit concert halls or museums.
There are so many changes going on in the soul of a pregnant woman that she may begin to feel very lonely in the maelstrom of new experiences. All the people around her remained the same, only you are alone in the power of "pregnant feelings". But at the same time, the experience of loneliness allows you to look deeper into your own soul, understand yourself, analyze your life experience, and possibly overestimate your life values.
Use loneliness for self-discovery, but do not withdraw too much into yourself, share your experiences with loved ones, consult a psychologist, talk to other pregnant women. Sign up for psychological preparation courses for childbirth, and special groups of pregnant women in the pool or sports complex, now even specialized stores arrange lectures for pregnant women. And most importantly, start communicating with the child, because he is the closest person to you.
The period of pregnancy can give a new positive impetus to relationships in the family, or it can give rise to misunderstanding. But it is most important for a woman to receive support from a loved one. However, it is much more difficult for a man to get involved in the process of his wife's pregnancy and become a "pregnant" dad. He can hardly imagine that a little man is growing inside your stomach (by the way, he is not a stranger). A man is more likely to be concerned about your new quirks than the peculiarities of the course of pregnancy. A rare representative of the stronger sex speaks with inspiration with the “tummy” or is touched by the pushes from its depths. But this does not mean that men are completely indifferent to the upcoming changes. They just experience "pregnancy" in their own way.
Take the trouble to unobtrusively enlighten your loved one about pregnancy. He needs simple, concrete information about what is happening at the moment. Ask him to go with you for an ultrasound. Some men, seeing with their own eyes their child inside the tummy, completely change their attitude towards the wife's pregnancy, as if convinced of the real existence of the baby. Use the pronoun “we” more often, this will be another sign that you are no longer alone. Gently tell your husband about how the baby behaved throughout the day. If at first there is no expected reaction, do not be upset and do not blame your husband for misunderstanding. It's just that many men don't express their emotions openly.
Anxiety about the baby's health.
Sometimes a pregnant woman with fear begins to sort through all the risk factors that she has been exposed to since the beginning of pregnancy and think about how they will affect the child. In the course are memories of drinking a glass of wine or taking aspirin, when it was not yet known about pregnancy, thoughts about the polluted air of your hometown or radiation from a computer monitor on your desktop. But you never know what else can affect the health of the baby. Dangers here and there.
Do not exaggerate the degree of risk. Birth defects are very rare. Think that vain anxiety is much more harmful to your child than the mistakes you made. Do not indulge in guilt, better find a way that can compensate for your "misses" - whether it's active walks in the park or a balanced diet or listening to classical music. And try to imagine more often what a healthy, strong and beautiful baby will be born to you. Such fantasies have a very beneficial effect on the development of the baby.
Fear of childbirth
Childbirth is indeed such a powerful physical and psychological experience that waiting for it is associated with a series of fears. In addition to the understandable fear of labor pain, a woman may begin to be tormented by not quite conscious fears associated with childhood traumas of her own birth that have surfaced from the depths of the subconscious. Such "memories" remain with a person for life, gradually exerting a strong influence on his behavior.
Studies have shown that childbirth is easier in women who have undergone special training, have a good idea of how childbirth goes, are actively involved in the process of giving birth to their own child and are aware that during childbirth, the baby feels an order of magnitude stronger than mother. What scares us the most in life is the unknown. Unfortunately, in modern society, people know too little about the nature of childbirth. Feel free to look for useful information. These can be special book editions, educational films about childbirth or psychological training courses. Most fears go away if you take care of the organization of childbirth in advance, get to know the doctor and midwife who will take care of your birth in advance.
In the Kursk City Clinical Maternity Hospital, you will meet obstetrician-gynecologists with high professional and personal qualities, which will undoubtedly inspire you with a sense of trust and simple human sympathy. A sense of trust in the people who will be next to you at this crucial moment contributes to a better course of childbirth.
Remember that nature endowed a woman with all the qualities necessary for the birth of a child - patience, wisdom, intuition. Believe in your own strength!
Pregnant dad syndrome | How to help a pregnant wife
The signs of pregnancy in women are well known to everyone: the stomach grows, strange taste preferences appear, and mood swings occur. Usually during pregnancy, the mother leads a less active lifestyle, sleeps longer and eats more. What is dad doing at this time? As a partner, he often also adjusts to a changed lifestyle. And ... it changes not only inside, but also externally. His general motor activity decreases, nausea occurs in the morning, his tummy grows, drowsiness appears, etc.
Proven is the fact that the hormonal background of the "pregnant dad" is different from the pre-pregnancy state. The amount of testosterone (male hormone) decreases, and the level of estrogen and prolactin (female hormones) increases. Most likely, these changes are secondary, that is, they come after a changed daily routine, the nature of nutrition, and are more common in men who are sensitive, attentive and caring.
Whatever changes happen to your husband, remember that he is also human. He may have his own fears, weaknesses and worries before the upcoming fatherhood. Try to let your husband understand how important he is to you, talk to him about your feelings, consult, confess your love. Spend time together more often, go for walks, go to concerts, exhibitions and visits. Pregnancy is not a disease, but a wonderful state of waiting for a baby. And if two people share it, it's wonderful! Coping with the difficulties of pregnancy together
The body of each woman is individual, but some changes are observed in almost all expectant mothers. Many of them may have never been experienced by a woman before pregnancy, so they can be worrisome. Some of the changes are spiritual, some are physical. Some are due to the action of hormones, others are the consequences of an increase in the abdomen and body weight.
Here are the most common inconveniences encountered in mid-pregnancy:
• Edema. • Problems of the gastrointestinal tract: constipation, accumulation of gases, belching, heartburn. • Varicose disease of the lower extremities. • Expansion of the veins of the vagina. • Spasms of calf muscles. • Back pain. • Pain in the womb and duck walking. All these conditions are temporary, but neither doctors nor modern medicines are able to save the expectant mother from them. And, perhaps, only dad can significantly brighten up the life of mom. How? There are many ways to please a pregnant woman. Here are the 10 most faithful of them:
1. Accompany the woman to the appointment with the doctor and ultrasound It is pleasant for the expectant mother to realize that her beloved man is nearby, or at least outside the office door, in which she experiences not the most pleasant sensations. She will be able to share her experiences and the news she heard from the doctor with her dad, when they are still fresh and not blocked by the comments of her friends on the phone.
2. Give small gifts regularly It is not necessary to give a new iPhone, a car or a ring. Even the most modest gift will be a wonderful sign of attention.
3. Giving flowers Flowers are especially pleasing when they are given just like that, for no reason. Dad can set a recurring reminder on the phone for a specific day of the week.
4. Talk about your love There are magic words in the world, and of course they are about love.
5. Cook breakfast Even if a man does not know how to cook at all, he is able to build breakfast - boil eggs, make toast, brew delicious tea. Does not work? Then you can bring your favorite dessert from the restaurant after a business dinner.
6. Invite to a restaurant It is sometimes useful to take a break from pregnancy. Oddly enough, many women do not want to go to the cinema during pregnancy - it is dark and noisy there. As an option, you can consider going to the theater, to a concert. Or you can just buy a new movie and watch it at home.
7. Massage Massage your wife - this is the sacred duty of every future dad. Massage technique is not important, gentle touches are important.
8. Help around the house During pregnancy, mom does not need to breathe dust or carry bags of groceries. Any woman will appreciate the opportunity to take a break from worries if her husband takes on these responsibilities.
9. Forgive breakdowns and tantrums Change plans every five minutes and demand the impossible? Oh, how familiar! But sometimes a man just needs to agree with a woman so that she immediately changes her mind and acts sensibly.
10. Compliments Most women get prettier during pregnancy, but they don't even know it! It is in the power of a man to convince a woman how beautiful she is! Did any of these points get you hooked? Or did you come up with something of your own? Regular evening walks in the park? Shopping trips together? Discussing plans? Don't wait for a man to guess or read this article. Just ask him to do something that will change your pregnant life for the better. Preparing for childbirth
A woman prepares for childbirth in special courses. Dad can also attend such courses, especially if he is planning a partner birth. But at the same time, many organizational issues lie on it, which you need to think about in advance, even during pregnancy.
• Organization of transportation to the maternity hospital This is the duty of the Pope. He may not have a car, but it is desirable for him to organize the transportation of his wife to the hospital. How and what car to go? Which route? How quickly can you get to the hospital? Let there be no surprises in this matter for both of you.
• Collection of things for the maternity hospital In fact, it is necessary to collect not one, but as many as three bags for the maternity hospital - in the maternity block, in the postpartum department and for discharge! And don't forget the documents! The help of the pope will be especially relevant if you have to go to the hospital when the woman has already begun contractions or the water has broken. She is noticeably nervous in this situation, and the composure of a man can do a good job.
• Arrangement of a children's room Many parents start renovations while they are expecting a child. This is understandable, because the living space needs to be adapted for a new tenant. Repair dust and noise are not very compatible with an interesting situation, so it would be wiser if dad joins the home improvement. A partner is also a partner in Africa
If the family decides on a partner birth, then this is one situation, but if the mother goes to the birth alone, this does not mean that the father can relax and do nothing. What business could he have? What should he do? • Be as free from work as possible on the date of delivery and for a few weeks after it Childbirth is something that concerns all family members and does not happen so often. Despite the fact that the man is not in the hospital, the very fact that he worries about his family, without being distracted by something else, will give the woman in labor strength.
• Stay in touch Dad needs to take care of topping up his phone and his wife's phone. Before the expected date of birth, you need to regularly charge them, do not forget to turn on the sound. Alas, we often forget about such simple things. Often women are frustrated just because their phone runs out during childbirth, runs out of money on it, or they can't get through to their husband because he's unavailable!
• To be around A well-known picture is a sleeping husband in a car near the walls of the maternity hospital. Yes, it's still relevant. Although in many maternity hospitals it is already possible to wait in a cafe, in a hall, in a corridor, etc. In any case, the closer the future dad is to the hospital, the better.
• Be ready to help Sometimes relatives are required to buy something, go somewhere, help make a decision. After the birth, dad's help will also be needed: to bring things for the woman and the child to the postpartum department, buy something from the dowry, organize an extract.
Born - not free
When the time comes to pick up the child and wife from the hospital, dad should be fully armed.
It is not necessary to decorate the walls of the maternity hospital, it is better to prepare the apartment for the arrival of mother and baby. It should at least be clean. A young mother will also appreciate if a bouquet of flowers, balloons and, possibly, a poster (or at least a piece of paper) with a touching inscription will be waiting for her in the apartment. Dad needs to think about how to organize transportation from the hospital home. If you are accompanied by relatives on discharge, who will then go to visit you, you will need to buy a simple treat. Do not plan long feasts. Baby and mom need rest now.
Going to be discharged, dad should not forget women's, children's things, a camera or a video camera. Be sure to buy flowers for the wife and the medical staff!
At the maternity hospital, upon discharge, a woman should be given an exchange card, a certificate from the registry office for registering the child, a sheet with recommendations and conclusions about the baby’s health, indicating the procedures performed and the vaccinations made. The husband needs to check if the wife has forgotten these documents.
Now dads often organize a solemn discharge - balloons that fly into the sky, a limousine, musical accompaniment, professional photography and video filming. Think about whether you want it and whether it will please you. If you answered yes twice, go ahead. As you can see, pregnancy and childbirth are a lot of things for mom and dad. How to do everything and not forget anything?! Write lists! A wife should write to her husband what to do! It's easier for men to navigate. Not all of them know how to take the initiative and can immediately understand the situation. To shrug and say: “But mine didn’t think of it before” - this is not about moms, mom is, first of all, a manager. If this science of managing people is not familiar to you yet, then it's time to start mastering it. Memo for future dads
How to organize help for a mother with a child after childbirth?
1. Define your male childcare responsibilities and stick to them. The more specific they are, the better. You can bathe the child. You can take the child and nurse him, say from 6 to 8 in the morning, giving the wife a chance to sleep. You can walk with the baby, go grocery shopping, buy diapers and baby water, etc. 2. Choose what appeals to you and suits your daily routine, and do it constantly. Such regularity will allow you to cope with the role of the father at first and give mom time to rest and recover faster after childbirth. 3. You can register a child and receive a birth certificate within 30 days after his birth. In order for your mother not to go to the registry office or the MFC, take these chores on yourself. 4. A newborn person also needs certificates! Don't forget about it! Registration, medical insurance, foreign passport - these are just some of them. But it is still necessary to draw up documents for receiving benefits and, if this is not the first child, maternity capital. It all takes time and effort, do not tear the mother away from the child, do it yourself. Cut-outs:
Nothing brings two people closer than pregnancy, childbirth, and the birth of a child. After all, it is during this period that it is important for mom and dad to be a team and act together. If a woman wants a man to help and do something specific during pregnancy, childbirth and after them, then you need to talk about it directly, and not wait for him to guess In recent years, in many schools for childbirth, separate courses for dads have appeared, that is, mom and dad are preparing for childbirth according to different programs.