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How to get rid of chlamydia while pregnant
Chlamydia During Pregnancy - American Pregnancy Association
Navigating pregnancy is difficult enough, but the addition of having a sexually transmitted infection (STI) like chlamydia during pregnancy can add more stress. If you think you may have an STI during your pregnancy, it is crucial that you talk to your healthcare provider and get tested right away. If you think you may have (or have already been diagnosed with chlamydia during your pregnancy), you probably have a lot of questions about how the infection could affect your baby and your prenatal care. Answers to all these questions are presented below!
Chlamydia is a bacterial infection and is the most commonly reported bacterial STI. It is often symptomless, making it difficult to diagnose without running tests. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) suggests that all pregnant women be screened at their first prenatal visit, and additionally if any symptoms appear or if risk factors are present. The CDC estimates that there are 2. 86 million infections each year in the USA, with some individuals accounting for multiple cases.
What are the symptoms of chlamydia during pregnancy?
In most cases, there are no symptoms. Some women may experience vaginal discharge and/or pelvic or abdominal pain. Males usually have pain while urinating and may have a discharge from the penis. If you are pregnant and you notice your partner is experiencing these symptoms, you should both be screened for STIs like chlamydia.
Am I at risk for contracting chlamydia during my pregnancy?
Anyone who is sexually active (outside of a monogamous relationship where you both have not had previous sexual partners) is at risk for contracting chlamydia via vaginal, anal, or oral sex. You have the highest risk of contracting chlamydia during your pregnancy if you are sexually active and:
Have multiple sexual partners,
Have sex without a condom,
Have had a previous or current STI, and/or
Have a partner with an STI.
How will chlamydia affect my pregnancy?
The largest risk to the fetus is if the infection goes untreated. The CDC suggests that all pregnant women be tested at the first prenatal appointment. If you are at a higher risk for contracting STIs during your pregnancy (i.e. have a new sexual partner or multiple partners), an additional test should be done in the third trimester so that treatment can be started before delivery. If you have an active or untreated chlamydia infection during delivery, the baby has a chance of contracting the infection that will affect the baby in one of two ways: chlamydial conjunctivitis (18-44% of cases) or chlamydial pneumonia (3-16%). The CDC also states that an active chlamydia infection during pregnancy increases the risk of preterm delivery.
Can my baby get chlamydia from me?
Yes, chlamydia may be spread from mother to child during birth (perinatal transmission). The best way to prevent passing chlamydia to your baby during birth is to clear the infection before you are due. This is why first and third trimester screenings are so important, as well as reporting any new symptoms to your doctor.
How is chlamydia diagnosed?
Chlamydia may be diagnosed by your healthcare provider using a lab test to assess the secretions from the infected area which may include the cervix, urethra, anus, or throat. The lab may also use a urine sample for testing.
How is chlamydia treated during pregnancy?
Chlamydia may be treated and cured with antibiotics administered orally. This may be either a single dose or a 7-day course. The antibiotics used are typically safe during pregnancy. If you continue seeing symptoms after a few days into the antibiotic treatment, you should return to your doctor for another evaluation. The CDC suggests that pregnant women who are treated for chlamydia infection should be retested at 3 weeks and 3 months post-treatment since reinfection is somewhat common.
How can I prevent getting chlamydia during pregnancy?
There are only two 100% effective ways to prevent chlamydia. The first is to refrain from sexual contact of any kind. The second is to be in a long-term monogamous relationship such as marriage in which both of you test negative for STIs. According to the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS), the consistent and correct use of condoms can decrease the risk of contracting chlamydia during vaginal, oral, or anal intercourse by only 60%.
Compiled using information from the following sources:
1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
3. Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS)
Chlamydia and pregnancy | Pregnancy Birth and Baby
Chlamydia and pregnancy | Pregnancy Birth and Baby beginning of content
Chlamydia is a bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) that affects both men and women. Chlamydia can also cause a number of issues during pregnancy.
Most people with chlamydia are unaware that they have the infection. Left untreated, chlamydia can cause serious complications including infertility and chronic pain. Chlamydia is fairly easy to treat if you know you have it — one course of antibiotics is usually enough.
Causes of chlamydia
Chlamydia is caused by an infection with the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. It is spread by unprotected (unsafe) vaginal or anal sex with an infected person.
Chlamydia is the most commonly reported STI in Australia.
What are the symptoms of chlamydia?
Most men and women with chlamydia have no signs or symptoms, which makes it very easy to spread. Some people have the infection for many months or years without knowing it.
Women who get symptoms may have:
bleeding between periods or after sex
burning or pain when urinating
abdominal or pelvic pain
pain during sex
Men who get symptoms may have some clear discharge from the penis or pain during urination.
In rare cases, people with chlamydia have sore joints (arthritis) or inflammation of the eye (uveitis).
Chlamydia is easily diagnosed. Your doctor may take a sample from the vagina, cervix, anus or penis, and may ask for a urine test. These are sent to a laboratory for testing.
If you think you or your partner have chlamydia, see your doctor or sexual health clinic so you can both be tested. It is important that any sexual partners of people with chlamydia are tested, even if they don’t have symptoms.
Treatment for chlamydia is a course of antibiotics. It is important to avoid sex until the full course of treatment is finished, and for at least a week following. You should have another test 3 months after you are treated.
If you have chlamydia, all of your sexual partners should be informed, tested and treated, as they may be infected and can infect you, and others, again after treatment.
If your partner has had a positive test for chlamydia, you should be treated even if you have had a negative test result. As chlamydia infection increases the possibility of contracting other infections, it is important to be tested for other STIs such as gonorrhoea, hepatitis, HIV and syphilis. Using latex condoms and a water-based lubricant is the most effective way to prevent STIs. People who have chlamydia for long periods without treatment risk becoming infertile or developing arthritis. Women can get pelvic inflammatory disease, and men can get epididymitis (a painful infection near the testicle).
If chlamydia isn't treated properly, it can cause serious complications. People who have chlamydia for long periods without treatment risk becoming infertile or developing arthritis.
For women, chlamydia can spread into the uterus and fallopian tubes, causing pelvic inflammatory disease. Pelvic inflammatory disease can lead to ectopic pregnancies, chronic pelvic pain and infertility.
In men, chlamydia can cause epididymitis (a painful infection near the testicle) or spread to the prostate gland, and the tubes that carry sperm, which may result in chronic pain and/or fertility problems.
Both men and women can develop arthritis, eye inflammation and inflammation of the rectum.
Chlamydia and pregnancy
Because of this, doctors recommend that pregnant women under the age of 30 should be screened for chlamydia.
Pregnant women who are infected with chlamydia have an increased risk of their waters breaking prematurely, causing the baby to be born early.
If a woman has chlamydia when giving birth, the baby might become infected during delivery. These babies can develop an eye infection (conjunctivitis) or pneumonia, and might need antibiotics. Chlamydia has also been associated with low birthweight.
The antibiotics used to treat chlamydia are safe in pregnancy and are used in pregnant women for many other types of infections.
Australian Sexual Health Alliance (STI Management Guidelines for use in primary care; Chlamydia), King Edward Memorial Hospital Women and Newborn Health Service (Chlamydia clinical practice guideline), Lab Tests Online AU (Chlamydia), Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (National Management Guidelines for Sexually Transmissible Infections - Chlamydia), NSW Health (Chlamydia fact sheet)
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Last reviewed: November 2020
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Chlamydia - MyDr.com.au
Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection (STI). It affects both men and women, and it's spread by having sex with a person who has the infection.
Read more on myDr website
Chlamydia - Better Health Channel
Chlamydia is often called the 'silent infection' because most people do not realise they have it.
Read more on Better Health Channel website
Chlamydia fact sheet - Fact sheets
Chlamydia is a sexually transmissible infection. Many people who are infected do not have symptoms of infection but can still spread the disease. Chlamydia can lead to infertility, and other complications if not treated.
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Chlamydia | Family Planning NSW
Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by a bacteria. It affects both men and women. Most people with chlamydia do not have symptoms. This means you can pass the infection to a partner without knowing it. Having a regular sexual health check-up can help you find out if you have chlamydia.
Read more on Family Planning NSW website
Chlamydia treatment for your partner - Play Safe
Did you know it’s possible for your partner to get treated for Chlamydia without ever having to see a GP or go to a sexual health clinic? This is known as Patient Delivered Partner Therapy (PDPT)
Read more on NSW Health website
The facts about Chlamydia, what it is, how to prevent it, and how to treat it
Chlamydia is on the rise in Australia and it’s the most important thing for young people to test for. It often doesn’t have any symptoms which means that it’s easy to miss without regular STI testing.
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Trachoma - Eye Infection
Trachoma is a preventable eye condition caused by repeated infections with eye strains of the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis that lead to a roughening of the inner surface of the eyelid.
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Gonorrhoea | Family Planning NSW
Gonorrhoea is a bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI). It is spread through vaginal, anal or oral sex, or by the fingers and hands from the genitals to the eyes. It is less common in the general community than other STIs such as chlamydia.
Read more on Family Planning NSW website
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) | Healthy Male
A sexually transmitted infection (STI) is an infection you get or give during sexual activity. STIs can be caused by viruses (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus, herpes), bacteria (e.g., gonorrhea, syphilis), or parasites (e.g., pubic lice).
Read more on Healthy Male - Andrology Australia website
STIs and pregnancy
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), if left untreated, can cause serious problems for both mother and child.
Read more on Pregnancy, Birth & Baby website
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how to cure chlamydia at home forever
Chlamydia is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. Anyone who has unprotected sex with unfamiliar partners is at risk. According to statistics, every year an average of 100,000,000 (!) cases of infection are recorded worldwide.
What is chlamydia
Chlamydia is a bacterial disease that is transmitted primarily through sexual contact. In this case, the organs of the genitourinary system are affected. Chlamydia most commonly affects the urethra and cervix. With the development of an ascending infection, the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, testicles and uterine appendages can be affected. Despite the fact that the disease is manifested mainly by multifocal lesions of the genitourinary system, other organs can also suffer when infected with chlamydia:
Cases of joint involvement have also been reported and are often confused with common arthritis. How a chlamydial infection will proceed depends largely on the specific pathogen and how it enters the body. Read more about the different types of chlamydia in our main article on this disease.
The disease is caused by bacteria of the genera Chlamydia and Chlamydophila . They parasitize and multiply in the cells of their host, which can be not only humans, but also animals and birds.
The main human enemy among chlamydia is the causative agent of genitourinary chlamydia Chlamydia trachomatis . Her "favorite" places of implementation can be called the epithelial tissue of the fallopian tubes, urethra and rectum. Penetrating into the epithelial cell of the host, chlamydia begin to feed on its energy resources. Then they enter the intercellular space in order to infect new cells - this process develops quite rapidly, determining the duration of the incubation period and the clinical picture of the disease. Chlamydia destroy a healthy epithelial cell within 2-3 days, after which a new reproduction cycle begins, which usually does not exceed 48 hours.
Ways of infection
Due to their two-phase life cycle, chlamydia adapt well to adverse environmental conditions, so you can acquire these "little rascals" even when using someone else's soap.
According to statistics, every year an average of 100,000,000 (!) cases of infection are registered worldwide.
Chlamydia is most likely to be contracted through sex with an infected partner. Most often, the urethra and pelvic organs are affected, the cause of the disease is bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis .
From mother to child
A child can get chlamydia from the mother while in the womb, at birth or breast milk. In this case, the respiratory system, conjunctiva, joints, genitals can be affected.
Contact-household transmission is less common. Usually, people who have frequent contact with birds are susceptible to infection, since many birds, such as ducks and chickens, are also susceptible to chlamydia (its other name is ornithosis). Ornithosis is caused by bacteria Chlamydophila psittaci . Usually infection occurs in poultry farms, where a person constantly inhales dust, which contains microscopic particles of bird droppings. Children in families where they keep feathered pets also often get psittacosis. In addition to the respiratory system, the disease in this case often affects the eyes.
This includes all methods of transmission when the cause of infection is direct or indirect contact with the body fluids of a sick person. This is primarily a contact-household transmission route, when common personal hygiene items become the source of infection. The term "chlamydial family" appeared because children often become carriers of the infection, having become infected at home from their parents.
Airborne transmission of chlamydia is characteristic of bacteria Chlamydophila pneumoniae , which is one of the causes of bacterial pneumonia.
Why chlamydia is dangerous
Chlamydia causes inflammation in the pelvic organs, which can result in various complications. For women, the main danger of chlamydia is the possibility of developing persistent infertility, as well as an increased risk of ectopic pregnancy, which is life-threatening. Men can develop testicular inflammation and chronic prostatitis.
Symptoms of chlamydia
The incubation period of the disease is on average 1-2 weeks, but sometimes it can take up to a month. After that, the disease progresses, often without causing any clinical manifestations.
Asymptomatic course is an extremely unpleasant feature of chlamydia. According to various sources, this is from 46 to 80% of all infections. It would seem that this is bad? If there are no symptoms, why treat? But not everything is so simple. Firstly, in such situations, the risk of infection of the patient's immediate environment increases - after all, he does not yet know about his illness. Secondly, chlamydia does not go away on its own, and its late diagnosis is always fraught with an additional risk of severe complications.
Important! Since chlamydia is often asymptomatic, it is advisable for women at the planning stage of pregnancy to be screened for the presence of sexually transmitted diseases. Even if there are no signs of chlamydia, it is better to play it safe in order to prevent infection of the fetus, because the disease is not only transmitted sexually.
It should also be taken into account that the symptoms of chlamydia can often be non-specific, that is, they resemble the symptoms of other diseases. Therefore, if after accidental sexual contact a sore throat appears or the mucous membrane of the eye becomes inflamed for no apparent reason, you should immediately consult a doctor (his specialization will depend on the nature of the symptoms). This must be done even if a condom was used during sex - it significantly reduces the risk of infection, but does not provide a 100% guarantee of safety.
Typically, the clinical manifestations of chlamydia in men resemble chronic inflammation of the urethra - urethritis. The following symptoms are noted:
scanty translucent discharge from the urethra,
moderate soreness, aggravated by urination (pain may radiate to the rectum),
cloudy urine, may contain slight impurities of pus or blood,
intoxication is manifested by general weakness and an increase in temperature on average up to 37. 5 about C,
in rare cases, there may be swelling of the scrotum and pain in the testicles, radiating to the lower back,
after unprotected anal intercourse, symptoms resembling proctitis are observed - pain and itching in the rectum, as well as purulent and / or bloody discharge.
On examination, the mucous membrane of the external opening of the patient's urethra is reddened and swollen.
If these symptoms quickly disappeared without treatment, this does not mean at all that the body has coped with the infection on its own and the problem can be forgotten. Most often, the sudden "self-elimination" of the clinical signs of chlamydia means that the disease has passed into a latent form.
A characteristic feature of the clinical manifestations of chlamydia in women is nagging pain in the lower abdomen, reminiscent of sensations on the eve of menstruation. Other symptoms:
itching and pain in the vagina,
thick mucus discharge from the urethra (their quantity increases with time, the color changes to yellowish green, there is a sharp unpleasant odor),
frequent and painful urination,
weakness and slight fever,
intermenstrual bleeding from the genital tract.
On visual examination, the mucous membrane of the external opening of the urethra is edematous, there is hyperemia (redness). At endoscopic examination: ulceration on the mucous membrane of the cervix, swelling and redness, mucous discharge with impurities of pus.
If infection occurs during oral or anal contact, there may be pain in the throat and rectum, respectively.
As a material for research, discharge from the urethra, the first portion of urine, prostate secretion (in men) and discharge of the cervical canal (in women) are used. There are several methods that are currently considered the most effective in the diagnosis of chlamydia.
Urogenital swab. This is a universal diagnostic method PCR (polymerase chain reaction), with the help of which chlamydia DNA is determined in the biomaterial. The indisputable advantage of the method is that the DNA of each microorganism is unique, which means that the analysis will be specific. Simply put, in this case, chlamydia cannot be confused with other bacteria.
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The method is based on the determination of IgM and IgG immunoglobulins. These are antibodies that are produced by the body's immune system in response to the activity of pathogenic microorganisms. The main disadvantage of the method is the possibility of obtaining false positive results.
Culture method (bakposev). The essence of the method: a scraping of epithelial cells from the urethra is taken from the patient (the procedure is unpleasant, but short). From the resulting biomaterial, seeding is done on a nutrient medium, which is then placed in an incubator. If, after a few days, chlamydia colonies begin to multiply on the surface of the nutrient medium, the laboratory assistant has every reason to tell the patient the unpleasant news. Due to its high reliability, the culture method is considered the gold standard for diagnosing chlamydia.
Microscopy. This method is considered obsolete, since chlamydia, among other pathogenic microorganisms, is not distinguished by its dimensions, and therefore it is possible to determine them under a microscope in about 30% of observations. The only plus of the method is that the cost of the study is low, therefore, in most government institutions, microscopy is carried out free of charge.
RIF (immunofluorescence reaction). A swab is taken from the patient from the urethra, after which antibodies are added to the obtained biomaterial that recognize the chlamydia protein. For convenience, they are marked with a fluorescent marker, so if there really is chlamydia in the biomaterial, luminous antibodies recognize them and form an antigen-antibody complex. In this case, the biomaterial sample will sparkle under the lenses of the microscope, like a Christmas tree. The disadvantage of the method is low reliability (40-50%).
Express tests. In recent years, tests have appeared on the market that help determine chlamydia even at home. The result can be obtained within 15 minutes, while the manufacturer claims high reliability and specificity of rapid tests (90-95%, respectively).
Important! The patient's sexual partner should also be tested.
The main goal in the treatment of chlamydia is eradication Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia trachomatis , that is, the complete destruction of these bacteria. Antibiotics are used for this purpose.
The specific drug and antibiotic regimen are selected by the doctor individually for each patient. Worst of all, relationships in chlamydia are formed with tetracyclines and macrolides, so they are first-line drugs. Alternatively, antibiotics of the fluoroquinolone group are used.
Additional methods and means of treatment
In addition to systemic antibiotic treatment, local therapy is also used for chlamydia. The most common methods are:
washing the urethra with disinfectant solutions for men and women (for example, furatsilin or chamomile decoction),
tetracycline vaginal swabs,
indomethacin suppositories to reduce itching and swelling.
Men are advised to massage the prostate gland at the end of the course of treatment.
Restoration of microflora after taking antibiotics
To restore the intestinal microflora during and after taking antibiotics, probiotic preparations containing live lactobacilli and bifidobacteria can be prescribed. For women, it is also possible to use vaginal suppositories and capsules.
Chlamydia should be treated in combination with a balanced diet. First of all, oddly enough, it is necessary to exclude any dairy products. The fact is that lactic acid bacteria help chlamydia develop resistance to antibiotics. Quite expected restrictions apply to alcohol, fried, fatty and smoked foods - you will have to forget about them for the duration of treatment.
Recommended products (fig. 1):
fruits and vegetables,
any cereals (best - buckwheat, oatmeal, pearl barley),
lean meat (turkey, chicken, beef),
Figure 1. Recommended foods for chlamydia patients: vegetables, grains, lean meats. Photo: Marta Cuesta/Pixabay
It is not recommended to treat chlamydia on your own. Home remedies are not proven to be effective. Treatment with folk remedies can only exacerbate the problem and lead to complications. During therapy, you can take vitamins, after consulting a doctor, drink chamomile tea or take chamomile baths.
Chlamydia is NOT treated with immunomodulatory drugs. It is inefficient and does not give a positive result. Treatment is based on antibiotic therapy.
Differences in treatment for men and women
Therapy for women and men does not have fundamental differences. Selection of drugs is more difficult for pregnant women. In pregnant women, antibiotic therapy is carried out at any time. The obstetrician-gynecologist prescribes the drugs, since it is necessary to take into account the effect of the antibiotic on the fetus. Most often, antibiotics of the macrolide group are chosen.
With early detection, the prognosis for the cure of chlamydia is favorable. As a rule, the duration of a course of antibiotics for an uncomplicated form of the disease is 1-2 weeks.
Late diagnosis is fraught with the transition of the disease into a chronic form. Complicated chlamydia of the upper genitourinary system and pelvic organs requires longer treatment - in such cases, the course of antibiotic therapy varies from 2 to 6 weeks.
What are the consequences of chlamydia if left untreated
In the absence of timely treatment, chlamydia can be fraught with a number of unpleasant complications. As we already know, the disease is very often asymptomatic, so the risk of unpleasant consequences is quite high.
One of the most common complications of chlamydia is Reiter's syndrome (Fig. 2). It is manifested by a combination of symptoms of conjunctivitis (inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eyes), arthritis (inflammation of the joints) and urethritis (inflammation of the urethra).
Figure 2. Reiter's syndrome is a complication of chlamydial infection. Photo: metmuseum.org
Sequelae in men
In men, the most common complications are:
inflammation of the testicles and their appendages (orchiepididymitis),
narrowing of the prostate ducts,
narrowing of the urethra (treated only surgically).
Consequences in women
If chlamydia is left untreated for a long time, women may experience spread of infection to the uterus, its appendages and fallopian tubes with further formation of adhesions in them. This, in turn, can lead to infertility or ectopic pregnancy. In severe cases, the inflammatory process extends to the peritoneum, causing peritonitis and inflammation of the fibrous capsule of the liver (perihepatitis). The process is accompanied by the accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity. In medicine, this complication is called the Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome.
Consequences during pregnancy
Pregnant women may experience complications such as congenital chlamydia in a child, as well as an interrupted pregnancy (miscarriage).
In the first place, reasonable care should be taken in choosing sexual partners. Using a condom significantly reduces the risk of infection, but does not provide a complete guarantee of safety. Therefore, after sexual contact with unfamiliar people, it is better to play it safe and undergo a diagnosis - this will help to avoid unpleasant complications.
People in close contact with our feathered brethren are also advised to have regular health screenings. This applies to both poultry workers and poultry owners. Symptoms such as painful urination, inflammation of the conjunctiva, and joint pain should be of particular concern. In this case, it is better not to delay the diagnosis.
Chlamydia is dangerous primarily due to its asymptomatic course, which often creates a false sense of security in an infected person. This is a treatable disease, against which antibiotic therapy is effective, but it is very important to diagnose the infection in time - otherwise, a transition to a latent form and complications is possible. That is why the timely detection of chlamydia largely determines the success of therapeutic measures.
O.L. Timchenko // Chlamydial infections occurring with lesions of the respiratory tract.
M.R. Rakhmatulina, E.V. Sokolovsky, I.O. Malova // Federal clinical guidelines for the management of patients with chlamydial infection.
Treatment of chlamydia in Moscow - prices
Treatment of chlamydia is a complex of medical manipulations, the action of which is aimed at eliminating inflammation of the organs of the genitourinary system, provoked by pathogenic microorganisms chlamydia. This microorganism acts as an intermediate stage between viruses and bacteria, only people are susceptible to its negative effects. Treatment of urogenital chlamydia is within the competence of a urologist.
Urogenital chlamydial infection (UCI) is a common sexually transmitted disease (STI). Annually, the number of newly registered cases in the world is about 2 million.
The prevalence of chlamydial infection in the population varies depending on age, with the highest incidence observed in patients younger than 25 years.
Types of chlamydia and features of its course
Chlamydia has 15 subspecies that can cause several infectious and inflammatory diseases - urogenital chlamydia, venereal lymphogranulomatosis, eye disease (trachoma), rectal damage. Some forms can provoke pneumonia, acute respiratory pathologies. Two types of these microorganisms can be transmitted from animals and birds to humans, causing a deadly disease - psittacosis.
Urogenital chlamydia, which affects the human genitourinary system, is one of the most common and frequently encountered species in clinical practice. This disease belongs to the group of sexually transmitted diseases. The main source of infection with chlamydia of the genitourinary system is a sick person with whom another had unprotected sexual contact. It does not matter what type of contact was present (genital, oral, anal), if it was carried out without a condom, the probability of infection is equal to 100%. Cases of household infection with chlamydia through bed linen are diagnosed, but this happens quite rarely.
Chlamydia has two types of course - acute and chronic. The most common is the chronic form, and in women in the vast majority of cases. In this factor lies the main danger of chlamydia, the chronic form in men and women for a long period of time is hidden and almost asymptomatic. That is, an infected person considers himself healthy, does not begin treatment, and the pathology at this time gradually progresses, covering all new tissues and internal organs.
It is impossible to detect the disease with the help of conventional tests for infections, since chlamydia are intracellular microorganisms. To detect them, an analysis of the scraping of the mucous membranes of the urethra is necessary, a smear study is not enough.
The emergence of research techniques using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) made it possible to detect the presence of any pathogenic microorganisms in the patient's biomaterials with very high accuracy. It is possible to detect chlamydia using PCR even at the earliest stages of the disease, the high sensitivity of this study makes it possible to determine the presence of chlamydia even when their number is extremely small.
Features of the treatment of chlamydia
Even after a course of treatment, a relapse can occur. There is no single treatment program for chlamydia that is common to all patients. All therapeutic measures and drug therapy are selected exclusively according to the individual data of each individual patient. Antibacterial therapy is a prerequisite for the development of a treatment regimen.
It is necessary to treat chlamydia in a complex way, taking into account the results obtained during the examination of the patient. In the treatment regimen for chlamydia, it is necessary to take into account a wide range of factors determined by the degree of development of the disease, the individual characteristics of the patient. When developing complex therapeutic measures, general analyzes, indications of an immunological study (immunograms), results of tests for infections (PCR, ELISA), liver tests and other laboratory data are taken into account.
For the treatment of chlamydia in the acute stage, conventional anti-inflammatory and antibacterial therapy is not enough, since this pathology is known for relapses. That is, after the course of treatment, all factors of chlamydia disappear, experts state the fact of recovery, but in the event of a violation of immunity due to the usual acute respiratory infections or acute respiratory viral infections, the disease is activated again.
Recent clinical studies have shown that in the treatment of chlamydia (as well as most diseases caused by sexual infections), it is necessary to develop a comprehensive treatment regimen in which antibiotic therapy should be combined with drugs that stimulate the restoration of immunity. The immune response in the fight against sexually transmitted diseases plays a very important role along with anti-inflammatory measures.
The most common manifestation of chlamydial infection in women is cervicitis, which is asymptomatic in 50% of cases.
Patients with UHCI may experience vaginal discharge, often bloody, and mild pain in the lower abdomen. Physical examination reveals mucopurulent discharge from the edematous cervical canal, friability of the mucous membrane of the cervix.
Chlamydia in an advanced stage has a pathological effect on the liver. The degree of damage and functional disorders of the liver are checked using a special study, on the basis of which the doctor prescribes drugs to restore and maintain work. The choice of such drugs (hepatoprotectors) depends on individual indications.
In addition to drug therapy in the treatment of chlamydia, it is necessary to take into account the importance of such factors as a complete balanced diet, reduced physical activity, complete rejection of alcoholic beverages and sexual intercourse.
Medical treatment of chlamydia
When compiling a comprehensive program for the treatment of chlamydia, several groups of drugs are used:
Systemic enzyme therapy agents;
When prescribing antibiotic therapy, it is important to consider the following factors:
Chlamydia, as intracellular microorganisms, are sensitive only to those groups of antibiotics that are able to penetrate into the affected cells.
Chlamydia, especially in the advanced stage, provokes inflammatory processes in the tissues of the genitourinary system, supporting such pathogens as gonococci, ureaplasma, mycoplasma, therefore, in combination with intracellular antibiotics, it is necessary to use drugs that have an effect on other categories of microorganisms.
It is important to observe the regularity of taking antibiotics, since chlamydia is sensitive to them only in the reticular stage (that is, inside the cell), when it is present as a parasite. If you skip taking an antibiotic during the prescribed course of treatment, there is a risk of chlamydia insensitivity to antibiotics due to insufficient concentration of the drug. At the infectious stage, when neighboring tissues are infected and outside the cell, it is necessary to additionally use ultraviolet irradiation (UVR) in antibiotic therapy.
The course of taking antibiotics is prescribed individually, but always the beginning of treatment contains a loading dose with a gradual decrease in the number of drugs.
The duration of antibiotic treatment depends on the form and stage of the disease. The chronic and advanced form of the disease involves long-term antibiotic therapy for a period of 14 to 28 days.
With chlamydia, the pathological changes in the patient's immune system are suppressed, which ultimately leads to the chronic form of the disease. It is for this reason that the treatment of chlamydia should consist of a combination of anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating therapy. To increase the immune response and body resistance, various drugs are used, some of which also have hepatoprotective functions.
Systemic enzyme therapy is used to normalize the permeability of cell membranes affected by the inflammatory process. This technique improves the penetration of antibiotics into the cells, which allows to reduce the dose of the latter. With the help of enzyme therapy, it is possible to enhance the effect of antibiotics, increase their concentration in blood serum up to 40%. In addition, enzyme preparations stop the development of allergic and autoimmune reactions, improve and accelerate the elimination of toxic substances, have a decongestant and analgesic effect, and contribute to a faster recovery of the body after an illness.
The use of hepatoprotectors is due to two factors - damage to the liver due to the disease and its protection from the negative effects of prolonged use of antibiotics. The latter tend to accumulate in the liver tissues, creating an increased load on the organ and reducing functionality. Some antibacterial agents are toxic to the liver, which can lead to liver damage.
The treatment regimen for chlamydia of any type and form always consists of three stages - the initial preparatory stage, the main basic therapy, and the course of recovery. The types of drugs and their duration of use depend on individual data, they are prescribed by a doctor only after a complete examination of the patient. Treatment is carried out under the supervision of a doctor and can be adjusted taking into account the clinical picture and the results of intermediate studies, which make it possible to judge the effectiveness of the chosen scheme.
Complementary agents for the treatment of chlamydia
With prolonged use of antibiotics, there is a risk of disruption of the intestinal microflora and the development of dysbacteriosis. To eliminate the development of this pathological condition, probiotics are used in complex therapy, the function of which is to support healthy microflora. According to individual indications, vitamins and antioxidants can be used in the treatment process.
Physiotherapeutic methods used in the treatment of chlamydia include:
Ultrasonic and quantum exposure;
AC field currents;
Treatment of chlamydia in our clinic
Treatment of chlamydia infection should only be carried out under medical supervision. With improper use of antibiotics, chlamydial infection becomes chronic, which is much more difficult to treat than acute. Both partners must be treated. During treatment, sexual intercourse should be stopped.
The specialists of our clinic have extensive experience, knowledge and professional skills in the treatment of urological diseases of various etiologies. The Department of Urology is provided with modern equipment for high-precision examinations, diagnostic procedures and therapeutic manipulations.
In our clinic, you can get a program for the treatment of chlamydia, taking into account the individual characteristics of the body. All procedures and manipulations are performed under the supervision of qualified specialists. Here you can undergo a full course of treatment, restorative and rehabilitation procedures, examination after a course of therapy to ensure complete recovery.
Treatment of chlamydia in women
Treatment of chlamydia in women is a complex therapy aimed at destroying chlamydial infection in the body. It is almost impossible to cure chlamydia using one antibiotic in the treatment regimen. For this reason, a whole complex of antibiotics is used, which can have a strong toxic effect on a woman's body.
If, due to a complication of a health condition or for another reason, it was necessary to interrupt the intake of antibiotics, then their re-appointment may be ineffective, since the drugs will become insensitive to chlamydia.
That is why before starting the antibacterial treatment of chlamydia, the patient's body must be comprehensively prepared. Often the preparatory stage of chlamydia treatment involves the following measures:
Normalization of the intestinal microflora by taking medications from the eubiotic group (linex, bifidumbacterin, hilak forte).
When diagnosing liver damage, it will be necessary to conduct a course of therapy with hepatoprotectors.
If diseases of the pancreas and accompanying enzyme deficiency have been detected, it is necessary to normalize the digestive system by using enzyme preparations such as festal or panzinorm.
Detect comorbidities of the digestive system.
Perform complete blood count to rule out pyelonephritis. If a disease is detected, diuretics and antibiotics will be prescribed. To select the most optimal treatment regimen, you will additionally need a consultation with a urologist and an antibiogram of urine culture.
The duration of the preparatory phase of chlamydia treatment is very individual, as it largely depends on the presence of concomitant chronic diseases. The process of preparing for the treatment of the disease should be carried out by the attending venereologist together with a gynecologist, urologist or gastroenterologist. In most cases, the preparatory phase lasts about two weeks.
Medical treatment of chlamydia in women
Patients with chlamydia are prescribed local and systemic therapy to eliminate the disease. At the same time, drug treatment must necessarily be based on three principles: chemotherapy, immunomodulation and biocorrection. Chemotherapy must meet the following requirements:
show increased activity against the pathogen;
all drugs that are used to treat the disease must necessarily effectively penetrate into the cells in which chlamydia multiply, while creating in them a concentration of medicinal substances sufficient to suppress this process;
therapy of the disease can be successful if it blocks 4-6 cycles of development of the parasite (one cycle lasts 48-72 hours) and during it the sensitivity of chlamydia to the antibiotics used is maintained;
drugs prescribed should have low toxicity;
, it is necessary to choose a drug depending on the specific case and the duration of the disease (the disease flows into the chronic stage two months after infection) and the clinical picture of inflammation (acute, torpid, subacute, subjectively asymptomatic).
When developing a strategy and preparing a chemotherapy regimen, the doctor takes into account: the clinical form of chlamydia (acute or chronic), the complications that arose during this; the presence of chlamydia persistence before the start of therapy; previous use of antibiotics; features of immune shifts in the case of a chronic course of the disease.
All drugs that are used to treat chlamydia can be divided into two groups depending on their degree of penetration into the cell with the pathogen: low (penicillins, nitroimidazoles, cephalosporins), medium (aminoglycosides, rifampicin, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones) high (macrolides, which penetrate the cell membrane, after which they accumulate in human macrophages). In the clinical practice of venereologists for the treatment of chlamydia, various groups of these chemotherapy drugs are used. At the same time, depending on the complexity and specificity of the disease, doctors resort to monotherapy or combined etiotropic treatment.
Currently, several main methods of chemotherapy are used: a continuous course of therapy, which stops seven cycles of parasite development, as well as pulse therapy, which provides for three courses of drug treatment each week. The second method is mainly used to treat the chronic form of the disease. The effectiveness of the treatment of the disease will depend on the correct selection of antibiotics.
Since chlamydia is considered an intracellular parasite, it is advisable to prescribe only those drugs that can penetrate into the cell for the treatment of the disease. These drugs include tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones, macrolides. Tetracyclines are considered the most effective of them, which give a result of 84.2% in the acute course of the disease, and 73.9% in the chronic course.%. If a patient is found to be intolerant to tetracyclines, he is prescribed macrolides.
Fluoroquinolones can also have an inhibitory effect on bacteria, which also prevent DNA synthesis in the cells of the microorganism. Depending on the complexity of the disease, their effectiveness is 72.7–96%. It should be noted that monotherapy with only one chemotherapy drug in 25-50% of cases of chlamydia does not provide a complete cure. Often this is due to antibiotic resistance, reinfection, relapse of the disease, lack of examination and timely treatment of the sexual partner.
The effectiveness of the treatment of chlamydia and the prevention of its recurrence largely depends on timely immune therapy aimed at activating the protective functions of the patient's body. It can be carried out both before the start of chemotherapy, so in parallel with it. The tactics of immunomodulation is based on changes in the immunogram and immunological changes typical for chlamydia: a decrease in the activity of interferon, macrophages, natural killers, T4-lymphocytes, as well as an increase in the level and activation of B-lymphocytes. Interferonogens and interferons have proven their effectiveness in the treatment of chlamydia. Of the relatively new drugs, cycloferon and neovir are used, which normalize the function of natural killers and stimulate mononuclear phagocytes.
Treatment of pregnant women with chlamydia
Infection of the mother with chlamydia can adversely affect the course of pregnancy and the health of the fetus. The danger of this disease is that it often occurs without pronounced symptoms, so it is not possible to diagnose it in a timely manner. The prevalence of infection among pregnant women is 2-40%. It is proved that pregnancy is not able to influence the course of the disease. The most common complications of pregnancy in the case of chlamydia are non-developing pregnancy, premature birth, spontaneous abortion, premature birth, fever, polyhydramnios.
Infection of the fetus occurs both in utero and during childbirth through contact with the infected secretion of the mother's genital tract. The most characteristic complications in the fetus are hypertrophy, and in a newborn baby - chlamydial conjunctivitis, chlamydial pneumonia, nasopharyngitis, vulvovaginitis, urethritis.
When drawing up the tactics of treating pregnant women, it should be taken into account that changes in the activity of the immune system and the parallel development of sensitization, dysbacteriosis, and bacterial intoxication are considered important pathogenetic features of the disease. Therefore, the treatment of the disease in pregnant women must necessarily include the appointment of antibiotics, antifungal drugs, eubiotics.
Treatment of pregnant women with chlamydial infection is carried out at any stage of pregnancy with antibacterial drugs, taking into account their effect on the fetus, with the participation of obstetrician-gynecologists.
Usually, antibiotics such as erythromycin, rovamycin, vilprafen, sumamed are prescribed for the treatment of pregnant women. At the end of antimicrobial therapy, a course of rehabilitation therapy is prescribed: the immunomodulator myelopid, an immunoglobulin preparation, interferon. Pregnant women are also shown the appointment of eubiotics: bifidumbacterin and acilact.
Cure criteria for chlamydia in women
All patients after the end of the course of treatment must undergo clinical and laboratory control. Since chlamydia is often not accompanied by severe symptoms, and the bacteriological cure does not always correspond to the clinical one, there is only one way to make sure that the therapy is effective - to conduct a control study. The most commonly used control method is considered to be a culture study, the main purpose of which is the isolation of the pathogen.
The first control is carried out immediately after the end of the course of therapy. If during the study single elementary bodies were found, the course of therapy should be continued for another ten days. Re-detection of chlamydia in the biological material a couple of months after treatment, with the exclusion of reinfection, requires the appointment of a new course of chemotherapy using drugs from other groups. In this case, it is desirable to carry out the study in one laboratory.
Another effective method of monitoring treatment is direct immunofluorescence, which can be used no earlier than one month after the end of treatment. However, positive results of the analysis at such a time require careful interpretation, since reinfection is possible. Serological methods are not usually used to confirm the effectiveness of disease therapy.
Prevention of chlamydia in women
Prevention methods for chlamydia in women are exactly the same as for other sexually transmitted diseases. Since chlamydia usually occurs without symptoms in women, timely examination by a gynecologist is considered the only effective method for diagnosing it. Pregnant women are subject to examination for the presence of chlamydia during registration, when they are sent for childbirth, as well as couples who have consulted a doctor about planning a pregnancy. The main method of preventing chlamydia is the use of barrier methods of contraception, especially condoms.
Treatment of chlamydia in men
In men, the subjectively asymptomatic course of urogenital chlamydia is observed in 40-50%. The most common clinical form in men is urethritis, which in most cases is torpid in nature, manifested by scanty discharge in the form of the so-called morning drop, slight swelling and hyperemia of the urethral lips, and slight itching. Paraurethral glands may be affected. The spread of the infectious process to the overlying sections of the urogenital tract leads to the development of epididymitis, orchiepididymitis, funiculitis, prostatitis. Violation of fertility in men with urogenital chlamydia is associated with impaired patency of the vas deferens, autoimmune mechanisms.
Treatment of chlamydia in men is a complex of medical and therapeutic measures aimed at ridding the body of various infectious diseases caused by chlamydia infection and their consequences. Treatment is prescribed and carried out by a specialist urologist (andrologist) after the diagnosis of the disease, which in many cases is significantly difficult.
The causative agents of chlamydia are special microorganisms that do not belong either to the category of bacteria or to the category of viruses. These are parasitic agents that are characterized by the ability to reproduce intracellularly, which significantly complicates their diagnosis in the body of men. In addition, chlamydia is quite resistant to external factors, and therefore can remain viable and able to infect for more than a day, being in the external environment, they can develop immunity to the effects of certain antibiotics and other drugs that are effective against many infectious diseases.
Chlamydia infections are the most common among sexually transmitted diseases. According to statistics, they suffer from 5% to 10% of the population aged 15-40 years, depending on the region. In recent years, the percentage of cases among adolescents aged 14-18 has been growing significantly.
Chlamydia can be contracted in two main ways:
Contact. Most often, the disease is transmitted through direct sexual contact (anal or vaginal), but there are also cases of household and family infection through common personal hygiene items, clothing, bedding, etc. With unprotected sexual intercourse with a carrier of infection, the risk of infection is about 50%;
Vertical. Infection of the fetus in the womb or at the time of birth when the child passes through the birth canal of an infected woman. It usually manifests itself in the form of atypical chlamydial conjunctivitis with complications in the form of inflammation of the lungs and sometimes other internal organs.
When to treat chlamydia in men
Treatment of male chlamydia should be started as soon as it is diagnosed. This can be done using a laboratory method - PCR diagnostics (polymerase chain reaction). The accuracy of diagnosis is about 90-95% depending on the individual characteristics of the patient's body and the nature of the course of the disease. Positive results in the presence of chlamydia in the body can also give enzyme immunoassay, but the accuracy of such a diagnosis does not exceed 70%, and in the vast majority of cases it is only 50%.
Taking a general smear often does not provide information about the presence of the pathogen, even in the presence of symptoms of the disease, which often leads to a false diagnosis. But an increased number of leukocytes in a smear gives quite serious grounds to suspect the presence of chlamydia.
A man should contact a specialist for examination and laboratory tests if the following signs are found:
Urination disorder - inability to urinate, completely empty the bladder or frequent urge to urinate;
Discomfort or pain (stinging and burning) when urinating;
The presence of impurities and purulent sediment in the urine, its turbidity, discoloration;
Unnatural discharge from the urethra (clear or rarely whitish-yellowish), with an unpleasant specific smell of "rotten fish";
Itching and burning sensation at the base of the head of the penis;
Swelling and swelling of the testicles, possibly accompanied by discomfort, pain, discomfort.
Treatments for chlamydia in men
In the treatment of chlamydia in men, medical and therapeutic methods are usually used. The scheme and the total duration of the course is assigned by a specialist individually for each patient. There are three main directions of therapeutic effects on the body of men with chlamydia:
Antibacterial effect. For the treatment of the disease in the acute or chronic stage, a variety of antibiotics are used, both general and topical. The former are usually taken as tablets or injections, the latter as solutions, sprays, and ointments. In some cases, a more effective way to deliver an antibacterial agent to the affected areas is the instillation of the urethra. It can be carried out by a specialist (attending physician) or independently - if the patient has certain skills and simple medical devices. General and local application are usually combined, as well as drugs introduced into the patient's body. To increase the effectiveness of the treatment of male chlamydia, antibacterial drugs of different groups are often prescribed, which neutralizes the ability of chlamydia to develop immunity to antibiotics;
Improving the patient's immunity. Although the human body is not capable of producing antibodies to chlamydia, the patient's recovery can be significantly accelerated by the use of immunomodulators. These funds are especially good for early detection of the disease, as well as preventive therapy. Improving the patient's immunity helps prevent the transition of chlamydia to the chronic stage. And if this has already happened, it makes it possible to avoid dangerous complications and relapses;
Physiotherapy and rehabilitation therapy. The use of probiotics and hepatoprotectors helps to restore the natural functions of the body, which may be impaired as a result of exposure to chlamydia. Taking drugs allows you to activate the liver, restore the intestinal microflora. As additional drugs, various infusions and decoctions that promote the functioning of internal organs can also be prescribed.
To improve the effectiveness of the treatment of chlamydia in men, specialists usually use combined treatment regimens that involve sequential or parallel (as well as cyclic) administration of drugs from all three groups. The duration of the full course of treatment, including the recovery period, can range from several weeks to several months, depending on the nature of the course of the disease and the characteristics of the patient's body. At the same time, tests are taken from him at different intervals in order to determine the effectiveness of treatment. Good results of evaluating the effectiveness of the course are obtained by reconciliation of the culture culture with the antibiogram. The patient is considered completely cured of chlamydia if, within a month after the end of the course, tests for chlamydia do not give positive results.
As mentioned above, the human body does not develop immunity to chlamydia, so the risk of re-infection in a person who has already been ill is the same as in those who have not yet had chlamydia.
Effective antibiotics for chlamydia in men
For the treatment of the disease, drugs of the following groups are usually used:
Tetracyclines. The main group of drugs used in the treatment of chlamydia in men. The most effective are minoleksin, doxycycline and azithromycin. The latter is usually assigned once. This is a fairly strong drug that remains in the human body for a long time, affecting the pathogen. On sale, it is found in the form of drugs such as Azitral, Zitrolide, Muyaied, etc. Minoleksin and doxycycline are usually prescribed to men during a course of 7 to 14 days. According to the appointment of a specialist, the reception can be carried out once or several times a day. The commercial names of these drugs are Vibramycin, Doxal, Nycomed, Medomycin, etc. Usually, in the acute course of chlamydia in men, one of the above drugs is prescribed for a course of 7 days. In parallel, carrying out treatment with immunomodulators. In case of late diagnosis and development of chronic chlamydia, the course will be longer (from 14 days) and includes taking several antibacterial drugs from different groups at once.
Along with tetracycline drugs, macrolides are widely used, which are the least toxic of all antibiotics. Although their effect on chlamydia is often less effective than in the case of tetracyclines, they are prescribed to many patients who experience allergic reactions to other groups of antibacterial drugs and liver and kidney problems.
Another group of drugs used in the treatment of chlamydia are fluoroquinolones. By chemical structure, they are close to antibiotics and have a directed effect on chlamydia. Most often used in combination with tetracyclines and macrolides. The disadvantage of treating chlamydia in men with fluoroquinolones alone is at risk of relapse at the end of the course.
What is the danger of not treating chlamydia in men
Treatment of male chlamydia should be carried out as early as possible - at the first signs and diagnosis of the disease. Otherwise, the likelihood of the transition of the disease to the chronic stage is high, which entails a variety of complications. Most often, going into the chronic stage, chlamydia in a man causes the following disorders:
Urethritis. Over time, inflammatory processes from the urethra pass into the epididymis, prostate and testes, which ultimately can cause male infertility;
Reiter's syndrome. The disease may be accompanied by inflammatory diseases of the joints, eyes, and internal organs of the patient;
Injury to the urethra. As a result of the disease, scars can form on its inner walls, preventing the normal movement of ejaculate and urine. This disorder can only be corrected by surgery.
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