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What does morning sickness vomit look like
Throwing Up Yellow and Pregnant: Causes and Treatments
If you’re pregnant, you may be paying way more attention to everyday aches, pains, discomforts, and bodily fluids than usual.
Since many common pregnancy symptoms fall into two categories — annoying but totally harmless and warning signs of a serious problem — you may find yourself focusing intensely on each and every burp, fart, cramp, twinge, and craving, wondering whether you should ignore it or call your doctor.
And while you were expecting to do some puking during pregnancy, you might not have expected it to be yellow — and now you don’t know what to do about it.
That’s OK! We do know, and we’re happy to tell you.
Yup, it certainly can be!
Yellow vomit is just stomach acid. When you don’t have any food in your stomach but you’re still throwing up, it’s inevitable that you’ll start vomiting the only thing left in there: bile.
Bile is acid produced by your stomach to help break down your food.
If you’re throwing up first thing in the morning when you haven’t eaten anything yet — or if you’re persistently throwing up — it’s normal to eventually see yellow bile instead of whatever your last meal was.
The most likely reason you’re throwing up yellow liquid during pregnancy is the same reason you’re throwing up anything at all during pregnancy: hormones.
Particularly in the first trimester, pregnancy hormones like estrogen and progesterone are skyrocketing.
You’re also developing higher levels of hCG, or human chorionic gonadotropin, as your body accepts the fact that it’s now home to a growing human being (and needs to prepare itself, stat).
So, the puking is normal, but again, because you might be doing it more often than usual and way more often first thing in the morning with an empty stomach, it’s likely to be yellow at least once in a while.
Depending on whether you’ve had any liquids recently and how vigorously you’re throwing up, the consistency of your yellow vomit might vary.
It could be super liquidy and clear, foamy, or even thick and mucousy (yup, nasty). This all falls into the “normal” category.
In addition to your sunshine-colored puke, you may also have the usual morning sickness symptoms:
a queasy, carsick feeling
loss of appetite
a bitter or metallic taste in your mouth
Morning sickness usually fires up around the 6th or 7th week of pregnancy, peaks around 9 to 12 weeks, and then tapers off by 12 to 20 weeks. So, if you’re having a lot of yellow vomiting, you can assume it will probably follow that trajectory.
But here’s where we share the bad news: Some stay sick for longer, and some truly unfortunate souls get stuck with morning sickness until they give birth (WHY?!).
It’s not how things usually go, thankfully, so don’t stress about this too much. We just have to put it out there as a possibility.
It helps to settle your stomach after you’ve vomited, so you can maybe catch a few hours of relief.
Sipping nausea-friendly drinks, like peppermint tea and ginger ale, can work wonders. So can nibbling on carbs: Think crackers, toast, dry cereal, pretzels, or plain bagels.
It might be hard to drink water on a queasy stomach, but try to avoid getting dehydrated. If you can’t handle all that liquid going down into your stomach, suck on ice cubes or popsicles, or take small sips from a straw.
Basically, just don’t brush your teeth, as tempting as it is.
Yes, your mouth tastes gross and your breath smells bad. But when stomach acid comes into contact with your teeth (especially if you’re vomiting frequently), it can soften your tooth enamel.
Brushing your teeth when your enamel is softened can actually strip away some enamel, which isn’t great for your teeth in the long run.
If you can’t stand the taste in your mouth, try swishing some water around and then spitting it out again to give your teeth and tongue a good rinse without all the damage.
You can’t necessarily prevent morning sickness — it’s triggered by hormones, which are totally out of your control. (Get used to that, BTW.)
But you can often find a couple of tricks that stave off the worst of it. And you might be able to avoid vomiting of the yellow sort, in particular.
Try the following:
Eat a small snack right before going to bed or before getting out of bed in the morning. Having something in your stomach might prevent some morning episodes of vomiting and, even if it doesn’t, you won’t be throwing up stomach bile, at least. Protein, like almonds, and carbs are a good choice.
Don’t skip meals. Consider having something in your stomach at all times, however small. Lots of folks notice their nausea is worse when they haven’t eaten for 2 or 3 hours, so you may want to adopt a constantly grazing approach to food for the time being.
Avoid excessively spicy foods, which can worsen nausea.
Get plenty of rest. Some find their morning sickness is worse when they’re tired or running on empty.
Talk with your doctor about managing your nausea. There may be medications you can use during the worst weeks of morning sickness to avoid throwing up from morning ’til night.
While few get away with zero vomiting during pregnancy, there’s definitely a point when you surpass a “normal” amount of puking and veer into medical condition territory.
This is called hyperemesis gravidarum (HG). You can’t just ignore it; left untreated, HG can lead to:
Typical red flags suggesting you might have HG and not run-of-the-mill morning sickness include:
not being able to keep down any food
fainting or dizzy spells
weight loss of more than 5 percent of your body weight
If you think you might have HG, call your doctor. Also call your doctor if you have any of the following symptoms:
dark urine or inability to pee
shortness of breath
dizziness or confusion
severe pain or cramping in your abdomen
sudden swelling of extremities
This could mean your morning sickness isn’t under control, or that you have an infection or other serious medical condition.
Not all nausea is necessarily due to pregnancy. Other things like appendicitis, gallbladder inflammation, and gallstones can still occur in pregnancy.
Throwing up yellow might be alarming, but it isn’t a cause for concern in the majority of cases. It means you’re throwing up on an empty stomach — the yellow stuff is your stomach acid.
You might be able to prevent it by having some food in your stomach first thing in the morning, before you get up, but you won’t be able to stop morning sickness entirely if you’re someone who gets it in the first place.
Thankfully, for most people, morning sickness wraps up by the end of the first trimester (if you’ve been throwing up yellow, that should go away then, too!).
Severe Morning Sickness (Hyperemesis Gravidarum) (for Parents)
What's Morning Sickness?
During the first trimester of pregnancy, many women have the bouts of nausea and vomiting known as morning sickness.
Despite its name, morning sickness can happen day or night. It usually starts around the 6th week of pregnancy, is at its worst around week 9, and stops by weeks 16 to 18. Although unpleasant, morning sickness is considered a normal part of a healthy pregnancy.
What’s Severe Morning Sickness?
Severe morning sickness is when nausea and vomiting get so serious that a pregnant woman vomits several times a day, loses weight, and gets dehydrated or is at risk for dehydration.
If this rare pregnancy-related condition isn’t treated, it can affect a woman's health and her baby's ability to thrive.
The medical term for severe morning sickness is "hyperemesis gravidarum" (hi-per-EM-eh-sis grav-ih-DARE-um), which means "excessive vomiting during pregnancy." It usually follows a similar timeline to normal morning sickness. But it can go longer, sometimes lasting for the whole pregnancy. Often, the symptoms get less severe as the pregnancy continues.
Most cases of hyperemesis gravidarum affect a woman's first pregnancy. But women who have it in one pregnancy are more likely to have it in future pregnancies.
What Causes Severe Morning Sickness?
The cause of severe morning sickness isn’t known. But it might be related to the hormone changes of pregnancy. A hormone called human chorionic gonadotropin, or HCG, might be to blame because severe morning sickness most often happens when HCG levels are at their highest in a pregnant woman's body.
Severe morning sickness also might run in families. It’s more common in women whose close family members (such as mothers and sisters) have had it.
Other things that can increase a woman's chances of having severe morning sickness include:
carrying multiples (twins, triplets, etc.)
history of motion sickness
migraine headaches with nausea or vomiting
What Problems Can Happen?
The nausea and vomiting that happen in severe morning sickness are so extreme that they can harm the mother and the baby. Not being able to keep down food makes it hard for the mom to meet her nutritional needs. So she might lose weight. And a loss of fluids, combined with the loss of stomach acid from vomiting, can cause dehydration and electrolyte imbalances.
If severe morning sickness isn’t treated, it can cause many problems, including organ failure and the early birth of her baby.
When Should I Call the Doctor?
Call the doctor right away if you’re pregnant and have any of these symptoms:
nausea that lasts throughout the day, making it impossible to eat or drink
vomiting three to four times per day or not being to keep anything in the stomach
brownish vomit or vomit with blood or streaks of blood in it
fainting or dizziness
peeing less than usual
a fast heart rate
a lot of headaches
unpleasant, fruity mouth or body odor
How Is Severe Morning Sickness Treated?
Treatments used for morning sickness, such as eating dry crackers in the morning or a bland diet, may be recommended for women with extreme morning sickness. But these might not help with severe symptoms.
Medical treatment can include:
a short period of not eating to rest the gastrointestinal system
intravenous (IV) fluids
vitamin and nutritional supplements
Some women might get medicine to stop the vomiting, either by mouth or through an IV. The doctor might recommend eating foods with ginger or taking vitamin B6 supplements to help ease nausea. It can also help to:
Eat a bland diet.
Eat frequent small meals.
Drink plenty of liquids when not feeling nauseated.
Avoid spicy and fatty foods.
Eat high-protein snacks.
Avoid sensory stimuli that can act as triggers (like specific smells or noises).
If a woman feels anxious or depressed about her condition, talking to a therapist or counselor might help her cope with her feelings.
What Else Should I Know?
With treatment, women with severe morning sickness can feel better and get the nourishment they need so they and their babies thrive. And lifestyle changes can help ease nausea and vomiting and make the pregnancy more enjoyable.
With time, symptoms usually do improve. And, of course, they stop by the time a woman's next journey starts: parenthood.
Nausea and vomiting
Nausea is a painful sensation in the stomach and throat, which may be accompanied by weakness, increased salivation, sweating and often precedes vomiting.
Vomiting is a sudden involuntary emptying of the stomach.
Nausea and vomiting are symptoms of many diseases and conditions, from pregnancy to serious pathologies such as brain tumors, epilepsy and myocardial infarction.
In most cases, nausea and vomiting are not harmful to the body. However, prolonged vomiting, often in combination with diarrhea, can lead to severe dehydration and, as a result, disruption of the cardiovascular system, brain, kidneys and other organs. This is especially true for young children, who themselves cannot control the manifestations of dehydration. Pregnant women may experience so-called excessive vomiting of pregnant women, which disrupts the balance of electrolytes in the blood and threatens the life of the mother and fetus.
There are medicines available that can reduce nausea. However, in any case, it is necessary to find out its cause.
The duration of nausea and vomiting, the timing of their onset, and the effect of eating on them depend on their underlying cause. For example, nausea and / or vomiting almost immediately after eating may indicate gastritis (inflammation of the gastric mucosa), within 1-8 hours after eating - poisoning.
Prolonged vomiting may cause signs of dehydration:
infrequent urination, decreased amount of urine, dark urine;
in children, the fontanel can sink in - a soft area at the junction of the child's cranial bones, which normally closes by 12-18 months of age.
There are also a number of symptoms that are signs of dangerous, life-threatening conditions and require immediate medical attention:
admixture of blood in vomit;
severe headache, confusion, impaired consciousness;
signs of dehydration;
shortness of breath;
Vomiting that lasts longer than a day (for children, if it lasts for several hours, especially in combination with diarrhea and fever).
Most often, vomiting and nausea resolve within 6-24 hours. If these symptoms recur within a week and if you suspect a possible pregnancy, you should also seek medical advice.
General information about the disease
Nausea occurs when there is a decrease or absence of gastric peristalsis with simultaneous tension of the initial part of the intestine - the duodenum, which is accompanied by the reflux of part of the contents of the duodenum into the stomach. With vomiting, there is a strong contraction of the diaphragm and muscles of the anterior abdominal wall, holding the breath and a sharp release of the contents of the stomach into the esophagus and further into the oral cavity. This may be accompanied by increased salivation, sweating, weakness, dizziness.
Specific centers in the brain are responsible for the occurrence of nausea and vomiting, which receive information from the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, vestibular apparatus, other parts of the brain, kidneys, and also react to the chemical composition of the blood, including toxins, drugs , metabolic products. These centers trigger and control the activity of the muscles involved in nausea and vomiting.
Causes of nausea and vomiting may be as follows.
Irritation of the gastric mucosa. In this case, nausea and vomiting are protective reactions of the body aimed at eliminating the damaging agent.
Intestinal infections - rotavirus, salmonellosis, botulism, dysentery, etc. - in addition to nausea and vomiting, are accompanied by pain in the abdomen, fever. The most common infection is rotavirus. It is especially common among children attending kindergartens and nurseries, and occurs with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, which usually lasts 1-2 days. After the disease, immunity is formed.
Food poisoning. In this case, vomiting occurs within a few hours after eating.
Gastric ulcer - damage to a section of the gastric mucosa due to the action of gastric juice. May be accompanied by belching, heartburn, abdominal pain.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a chronic disease in which there is a regular reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus with damage to the mucous membrane of the esophagus by acidic gastric juice.
Irritation of the stomach by other substances: alcohol, nicotine, aspirin.
Effects on the central nervous system and vestibular apparatus. In this case, nausea and vomiting are caused by irritation of certain centers of the brain.
An increase in intracranial pressure in brain injuries, tumors, infections (meningitis, encephalitis) may be accompanied by nausea and vomiting.
Stimulation of the vestibular apparatus. It includes labyrinthitis (inflammation of the inner ear), motion sickness in transport, and other diseases and conditions in which excessive irritation of the balance organ occurs.
Headache, especially in migraine. Migraine is a neurological disease characterized by severe headache, usually on one side, which may be exacerbated by bright lights or loud noises and accompanied by nausea and vomiting.
Sunstroke. A condition that occurs when the head is exposed to the sun for a long time. Often found in children. May be accompanied by lethargy, weakness, nausea, vomiting, pallor, disorientation, loss of consciousness.
Diseases of other organs - diabetes mellitus, urolithiasis, hepatitis, pancreatitis, certain malignant neoplasms, mental illness (depression, anorexia, bulimia) and other diseases.
Medicinal products used in the treatment of oncological diseases, radiation therapy.
Pregnancy (first trimester).
In children under one year old, vomiting may be a sign of pyloric stenosis, intestinal intussusception, and often accompanies viral diseases (influenza, SARS). Pyloric stenosis is a narrowing or complete obstruction of the opening between the stomach and the duodenum. Intestinal intussusception is a condition in which a segment of the intestine is embedded in the lumen of an adjacent section of the intestine, which leads to the development of intestinal obstruction.
In adults, the most common causes of vomiting and nausea are intestinal infections, food poisoning, motion sickness; in children, intestinal infections, food poisoning, overeating, as well as a severe cough and any illness with a high fever.
Who is at risk?
Undergoing anticancer therapy.
People with chronic diseases of the digestive system.
People with mental illness.
When determining the cause of nausea and vomiting, their duration, the time of their occurrence, the presence of signs of other diseases and conditions are important. Laboratory and instrumental studies are also important.
Complete blood count. An increase in white blood cells may indicate an infection as a possible cause of nausea and vomiting. An increase in the number of red blood cells indicates thickening of the blood due to dehydration.
ESR. Sedimentation rate of erythrocytes. Normally, red blood cells repel each other. With inflammation, the protein composition of the blood changes, electrolytes stick together more easily, and the rate of their sedimentation increases. Thus, an increase in ESR may indicate infection or chronic inflammation as a possible cause of nausea and vomiting.
Potassium and sodium in blood serum. They participate in the transmission of a nerve impulse, muscle contraction, maintaining the acid-base balance of the blood. A decrease in serum potassium and sodium levels may indicate blood clotting and dehydration. Sodium levels can increase with kidney disease, adrenal dysfunction.
Serum calcium. Calcium is involved in the formation of bone tissue, the conduction of a nerve impulse, and the work of some enzymes. A change in its level is a sign of diseases of the kidneys, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, and some neoplasms.
Serum glucose. Glucose is the main source of energy in the body. An increase in its concentration is characteristic of diabetes mellitus. A significant increase in its level may indicate diabetic ketoacidosis, a severe, life-threatening condition that develops with a lack of insulin. Without insulin, the body's cells cannot use glucose for energy. As a result, the body begins to use fats, the breakdown of which produces toxic substances - ketones. Thus, the level of glucose and ketones in the blood rises. Diabetic ketoacidosis can lead to coma or even death if left untreated.
Total amylase in serum. This is an enzyme that is produced in the pancreas and salivary glands. Essential for the digestion of carbohydrates. An increase in the level of amylase may indicate a pathological process in the pancreas.
Lipase. An enzyme produced in the pancreas that is involved in the digestion of fats. An elevated lipase concentration is the most specific sign of pancreatic damage.
β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) is a hormone that is produced by the membrane of the embryo and is involved in maintaining pregnancy. A blood test for beta-hCG is used to diagnose pregnancy. Home pregnancy tests are also based on determining its amount in the urine, however, determining its level in the blood is more reliable and can detect pregnancy already on the 6-8th day after fertilization.
Urinalysis with microscopy. Dark, concentrated urine can be a sign of dehydration.
Sowing feces for flora. Used for suspected intestinal infection.
Ultrasound examination (ultrasound), X-ray of the abdominal organs. They are used to assess the state of internal organs and identify the cause of nausea and vomiting.
X-ray, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the skull. It is used to diagnose injuries, diseases of the brain.
Endoscopic examination of the gastrointestinal tract. This is an examination of the digestive organs with the help of an endoscope - a special device in the form of a tube equipped with an optical system. During endoscopy, you can take a sample of tissue from the wall of the digestive tract for subsequent microscopic examination.
Lumbar puncture for suspected diseases of the central nervous system. This is taking a sample of the fluid around the spinal cord. It is carried out after anesthesia. For research, a needle is used, which is inserted between the second and third or third and fourth lumbar vertebrae. The patient at this time sits or lies on his side, the back is maximally bent.
Audiometry and electronystagmography. It is used to diagnose diseases of the vestibular apparatus. Audiometry is a test performed by an audiologist to determine hearing acuity. To do this, use a special device audiometer. Electronystagmography is a method of recording involuntary movements of the eyeballs during head movements, temperature changes, which provides information about the state of the vestibular apparatus.
Electroencephalography (EEG) is a study of the electrical activity of the brain using sensors that are placed on the head. It is carried out with suspicion of a neurological or mental pathology. This way evaluate the state of the brain, its response to stimuli.
Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the nausea and vomiting. There are also ways to help reduce these symptoms and prevent dehydration:
Drink slowly, in small sips;
eat in small portions, do not mix cold and hot food, exclude fatty, spicy, sweet, fried foods;
do not eat during an attack of nausea;
Do not brush your teeth immediately after eating;
Avoid physical activity immediately after meals.
In addition, there are antiemetic drugs, but they should only be used as prescribed by a doctor after determining the cause of unpleasant symptoms.
Eating only fresh, properly processed foods.
Proper diet, especially in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
Complete blood count
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
Total amylase in serum
Beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (beta hCG)
Urinalysis with microscopy
Daily urine potassium
Daily urine calcium
Fecal culture for pathogenic flora (disease group and typhoid-paratyphoid group)
Cytological examination of the material obtained during endoscopy (EGD, bronchoscopy, laryngoscopy, cystoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy)
Cytological examination of punctates, scrapings of other organs and tissues
When early morning sickness starts and how to deal with it during pregnancy
Early toxicosis of pregnancy is a condition that causes a lot of suffering for a woman. Some feel "trick" even before the delay, while for others it all starts from 5-6 weeks. Obstetrician-gynecologist Galina Vladimirovna Ovsyannikova talks about the causes of toxicosis and ways to alleviate it.
This condition usually takes the woman by surprise. After all, she needs to continue working, taking care of her family, she has a lot of things planned. With this, she goes to the doctor, already pretty tired and with a sad look. And we're starting to figure it out.
First of all not everyone suffers from toxicosis. Some simply eat everything and do not gain weight, or even lose weight, and this manifests their toxicosis. These women are lucky. Although they also manage to worry about this, as they have heard enough "as it should be" from their friends.
Secondly, the severity of toxicosis depends on the state of the nervous system, lifestyle and "similarity" of the baby to his mother in terms of protein composition.
And more about that.
Toxicosis: why and for what?
Nervous system. It has been noticed that toxicosis is most pronounced in anxious women, leaders, doctors, teachers, that is, people with increased nervous stress. And, by the way, note that animals do not have such toxicosis as humans do. They do not take on "the entire world responsibility" and therefore they do not feel sick or vomit. At most, females sleep a lot and retire to save energy.
Lifestyle. If a woman enters pregnancy not in a resource state, tired, exhausted, slagged from poor nutrition and lack of water, and even after some kind of illness, poisoning, herpetic manifestation, SARS, then the body will try to "put the woman to bed" in order to sleep, rest, gain strength, eat different foods to replenish supplies. Everything is logical. This is a smart move in the fight for survival.
Any person has a unique genetic code, which is laid already at the moment of fertilization. And how different it will be from the mother's code, toxicosis will be so pronounced. To make it clearer, there are people who are so similar in this code, protein composition, that their organs can be transplanted to each other and they will take root. And others, on the contrary, are not at all similar, and if, for example, a kidney is transplanted from such a person, then it will be rejected. Also here. If a child has inherited a similar genetic code, then intoxication from getting his protein into the mother's blood will be less. And vice versa. As pregnancy progresses and the placenta forms between the body of the mother and child, a placental barrier is formed. And toxicosis decreases: therefore, in most women, it disappears by the 12th week.
How to survive?
There are no common recipes for all: we are all different and each has its own reason for toxicosis. But still there are rules that help most women:
Get more rest and sleep. Sleep whenever possible and the body asks. A woman with severe toxicosis is almost always helped by sick leave for 5 days.
Avoid long breaks in eating. Eat light and high-calorie meals every 3 hours. Banana, dates, dried fruits, sweet yogurt often help. It's not scary if there is a roll or a cookie. All this is quickly digested, assimilated and gives you energy. But it is better to refrain from meat, fish, fatty and multi-component dishes (for example, Olivier salad). It is a difficult food to digest and assimilate. You will have to experiment with fiber. During pregnancy, constipation is often due to a relaxed - in company with the uterus - intestines. And in this case, rough raw fruits and vegetables will start peristalsis and regulate stools, but in some they cause gas and unpleasant colic in the stomach. So you have to try.
Nausea is very often especially pronounced in the morning, after sleep.