Chlamydia in men: Symptoms, treatment, and complications
Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted infection. Anyone can have chlamydia, but it may affect males and females differently.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), it is the most commonly reported bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the United States.
In this article, learn about the symptoms of chlamydia in males, as well as its transmission, treatments, and possible complications.
Most people with chlamydia do not experience any symptoms. If a person does have symptoms, these may not develop for several weeks after the initial infection.
The CDC note that if a male experiences chlamydia symptoms, they will typically arise from one of two complications: urethritis or epididymitis.
Share on PinterestUnusual discharge from the penis or pain while urinating are potential symptoms of chlamydia in men.
Urethritis is an infection of the urethra, the tube that runs through the penis.
The typical symptoms of urethritis in men include:
discharge from the penis
dysuria, or pain while urinating
stinging or itching in the urethra
irritation at the tip of the penis
Epididymitis is an infection of a tube at the back of the testicles that stores and carries sperm.
According to the Urology Care Foundation, a person with epididymitis will experience pain in the testicle, and it may spread to the groin.
Chlamydia can also affect the rectum. If a person experiences rectal symptoms, these may include:
Chlamydia can cause conjunctivitis, an inflammation of the eye, but this is rare.
Chlamydia can also infect the throat, but most people will not experience this or other symptoms. If they do, they may have a sore throat.
According to the CDC, chlamydia is typically transmitted through sexual contact, but it can occur whenever the bacteria enters another person’s body.
Transmission usually takes place during penetrative sex, whether vaginal or anal. However, it can also spread through oral sex or the sharing of sex toys.
Even if a person has received treatment for chlamydia, it is still possible for them to contract the infection again.
Share on PinterestA doctor may prescribe antibiotics to treat chlamydia in men.
In the vast majority of cases, antibiotics can successfully treat chlamydia. Typical antibiotics for chlamydia include azithromycin and doxycycline. Chlamydia treatment is the same for males and females.
A doctor may prescribe antibiotics as a single larger dose or as a series of smaller doses over 7 days.
To make sure that they do not transmit the infection, a person should avoid having sex for 7 days after a single dose of antibiotics, or until the completion of a 7-day course of antibiotics.
It is vital for a person with chlamydia to inform any sexual partners, as they may also need testing and treatment. Some health services offer to contact previous sexual partners anonymously.
Taking antibiotics exactly as prescribed will help prevent side effects. It may also help reduce antibiotic resistance in the general population.
Chlamydia is typically spread through sexual contact, so using barrier protection, such as latex condoms, is an effective way to prevent infection.
Ways to prevent chlamydia transmission include:
using a condom during penetrative sex
using a condom on a penis during oral sex
using a dental dam over female genitals during oral sex
either not sharing sex toys or cleaning and using barrier protection over sex toys
Share on PinterestChlamydia infections can cause reactive arthritis.
With treatment, people rarely experience complications from a chlamydia infection. However, without treatment, chlamydia in males may cause or increase the risk of:
prostatitis, the inflammation of the prostate gland
scarring of the urethra
epididymitis, an infection of a tube in the testicle
The American College of Rheumatology report that chlamydia infections can also cause reactive arthritis. The symptoms of reactive arthritis are pain in a person’s heels, toes, fingers, lower back, or joints.
Most people do not experience any symptoms of chlamydia. It is therefore essential to get tested regularly, including whenever a person starts seeing a new sexual partner.
If an individual experiences chlamydia symptoms, it is essential to see a doctor for a diagnosis. Many of the symptoms are similar to those of other infections, which may require different treatments.
Likewise, if a person’s symptoms have not gone away after a course of antibiotics, they should return to the doctor.
If an individual learns that they have chlamydia, it is crucial to inform recent sexual partners, so that they can also receive testing and treatment.
Women and Chlamydia
Written by Stephanie Watson
You might not be intimately familiar with the name, but chlamydia is actually the most commonly reported bacterial sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the U.S. Each year, about 1. 2 million infections are reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). But because chlamydia often has no symptoms, at least as many people could be living with the disease without even realizing it.
To help young women protect themselves against this highly preventable STD, WebMD asked Sami Gottlieb, MD, MSPH, medical officer in the CDC's Division of STD Prevention, to walk readers through the basics of Chlamydia. She shares why this STD is so risky for women, and offers important advice on how to avoid getting infected.
What exactly is chlamydia?
Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. It's passed from person to person through sex, and it can cause a wide variety of complications if it's not treated.
What kinds of health problems can chlamydia cause?
The main complication that can result from untreated chlamydia infections is infertility in women, and that's the thing that we're most worried about. Usually in women, chlamydia infects the cervix, which is the opening to the uterus. But if it's not treated, it can travel up into the upper genital tract—the uterus, the fallopian tubes, the ovaries. And sometimes it causes a condition called pelvic inflammatory disease, or PID. That can be a painful condition where there's lower abdominal pain, pain during sex, and inflammation of the pelvic organs. If it gets up into the upper genital tract, it can cause scarring in the fallopian tubes, and that scarring can lead to the egg not being able to be fertilized properly or not being able to travel down the fallopian tube.
Another complication that can come from the fallopian tubes being scarred or damaged from a chlamydia infection is called ectopic pregnancy, where the egg can actually get fertilized outside the uterus (for example, in the fallopian tube), and that can be life threatening. In pregnant women who have chlamydia or acquire chlamydia while they're pregnant, chlamydia can be passed to the infant during vaginal childbirth. In a newborn infant, chlamydia can cause eye infections (conjunctivitis) and it can also cause pneumonia, which is why we really encourage all pregnant women to be tested for chlamydia and treated if they're positive.
Usually men don't suffer any long-term consequences of a chlamydia infection. In a very small portion of men, the infection can travel into the upper genital tract and cause an infection of the epididymis [the tube where sperm collect]. And that can cause pain and swelling. That's pretty uncommon, and it can be treated and it doesn't result in infertility in men.
How is chlamydia transmitted from person to person?
Probably the most common mode of transmission is through vaginal sex--sexual intercourse. But it is possible to get it from anal sex and oral sex.
What factors might put a person at risk for chlamydia?
The most important thing is having sex without using a condom. The more sex partners you have, the more likely it is that you're going to come into contact with chlamydia. And what we call concurrent partnerships, where you're having sex with someone who's also having sex with other people. Having sex with more than one person at a time increases the odds that the infection can be passed between people.
What are the symptoms of chlamydia?
Most chlamydia infections in both men and women have no symptoms. When symptoms do occur, in men there can be burning with urination or a discharge from the penis, or burning or pain around the urethra--the opening to the penis. In women, symptoms can include vaginal discharge, and perhaps some slight bleeding or spotting after sex. But often these are nonspecific symptoms that may occur from a variety of infections.
Do I need to get tested for chlamydia?
We recommend that all sexually active women aged 25 and under get tested every year for chlamydia, whether or not they have symptoms. We also recommend chlamydia screening for women over 25 who are at increased risk for chlamydia -- for example, if they have a new sex partner or multiple sex partners. The main reason for this is that women are the ones who have the worst consequences of a chlamydia infection. Women benefit the most from getting tested and treated because we can prevent these long-term complications.
We don't recommend routine screening for men. In men, any long-term complications are extremely rare.
What tests are used to diagnose chlamydia?
There are several ways to test for chlamydia. Usually it's a very easy thing to do. The test can be done using a urine sample or it can be done during a routine pelvic exam where the clinician collects a swab either from the cervix or from the vagina. Patients can collect the specimen themselves with something called a vaginal swab. Usually the results take a few days to a week to come back.
A chlamydia test isn't automatically done at the time that a Pap test is done. Many physicians will do it at the same time, but it's important for women to ask their doctor – sexually active women aged 25 and under should make sure that they're getting a chlamydia test every year and not just assume it's being done when they have their annual pelvic exam or Pap test.
How is chlamydia treated?
If someone has a chlamydia infection, it's really important that not only they get treated, but that they make sure their partners get treated too. The treatment for chlamydia is very safe and effective and easy. A single dose of azithromycin or a one-week course of doxycycline can be used.
It is possible to get chlamydia again. In fact, the re-infection rates are really high. So we also recommend that…any time someone has a chlamydia infection, they should come back three months later and get another test to make sure they don't have a repeat infection.
What are the best ways to avoid getting chlamydia?
The best way to prevent getting chlamydia is either to not have sex, or for people who are having sex, to use a condom every time and to use it correctly every time. Also to minimize the number of partners that they have sex with and to minimize the number of partners who have other partners at the same time.
symptoms and treatment ⮞ Signs and diagnosis of chronic chlamydia
It is difficult for a simple layman, which in most cases is an average patient, to understand what chlamydia is and why it is so dangerous if nothing bothers a person infected with chlamydia. The patient faces the problem face to face, as a rule, when everything is much more serious than just an infection. But even then, few people delve into medical issues, frightened by their complexity, relying on the doctor and again and again being disappointed in the treatment. We will try to explain why chlamydia therapy is such a difficult and sometimes tedious task, why sometimes a doctor fails, and how to achieve recovery in the end.
The information in this article should not be used for self-diagnosis or self-treatment. For the correct diagnosis and treatment, you should always consult a doctor.
Prices for services
What is chlamydia?
What are the manifestations of chlamydia?
Ways of infection with chlamydia
What if chlamydia is not treated?
Prices for services
Primary appointment with a urologist FOR MEN + ultrasound of the prostate gland (evaluation of complaints, history taking, if necessary, rectal digital examination, ultrasound of the prostate gland in men)
Initial appointment - an appointment with a doctor of a specific specialty for the first time. Includes a conversation with the patient, initial examination, history taking, if necessary, rectal digital examination, ultrasound of the prostate gland. The price is valid from 01.02.2022
Make an appointment
Initial appointment Department of Urology Rylchikov I.V. + Ultrasound (includes a conversation with the patient, initial examination, history taking, if necessary, rectal digital examination, ultrasound of the prostate gland)
Primary appointment - an appointment with a doctor of a particular specialty for the first time.
Make an appointment
Repeated appointment with a urologist
Make an appointment
What is chlamydia?
Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI). The disease is caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, a microorganism that occupies an intermediate position between viruses and bacteria and parasitizes in the epithelial cells of the patient, destroying them. Symptoms of chlamydia are usually mild or absent. That is why many cases of the disease go unnoticed. However, serious complications develop.
What are the symptoms of chlamydia?
Chlamydia is very secretive. 50% of infected men have no manifestations of the disease. If manifestations of the disease develop, then this occurs approximately 1-3 weeks after infection.
Men in the acute period of chlamydia may experience clear or cloudy discharge from the penis, pain or discomfort when urinating, burning and itching in the area of the urethral outlet, rarely pain and / or swelling of the testicles. Obvious manifestations of chlamydia, if they occur, disappear along with the acute period and pass into a hidden internal process.
Chlamydia infection routes:
vaginal, anal, oral contact with an infected partner;
using sex toys with an infected partner;
infection of a newborn during childbirth from a sick mother.
Any sexually active person can get chlamydia. The greater the number of sexual partners, the greater the risk of infection. The risk of infection is especially high in girls, because their cervix is not fully formed.
What are the complications of chlamydia?
Symptoms of chlamydia in men usually correspond to urethritis:
slight redness and slight swelling of the urethra;
inflammation of the urethra (urethritis);
inflammation of the prostate gland (prostatitis);
inflammation of the epididymis (epididymitis);
frequent urination, itching in the urethra, sometimes pain in the perineum.
Complications in men:
urethritis with its intolerable urge to urinate, itching, pain in the urethra and purulent discharge;
dangerous for a man at any age prostatitis;
inflammation of the testicles (vesiculitis), in which a man experiences a feeling of fullness in the perineum, pain radiating to the sacral and inguinal regions and the testicle;
epididymitis - inflammation of the vas deferens and cord, when the testicle increases in size, and the skin of the scrotum turns red and swells.
How to diagnose chlamydia?
It is very important in the treatment of chlamydia to take into account the presence of other sexually transmitted diseases. One of the features of chlamydia is its frequent combination with other sexually transmitted infections. In most cases, there is a combination of chlamydia and mycoplasmosis, chlamydia and trichomoniasis, chlamydia and gardnerellosis. Quite often, three, four or more sexually transmitted microorganisms are combined. The presence of such microbial unions enhances the negative effect on the body of each of the microorganisms and allows them to better resist the body's defenses and ongoing treatment. Particular attention is paid to mixed trichomonas-chlamydial infection.
Diagnosis includes the observation of clinical symptoms in a patient, the study of chlamydia smears from the cervix, scraping from the urinary canal, the first morning portion of urine. Most often, the study is carried out by PCR (polymerase chain reaction). Additionally, a blood test is performed by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) for the presence of immunity to chlamydia, this auxiliary study often helps to establish an accurate diagnosis.
The information in this article should not be used for self-diagnosis or self-treatment. For the correct diagnosis and treatment, you should always consult a doctor.
How to cure chlamydia?
Treatment of a clamidiosis has to be COMPLEX. This means not only taking medications, but also local effects on infected organs. If the treatment of chlamydia is started immediately, in its acute form, the treatment is usually not complicated and ends, as a rule, with a complete cure. If chlamydia has passed into a chronic form, or constantly recurs, the treatment of these forms is quite complicated: chlamydia has time to develop "immunity" to standard methods of treatment, and additional time and material costs are required to develop a successful method of treating these forms of chlamydia.
Antibiotics in the treatment of chlamydia
Since chlamydia are parasites that live inside cells, their treatment requires the use of antibiotics that can penetrate and accumulate in the affected cells. In each case of chlamydia, ONLY an INDIVIDUAL treatment regimen should be drawn up, which will take into account the nature of chlamydia, the sensitivity of chlamydia to antibiotics (determined based on the seeding rate for sensitivity to antibiotics), the presence of concomitant infections, the severity and duration of chlamydia, its localization - which organs were affected by the infection.
Taking into account all these factors, the doctor calculates individual doses of antibiotics for you and the duration of the treatment cycle - you will need a course of several cycles of chlamydia development in order to talk about the effectiveness of the treatment.
It is especially worth noting that if, along with chlamydia, other sexual infections are found - mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas, cytomegalovirus, gonococci, etc. , then treatment also becomes more complicated. The doctor will have to develop a scheme, taking into account the sensitivity of each of the infections found to the prescribed drugs. In the course of treatment, drugs are also prescribed that prevent the reproduction of fungal infections in the body that has been exposed to antibiotics.
Very often, in persons with chlamydia, there are various violations of the immune defense of the body. They are also determined by laboratory tests. On the basis of an immunological examination, the attending physician can prescribe immunity-enhancing drugs, immunoactivators, etc., as part of the treatment of chlamydia. But immune drugs are not always prescribed - in each specific case individually. Therefore, it is very important to choose a good doctor for the treatment of chlamydia, in order to trust him and not to correct the scheme carefully developed by him during the treatment.
Enzymes in the treatment of chlamydia
An important role in the treatment of chlamydia has the appointment of special drugs - enzymes. How do enzymes "help"? And enzymes provide invaluable help. First, they restore membrane permeability in diseased cells to normal. Thus, higher concentrations of antibiotics enter the cell at lower doses of their use. Enzymes also help reduce the body's allergic sensitivity to medications. Thirdly, enzymes provide decongestant and analgesic effects. Enzymes enhance the action of antibiotics not only inside the cell, but also increase their concentration in the blood by an average of 20–40%, which makes it possible to transfer large doses of antibiotics to diseased organs at a lower dosage. And, finally, enzymes contribute to the restoration of peripheral circulation.
Local therapy in the treatment of chlamydia
Local therapy in the treatment of chlamydia conceived is simply required. It is also prescribed by a doctor, based on the nature of chlamydia, his knowledge and experience.
To prevent re-infection, all sexual partners must be found, examined and treated. Patients with chlamydia should refrain from unprotected sex during treatment, otherwise re-infection is possible. Unfortunately, after successful treatment, re-infection with chlamydia is possible, since immunity to this microorganism does not develop. A re-examination is carried out 4 weeks after treatment.
What if chlamydia is not treated?
The complexity of the treatment of chlamydia lies in the fact that the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis is not only unusually tenacious, but also in the fact that it is able to adapt to the antibiotic. Self-medication is especially dangerous for the patient, since a self-selected drug is not able to destroy the infection, but chlamydia develops immunity to the ingredients of the used drug and thus the infection becomes stronger than it was.
It often happens that an infected person treats chlamydia for years, but the body remains in the same place. Sometimes control tests show a negative result, despite the fact that chlamydia live in the cells of the patient (the consequences of chlamydia are witness to this - indestructible cystitis, thrush, prostatitis, etc. ). In this case, the patient is shown a provocation - an injection of a drug that will make chlamydia detect itself.
Another important point: chlamydia rarely exists in the body in the singular, as a rule, it is included in a set of other infections (trichomoniasis, mycoplasmosis, ureaplasmosis, candidiasis, papillomavirus and herpes virus). All these infections are a factor that complicates therapy, but does not make it impossible.
Prevention of chlamydia
The best way to prevent sexually transmitted infections is through long-term sexual contact with one healthy sexual partner. Contraception with condoms dramatically reduces the risk of transmission. Annual testing for chlamydia is required for all sexually active men who are, by definition, at risk. If a patient has chlamydia (or any other sexual infections), he must inform his sexual partners about this.
Other articles by the author
Curvature of the penis
Premature ejaculation or accelerated ejaculation
Infertility in men
Genital warts in men
Gardnerellosis in men
Genital herpes in men
Symptoms of prostatitis in men
Chlamydia in men
Ureaplasma in men
cystitis in women
Sexual infections in men
Rylchikov Ivan Vladimirovich
KMN, urologist-andrologist, ultrasound specialist, head. department of urology Clinic doctor Altermed Rylchikov Ivan Vladimirovich
Konovalov Dmitry Vladimirovich
Urologist-andrologist, ultrasound specialist Doctor of the clinic Altermed Konovalov Dmitry Vladimirovich
Lebedev Alexander Andreevich
Urologist-andrologist, ultrasound specialist Altermed clinic doctor Alexander Andreevich Lebedev
Kanareikin Nikolai Igorevich
Urologist-andrologist, ultrasound specialist Doctor of Altermed Clinic Kanareykin Nikolai Igorevich
Pogunov Anton Sergeevich
Urologist-andrologist, ultrasound specialist Altermed clinic doctor Pogunov Anton Sergeevich
Rabinyuk Sergey Anatolyevich
Urologist-andrologist, ultrasound specialist Doctor of Altermed clinic Rabinyuk Sergey Anatolyevich
Chlamydia treatment in Moscow - prices
Treatment of chlamydia is a complex of medical manipulations, the action of which is aimed at eliminating inflammation of the organs of the genitourinary system, provoked by pathogenic microorganisms chlamydia. This microorganism acts as an intermediate stage between viruses and bacteria, only people are susceptible to its negative effects. Treatment of urogenital chlamydia is within the competence of a urologist.
Urogenital chlamydial infection (UCI) is a common sexually transmitted disease (STI). Annually, the number of newly registered cases in the world is about 2 million.
The prevalence of chlamydial infection in the population varies depending on age, with the highest incidence observed in patients younger than 25 years.
Types of chlamydia and features of its course
Chlamydia has 15 subspecies that can cause several infectious and inflammatory diseases - urogenital chlamydia, venereal lymphogranulomatosis, eye disease (trachoma), rectal damage. Some forms can provoke pneumonia, acute respiratory pathologies. Two types of these microorganisms can be transmitted from animals and birds to humans, causing a deadly disease - psittacosis.
Urogenital chlamydia, which affects the human genitourinary system, is one of the most common and frequently encountered species in clinical practice. This disease belongs to the group of sexually transmitted diseases. The main source of infection with chlamydia of the genitourinary system is a sick person with whom another had unprotected sexual contact. It does not matter what type of contact was present (genital, oral, anal), if it was carried out without a condom, the probability of infection is equal to 100%. Cases of household infection with chlamydia through bed linen are diagnosed, but this happens quite rarely.
Chlamydia has two types of course - acute and chronic. The most common is the chronic form, and in women in the vast majority of cases. In this factor lies the main danger of chlamydia, the chronic form in men and women for a long period of time is hidden and almost asymptomatic. That is, an infected person considers himself healthy, does not begin treatment, and the pathology at this time gradually progresses, covering all new tissues and internal organs.
It is impossible to detect the disease with the help of conventional tests for infections, since chlamydia are intracellular microorganisms. To detect them, an analysis of the scraping of the mucous membranes of the urethra is necessary, a smear study is not enough.
The emergence of research techniques using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) made it possible to detect the presence of any pathogenic microorganisms in the patient's biomaterials with very high accuracy. It is possible to detect chlamydia using PCR even at the earliest stages of the disease, the high sensitivity of this study makes it possible to determine the presence of chlamydia even when their number is extremely small.
Features of the treatment of chlamydia
Even after a course of treatment, a relapse can occur. There is no single treatment program for chlamydia that is common to all patients. All therapeutic measures and drug therapy are selected exclusively according to the individual data of each individual patient. Antibacterial therapy is a prerequisite for the development of a treatment regimen.
It is necessary to treat chlamydia in a complex way, taking into account the results obtained during the examination of the patient. In the scheme of treatment of chlamydia, it is necessary to take into account a wide range of factors due to the degree of development of the disease, the individual characteristics of the patient. When developing complex therapeutic measures, general analyzes, indications of an immunological study (immunograms), results of tests for infections (PCR, ELISA), liver tests and other laboratory data are taken into account.
For the treatment of chlamydia in the acute stage, conventional anti-inflammatory and antibacterial therapy is not enough, since this pathology is known for relapses. That is, after the course of treatment, all factors of chlamydia disappear, experts state the fact of recovery, but in the event of a violation of immunity due to the usual acute respiratory infections or acute respiratory viral infections, the disease is activated again.
Recent clinical studies have shown that in the treatment of chlamydia (as well as most diseases caused by sexual infections), it is necessary to develop a comprehensive treatment regimen in which antibiotic therapy should be combined with drugs that stimulate the restoration of immunity. The immune response in the fight against sexually transmitted diseases plays a very important role along with anti-inflammatory measures.
The most common manifestation of chlamydial infection in women is cervicitis, which is asymptomatic in 50% of cases.
Patients with UHCI may experience vaginal discharge, often bloody, and mild pain in the lower abdomen. Physical examination reveals mucopurulent discharge from the edematous cervical canal, friability of the mucous membrane of the cervix.
Chlamydia in an advanced stage has a pathological effect on the liver. The degree of damage and functional disorders of the liver are checked using a special study, on the basis of which the doctor prescribes drugs to restore and maintain work. The choice of such drugs (hepatoprotectors) depends on individual indications.
In addition to drug therapy in the treatment of chlamydia, it is necessary to take into account the importance of such factors as a complete balanced diet, reduced physical activity, complete rejection of alcoholic beverages and sexual intercourse.
Medical treatment of chlamydia
When compiling a comprehensive program for the treatment of chlamydia, several groups of drugs are used:
Systemic enzyme therapy agents;
When prescribing antibiotic therapy, it is important to consider the following factors:
Chlamydia, as intracellular microorganisms, are sensitive only to those groups of antibiotics that are able to penetrate into the affected cells.
Chlamydia, especially in the advanced stage, provokes inflammatory processes in the tissues of the genitourinary system, supporting such pathogens as gonococci, ureaplasma, mycoplasma, therefore, in combination with intracellular antibiotics, it is necessary to use drugs that have an effect on other categories of microorganisms.
It is important to observe the regularity of taking antibiotics, since chlamydia is sensitive to them only in the reticular stage (that is, inside the cell), when it is present as a parasite. If you skip taking an antibiotic during the prescribed course of treatment, there is a risk of chlamydia insensitivity to antibiotics due to insufficient concentration of the drug. At the infectious stage, when neighboring tissues are infected and outside the cell, it is necessary to additionally use ultraviolet irradiation (UVR) in antibiotic therapy.
The course of taking antibiotics is prescribed individually, but always the beginning of treatment contains a loading dose with a gradual decrease in the number of drugs.
The duration of antibiotic treatment depends on the form and stage of the disease. The chronic and advanced form of the disease involves long-term antibiotic therapy for a period of 14 to 28 days.
With chlamydia, the pathological changes in the patient's immune system are suppressed, which ultimately leads to the chronic form of the disease. It is for this reason that the treatment of chlamydia should consist of a combination of anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating therapy. To increase the immune response and body resistance, various drugs are used, some of which also have hepatoprotective functions.
Systemic enzyme therapy is used to normalize the permeability of cell membranes affected by the inflammatory process. This technique improves the penetration of antibiotics into the cells, which allows to reduce the dose of the latter. With the help of enzyme therapy, it is possible to enhance the effect of antibiotics, increase their concentration in blood serum up to 40%. In addition, enzyme preparations stop the development of allergic and autoimmune reactions, improve and accelerate the elimination of toxic substances, have a decongestant and analgesic effect, and contribute to a faster recovery of the body after an illness.
The use of hepatoprotectors is due to two factors - damage to the liver due to the disease and its protection from the negative effects of prolonged use of antibiotics. The latter tend to accumulate in the liver tissues, creating an increased load on the organ and reducing functionality. Some antibacterial agents are toxic to the liver, which can lead to liver damage.
The treatment regimen for chlamydia of any type and form always consists of three stages - the initial preparatory stage, the main basic therapy, and the course of recovery. The types of drugs and their duration of use depend on individual data, they are prescribed by a doctor only after a complete examination of the patient. Treatment is carried out under the supervision of a doctor and can be adjusted taking into account the clinical picture and the results of intermediate studies, which make it possible to judge the effectiveness of the chosen scheme.
Complementary products for the treatment of chlamydia
With prolonged use of antibiotics, there is a risk of disruption of the intestinal microflora and the development of dysbacteriosis. To eliminate the development of this pathological condition, probiotics are used in complex therapy, the function of which is to support healthy microflora. According to individual indications, vitamins and antioxidants can be used in the treatment process.
Physiotherapeutic methods used in the treatment of chlamydia include:
Ultrasonic and quantum exposure;
AC field currents;
Treatment of chlamydia in our clinic
Treatment of chlamydia infection should only be carried out under medical supervision. With improper use of antibiotics, chlamydial infection becomes chronic, which is much more difficult to treat than acute. Both partners must be treated. During treatment, sexual intercourse should be stopped.
The specialists of our clinic have extensive experience, knowledge and professional skills in the treatment of urological diseases of various etiologies. The Department of Urology is provided with modern equipment for high-precision examinations, diagnostic procedures and therapeutic manipulations.
In our clinic, you can get a program for the treatment of chlamydia, taking into account the individual characteristics of the body. All procedures and manipulations are performed under the supervision of qualified specialists. Here you can undergo a full course of treatment, restorative and rehabilitation procedures, examination after a course of therapy to ensure complete recovery.
Treatment of chlamydia in women
Treatment of chlamydia in women is a complex therapy aimed at destroying chlamydial infection in the body. It is almost impossible to cure chlamydia using one antibiotic in the treatment regimen. For this reason, a whole complex of antibiotics is used, which can have a strong toxic effect on a woman's body.
If, due to a complication of a health condition or for another reason, it was necessary to interrupt the intake of antibiotics, then their re-appointment may be ineffective, since the drugs will become insensitive to chlamydia.
That is why before starting the antibacterial treatment of chlamydia, the patient's body must be comprehensively prepared. Often the preparatory stage of chlamydia treatment involves the following measures:
Normalization of the intestinal microflora by taking medications from the eubiotic group (linex, bifidumbacterin, hilak forte).
When diagnosing liver damage, it will be necessary to conduct a course of therapy with hepatoprotectors.
If diseases of the pancreas and accompanying enzyme deficiency have been detected, it is necessary to normalize the digestive system by using enzyme preparations such as festal or panzinorm.
Detect comorbidities of the digestive system.
Perform complete blood count to rule out pyelonephritis. If a disease is detected, diuretics and antibiotics will be prescribed. To select the most optimal treatment regimen, you will additionally need a consultation with a urologist and an antibiogram of urine culture.
The duration of the preparatory phase of chlamydia treatment is very individual, as it largely depends on the presence of concomitant chronic diseases. The process of preparing for the treatment of the disease should be carried out by the attending venereologist together with a gynecologist, urologist or gastroenterologist. In most cases, the preparatory phase lasts about two weeks.
Medical treatment of chlamydia in women
Patients with chlamydia are prescribed local and systemic therapy to eliminate the disease. At the same time, drug treatment must necessarily be based on three principles: chemotherapy, immunomodulation and biocorrection. Chemotherapy must meet the following requirements:
show increased activity against the pathogen;
all drugs that are used to treat the disease must necessarily effectively penetrate into the cells in which chlamydia multiply, while creating in them a concentration of medicinal substances sufficient to suppress this process;
therapy of the disease can be successful if it blocks 4-6 cycles of development of the parasite (one cycle lasts 48-72 hours) and during it the sensitivity of chlamydia to the antibiotics used is maintained;
drugs prescribed should have low toxicity;
, it is necessary to choose a drug depending on the specific case and the duration of the disease (the disease flows into the chronic stage two months after infection) and the clinical picture of inflammation (acute, torpid, subacute, subjectively asymptomatic).
When developing a strategy and preparing a chemotherapy regimen, the doctor takes into account: the clinical form of chlamydia (acute or chronic), the complications that arose during this; the presence of chlamydia persistence before the start of therapy; previous use of antibiotics; features of immune shifts in the case of a chronic course of the disease.
All drugs that are used to treat chlamydia can be divided into two groups depending on their degree of penetration into the cell with the pathogen: low (penicillins, nitroimidazoles, cephalosporins), medium (aminoglycosides, rifampicin, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones) high (macrolides, which penetrate the cell membrane, after which they accumulate in human macrophages). In the clinical practice of venereologists for the treatment of chlamydia, various groups of these chemotherapy drugs are used. At the same time, depending on the complexity and specificity of the disease, doctors resort to monotherapy or combined etiotropic treatment.
Currently, several main methods of chemotherapy are used: a continuous course of therapy, which stops seven cycles of parasite development, as well as pulse therapy, which provides for three courses of drug treatment each week. The second method is mainly used to treat the chronic form of the disease. The effectiveness of the treatment of the disease will depend on the correct selection of antibiotics.
Since chlamydia is considered an intracellular parasite, it is advisable to prescribe only those drugs that can penetrate into the cell for the treatment of the disease. These drugs include tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones, macrolides. Tetracyclines are considered the most effective of them, which give a result of 84.2% in the acute course of the disease, and 73.9% in the chronic course.%. If a patient is found to be intolerant to tetracyclines, he is prescribed macrolides.
Fluoroquinolones can also have an inhibitory effect on bacteria, which also prevent DNA synthesis in the cells of the microorganism. Depending on the complexity of the disease, their effectiveness is 72.7–96%. It should be noted that monotherapy with only one chemotherapy drug in 25-50% of cases of chlamydia does not provide a complete cure. Often this is due to antibiotic resistance, reinfection, relapse of the disease, lack of examination and timely treatment of the sexual partner.
Immunomodulation for chlamydia
The effectiveness of the treatment of chlamydia and the prevention of its recurrence largely depends on timely immune therapy aimed at activating the protective functions of the patient's body. It can be carried out both before the start of chemotherapy, so in parallel with it. The tactics of immunomodulation is based on changes in the immunogram and immunological changes typical for chlamydia: a decrease in the activity of interferon, macrophages, natural killers, T4-lymphocytes, as well as an increase in the level and activation of B-lymphocytes. Interferonogens and interferons have proven their effectiveness in the treatment of chlamydia. Of the relatively new drugs, cycloferon and neovir are used, which normalize the function of natural killers and stimulate mononuclear phagocytes.
Treatment of pregnant women with chlamydia
Infection of the mother with chlamydia can adversely affect the course of pregnancy and the health of the fetus. The danger of this disease is that it often occurs without pronounced symptoms, so it is not possible to diagnose it in a timely manner. The prevalence of infection among pregnant women is 2-40%. It is proved that pregnancy is not able to influence the course of the disease. The most common complications of pregnancy in the case of chlamydia are non-developing pregnancy, premature birth, spontaneous abortion, premature birth, fever, polyhydramnios.
Infection of the fetus occurs both in utero and during childbirth through contact with the infected secretion of the mother's genital tract. The most characteristic complications in the fetus are hypertrophy, and in a newborn baby - chlamydial conjunctivitis, chlamydial pneumonia, nasopharyngitis, vulvovaginitis, urethritis.
When drawing up the tactics of treating pregnant women, it should be taken into account that changes in the activity of the immune system and the parallel development of sensitization, dysbacteriosis, and bacterial intoxication are considered important pathogenetic features of the disease. Therefore, the treatment of the disease in pregnant women must necessarily include the appointment of antibiotics, antifungal drugs, eubiotics.
Treatment of pregnant women with chlamydial infection is carried out at any stage of pregnancy with antibacterial drugs, taking into account their effect on the fetus, with the participation of obstetrician-gynecologists.
Usually, antibiotics such as erythromycin, rovamycin, vilprafen, sumamed are prescribed for the treatment of pregnant women. At the end of antimicrobial therapy, a course of rehabilitation therapy is prescribed: the immunomodulator myelopid, an immunoglobulin preparation, interferon. Pregnant women are also shown the appointment of eubiotics: bifidumbacterin and acilact.
Cure criteria for chlamydia in women
All patients after the end of the course of treatment must undergo clinical and laboratory control. Since chlamydia is often not accompanied by severe symptoms, and the bacteriological cure does not always correspond to the clinical one, there is only one way to make sure that the therapy is effective - to conduct a control study. The most commonly used control method is considered to be a culture study, the main purpose of which is the isolation of the pathogen.
The first control is carried out immediately after the end of the course of therapy. If during the study single elementary bodies were found, the course of therapy should be continued for another ten days. Re-detection of chlamydia in the biological material a couple of months after treatment, with the exclusion of reinfection, requires the appointment of a new course of chemotherapy using drugs from other groups. In this case, it is desirable to carry out the study in one laboratory.
Another effective method of monitoring treatment is direct immunofluorescence, which can be used no earlier than one month after the end of treatment. However, positive results of the analysis at such a time require careful interpretation, since reinfection is possible. Serological methods are not usually used to confirm the effectiveness of disease therapy.
Prevention of chlamydia in women
Prevention methods for chlamydia in women are exactly the same as for other sexually transmitted diseases. Since chlamydia usually occurs without symptoms in women, timely examination by a gynecologist is considered the only effective method for diagnosing it. Pregnant women are subject to examination for the presence of chlamydia during registration, when they are sent for childbirth, as well as couples who have consulted a doctor about planning a pregnancy. The main method of preventing chlamydia is the use of barrier methods of contraception, especially condoms.
Treatment of chlamydia in men
In men, the subjectively asymptomatic course of urogenital chlamydia is observed in 40-50%. The most common clinical form in men is urethritis, which in most cases is torpid in nature, manifested by scanty discharge in the form of the so-called morning drop, slight swelling and hyperemia of the urethral lips, and slight itching. Paraurethral glands may be affected. The spread of the infectious process to the overlying sections of the urogenital tract leads to the development of epididymitis, orchiepididymitis, funiculitis, prostatitis. Violation of fertility in men with urogenital chlamydia is associated with impaired patency of the vas deferens, autoimmune mechanisms.
Treatment of chlamydia in men is a complex of medical and therapeutic measures aimed at ridding the body of various infectious diseases caused by chlamydia infection and their consequences. Treatment is prescribed and carried out by a specialist urologist (andrologist) after the diagnosis of the disease, which in many cases is significantly difficult.
The causative agents of chlamydia are special microorganisms that do not belong either to the category of bacteria or to the category of viruses. These are parasitic agents that are characterized by the ability to reproduce intracellularly, which significantly complicates their diagnosis in the body of men. In addition, chlamydia is quite resistant to external factors, and therefore can remain viable and able to infect for more than a day, being in the external environment, they can develop immunity to the effects of certain antibiotics and other drugs that are effective against many infectious diseases.
Chlamydia infections are the most common among sexually transmitted diseases. According to statistics, they suffer from 5% to 10% of the population aged 15-40 years, depending on the region. In recent years, the percentage of cases among adolescents aged 14-18 has been growing significantly.
Chlamydia can be contracted in two main ways:
Contact. Most often, the disease is transmitted through direct sexual contact (anal or vaginal), but there are also cases of household and family infection through common personal hygiene items, clothing, bedding, etc. With unprotected sexual intercourse with a carrier of infection, the risk of infection is about 50%;
Vertical. Infection of the fetus in the womb or at the time of birth when the child passes through the birth canal of an infected woman. It usually manifests itself in the form of atypical chlamydial conjunctivitis with complications in the form of inflammation of the lungs and sometimes other internal organs.
When to treat chlamydia in men
Treatment of male chlamydia should be started as soon as it is diagnosed. This can be done using a laboratory method - PCR diagnostics (polymerase chain reaction). The accuracy of diagnosis is about 90-95% depending on the individual characteristics of the patient's body and the nature of the course of the disease. Positive results in the presence of chlamydia in the body can also give enzyme immunoassay, but the accuracy of such a diagnosis does not exceed 70%, and in the vast majority of cases it is only 50%.
Taking a general smear often does not provide information about the presence of the pathogen, even in the presence of symptoms of the disease, which often leads to a false diagnosis. But an increased number of leukocytes in a smear gives quite serious grounds to suspect the presence of chlamydia.
A man should contact a specialist for examination and laboratory tests if the following signs are found:
Urination disorder - inability to urinate, completely empty the bladder or frequent urge to urinate;
Discomfort or pain (stinging and burning) when urinating;
The presence of impurities and purulent sediment in the urine, its turbidity, discoloration;
Unnatural discharge from the urethra (clear or rarely whitish-yellowish), with an unpleasant specific smell of "rotten fish";
Itching and burning sensation at the base of the head of the penis;
Swelling and swelling of the testicles, possibly accompanied by discomfort, pain, discomfort.
Treatments for chlamydia in men
In the treatment of chlamydia in men, medical and therapeutic methods are usually used. The scheme and the total duration of the course is assigned by a specialist individually for each patient. There are three main directions of therapeutic effects on the body of men with chlamydia:
Antibacterial action. For the treatment of the disease in the acute or chronic stage, a variety of antibiotics are used, both general and topical. The former are usually taken as tablets or injections, the latter as solutions, sprays, and ointments. In some cases, a more effective way to deliver an antibacterial agent to the affected areas is the instillation of the urethra. It can be carried out by a specialist (attending physician) or independently - if the patient has certain skills and simple medical devices. General and local application are usually combined, as well as drugs introduced into the patient's body. To increase the effectiveness of the treatment of male chlamydia, antibacterial drugs of different groups are often prescribed, which neutralizes the ability of chlamydia to develop immunity to antibiotics;
Improving the patient's immunity. Although the human body is not capable of producing antibodies to chlamydia, the patient's recovery can be significantly accelerated by the use of immunomodulators. These funds are especially good for early detection of the disease, as well as preventive therapy. Improving the patient's immunity helps prevent the transition of chlamydia to the chronic stage. And if this has already happened, it makes it possible to avoid dangerous complications and relapses;
Physiotherapy and rehabilitation therapy. The use of probiotics and hepatoprotectors helps to restore the natural functions of the body, which may be impaired as a result of exposure to chlamydia. Taking drugs allows you to activate the liver, restore the intestinal microflora. As additional drugs, various infusions and decoctions that promote the functioning of internal organs can also be prescribed.
To improve the effectiveness of the treatment of chlamydia in men, specialists usually use combined treatment regimens that involve sequential or parallel (as well as cyclic) administration of drugs from all three groups. The duration of the full course of treatment, including the recovery period, can range from several weeks to several months, depending on the nature of the course of the disease and the characteristics of the patient's body. At the same time, tests are taken from him at different intervals in order to determine the effectiveness of treatment. Good results of evaluating the effectiveness of the course are obtained by reconciliation of the culture culture with the antibiogram. The patient is considered completely cured of chlamydia if, within a month after the end of the course, tests for chlamydia do not give positive results.
As mentioned above, the human body does not develop immunity to chlamydia, so the risk of re-infection in a person who has already been ill is the same as in those who have not yet had chlamydia.
Effective antibiotics for chlamydia in men
For the treatment of the disease, drugs of the following groups are usually used:
Tetracyclines. The main group of drugs used in the treatment of chlamydia in men. The most effective are minoleksin, doxycycline and azithromycin. The latter is usually assigned once. This is a fairly strong drug that remains in the human body for a long time, affecting the pathogen. On sale, it is found in the form of drugs such as Azitral, Zitrolide, Muyaied, etc. Minoleksin and doxycycline are usually prescribed to men during a course of 7 to 14 days. According to the appointment of a specialist, the reception can be carried out once or several times a day. The commercial names of these drugs are Vibramycin, Doxal, Nycomed, Medomycin, etc. Usually, in the acute course of chlamydia in men, one of the above drugs is prescribed for a course of 7 days. In parallel, carrying out treatment with immunomodulators. In case of late diagnosis and development of chronic chlamydia, the course will be longer (from 14 days) and includes taking several antibacterial drugs from different groups at once.
Along with tetracycline drugs, macrolides are widely used, which are the least toxic of all antibiotics. Although their effect on chlamydia is often less effective than in the case of tetracyclines, they are prescribed to many patients who experience allergic reactions to other groups of antibacterial drugs and liver and kidney problems.
Another group of drugs used in the treatment of chlamydia are fluoroquinolones. By chemical structure, they are close to antibiotics and have a directed effect on chlamydia. Most often used in combination with tetracyclines and macrolides. The disadvantage of treating chlamydia in men with fluoroquinolones alone is at risk of relapse at the end of the course.
What is the danger of not treating chlamydia in men
Treatment of male chlamydia should be carried out as early as possible - at the first signs and diagnosis of the disease. Otherwise, the likelihood of the transition of the disease to the chronic stage is high, which entails a variety of complications. Most often, going into the chronic stage, chlamydia in a man causes the following disorders:
Urethritis. Over time, inflammatory processes from the urethra pass into the epididymis, prostate and testes, which ultimately can cause male infertility;
Reiter's syndrome. The disease may be accompanied by inflammatory diseases of the joints, eyes, and internal organs of the patient;
Injury to the urethra. As a result of the disease, scars can form on its inner walls, preventing the normal movement of ejaculate and urine. This disorder can only be corrected by surgery.
Dermatovenereology. National leadership. Brief edition / ed. Yu. S. Butova, Yu. K. Skripkina, O. L. Ivanova - M .: GEOTAR-Media, 2013. - 896 s.
Skin and venereal diseases. Textbook for students of higher medical educational institutions. / E. S. Kozorez - M .: VLADOS-Press Publishing House, 2005. - 173 p.
Dermatovenereology. Scientific and practical edition. / ed. A. A. Kubanova, V. A. Samsonova - M .: Publishing house "GEOTAR-Media", 2006.