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Can taking alcohol cause miscarriage
Alcohol and pregnancy: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
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Pregnant women are strongly urged not to drink alcohol during pregnancy.
Drinking alcohol while pregnant has been shown to cause harm to a baby as it develops in the womb. Alcohol used during pregnancy may also lead to long-term medical problems and birth defects.
When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol travels through her blood and into the baby's blood, tissues, and organs. Alcohol breaks down much more slowly in the baby's body than in an adult. That means the baby's blood alcohol level remains increased longer than the mother's. This can harm the baby and can sometimes lead to lifelong damage.
DANGERS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY
Drinking a lot of alcohol during pregnancy can lead to a group of defects in the baby known as fetal alcohol syndrome. Symptoms can include:
Behavior and attention problems
Changes in the shape of the face
Poor growth before and after birth
Poor muscle tone and problems with movement and balance
Problems with thinking and speech
These medical problems are lifelong and can range from mild to severe.
Complications seen in the infant may include:
Pregnancy loss or stillbirth
HOW MUCH ALCOHOL IS SAFE?
There is no known "safe" amount of alcohol use during pregnancy. Alcohol use appears to be the most harmful during the first 3 months of pregnancy; however, drinking alcohol anytime during pregnancy can be harmful.
Alcohol includes beer, wine, wine coolers, and liquor.
One drink is defined as:
12 oz of beer
5 oz of wine
1.5 oz of liquor
How much you drink is just as important as how often you drink.
Even if you don't drink often, drinking a large amount at one time can harm the baby.
Binge drinking (5 or more drinks on one sitting) greatly increases a baby's risk of developing alcohol-related damage.
Drinking moderate amounts of alcohol when pregnant may lead to miscarriage.
Heavy drinkers (those who drink more than 2 alcoholic beverages a day) are at greater risk of giving birth to a child with fetal alcohol syndrome.
The more you drink, the more you raise your baby's risk for harm.
DO NOT DRINK DURING PREGNANCY
Women who are pregnant or who are trying to get pregnant should avoid drinking any amount of alcohol. The only way to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome is to not drink alcohol during pregnancy.
If you did not know you were pregnant and drank alcohol, stop drinking as soon as you learn you are pregnant. The sooner you stop drinking alcohol, the healthier your baby will be.
Choose nonalcoholic versions of beverages you like.
If you cannot control your drinking, avoid being around other people who are using alcohol.
Pregnant women with alcoholism should join an alcohol abuse rehabilitation program. They should also be followed closely by a health care provider.
The following organization may be of help:
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration -- 1-800-662-4357 www.findtreatment.gov
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism -- www.rethinkingdrinking.niaaa.nih.gov/about.aspx
Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome; Fetal alcohol effects; Alcohol in pregnancy; Alcohol related birth defects; Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders
Prasad MR, Jones HE. Substance abuse in pregnancy. In: Resnik R, Lockwood CJ, Moore TR, Greene MF, Copel JA, Silver RM, eds. Creasy and Resnik's Maternal-Fetal Medicine: Principles and Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019:chap 68.
Prasad M, Metz TD. Substance use disorder in pregnancy. In: Landon MB, Galan HL, Jauniaux ERM, et al, eds. Gabbe's Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:chap 8.
Wallen LD, Gleason CA. Prenatal drug exposure. In: Gleason CA, Juul SE, eds. Avery's Diseases of the Newborn. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 13.
Updated by: John D. Jacobson, MD, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
Miscarriage risk increases each week alcohol is used in early pregnancy -- ScienceDaily
Each week a woman consumes alcohol during the first five to 10 weeks of pregnancy is associated with an incremental 8% increase in risk of miscarriage, according to a study by Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) researchers.
The findings, published in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, examine the timing, amount and type of alcohol use during pregnancy and how these factors relate to miscarriage risk before 20 weeks' gestation.
Impact of alcohol use rises through the ninth week of pregnancy, and risk accrues regardless of whether a woman reported having fewer than one drink or more than four drinks each week. Risk is also independent of the type of alcohol consumed and whether the woman had episodes of binge drinking.
Though most women change their alcohol use after a positive pregnancy test, consuming alcohol before recognizing a pregnancy is common among both those with a planned or unintended pregnancy. Half of the 5,353 women included in the analysis reported alcohol use around conception and during the first weeks of pregnancy.
The median gestational age for stopping alcohol use was 29 days. Although 41% of women who changed their use did so within three days of a positive pregnancy test, those who stopped consumption near their missed period had a 37% greater risk of miscarriage compared to women who did not use alcohol.
"Abstaining from alcohol around conception or during pregnancy has long been advised for many reasons, including preventing fetal alcohol syndrome. Nonetheless, modest levels of consumption are often seen as likely to be safe," said Katherine Hartmann, MD, PhD, vice president for Research Integration at VUMC and principal investigator for the Right from the Start cohort, from which participants were enrolled in the study.
"For this reason, our findings are alarming. Levels of use that women, and some care providers, may believe are responsible are harmful, and no amount can be suggested as safe regarding pregnancy loss."
According to the researchers, one in six recognized pregnancies ends in miscarriage, which brings great emotional cost and leaves unanswered questions about why the miscarriage occurred.
Biologically, little is known about how alcohol causes harm during early pregnancy, but it may increase miscarriage risk by modifying hormone patterns, altering the quality of implantation, increasing oxidative stress or impairing key pathways.
Because alcohol use is most common in the first weeks -- when the embryo develops most rapidly and lays down the pattern for organ development -- understanding how timing relates to risk matters.
Risk did not peak in patterns related to alcohol use in specific phases of embryonic development, and there was no evidence that a cumulative "dose" of alcohol contributed to level of risk.
The study recruited women planning a pregnancy or in early pregnancy from eight metropolitan areas in Tennessee, North Carolina and Texas. Participants were interviewed during the first trimester about their alcohol use in a four-month window.
"Combining the facts that the cohort is large, comes from diverse communities, captures data early in pregnancy and applies more advanced analytic techniques than prior studies, we're confident we've raised important concerns," said Alex Sundermann, MD, PhD, the study's first author and recent graduate of the Vanderbilt Medical Scientist Training Program.
To avoid increased risk of miscarriage, the researchers emphasize the importance of using home pregnancy tests, which can reliably detect pregnancy before a missed period, and ceasing alcohol use when planning a pregnancy or when pregnancy is possible.
This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (grants HD043883, HD049675, HD094345, GM07347, TR000445 and TR002243) and the American Water Works Association Research Foundation. Follow-up is sustained by a VUMC internal fund.
The effect of alcohol during pregnancy on the fetus: a modern view of the problem
Many women believe that it is possible to drink alcohol during pregnancy, albeit in small quantities. Of course, we are not talking about hard liquor like vodka or cognac, but a glass of red wine or beer is another matter.
However, everything is not as simple as it might seem at first glance, and even small doses of ethanol can cause irreversible changes in the development of the child. Medicine still does not give an exact answer about the permissible strength and volume of drinks that can be consumed during pregnancy without fear.
Important! Recent research has shown that even small amounts of alcohol during pregnancy can increase the chance of preterm birth and underweight babies (LBW).
Alcohol in early pregnancy
When ingested by a pregnant woman, ethanol crosses the placental barrier and has a devastating effect on the fetal brain. If a mother regularly drinks alcohol during early gestation, it can lead to damage to the white matter, cerebellum, and brainstem.
Drinking alcohol during pregnancy in the early stages is fraught with a violation of the formation of the brain structures of the child, and also contributes to the development of such serious defects as:
mental retardation, etc.
It is believed that in the first days and even weeks after pregnancy, alcohol is allowed. The placenta is not yet formed, which means that there will be no harm to the baby. However, ethanol makes it difficult for the embryo to attach, thereby increasing the risk of miscarriage.
Pregnant women in the first trimester are strongly discouraged from drinking alcohol, even in small quantities. This also applies to beer, wine and other low-alcohol drinks. Get a remote consultation from our gynecologists to protect yourself and your baby.
The first week of pregnancy: a crucial stage
Alcohol is quite capable of harming the fetus in the first 5-7 days after conception, when it is only a fertilized egg. According to statistics, a huge number of miscarriages happen precisely in the early stages, when a woman does not yet know about pregnancy and, as they say, "misses a glass or two."
During the first week, the fertilized egg travels to the uterus through the fallopian tube. At this time, the drunk alcohol almost instantly enters the bloodstream and inevitably penetrates into the zygote. The result is very often spontaneous abortion, or miscarriage.
When registering, the woman was worried that the child might be born handicapped, as there was alcohol consumption during pregnancy. She complained of nagging pain and heaviness in the lower abdomen, which was the reason for hospitalization. The pregnancy was saved.
What does "early" mean
By early is meant the gestation period in the first three months - that is, the 1st trimester. Conventionally, it can be divided into 2 periods:
The first 10-12 days from the moment of conception.
From 12-13 days to 13 weeks (end of the 1st trimester).
Effect of alcohol on the fetus during the first 10-12 days after pregnancy
Every woman from birth has a large set of follicles, of which there are about 500 thousand. New follicles no longer appear, and some die. This does not really matter, since no more than 500 of them will mature over the entire fertile period.
But under the influence of ethanol, the death of follicles is accelerated, and some are damaged. If a spermatozoon fertilizes a damaged egg, a child may develop congenital malformations.
The less alcohol a woman drinks, the healthier her eggs are.
Even strong alcohol does not affect the state of the fertilized egg, if the pregnancy has already begun. A healthy oocyte is not threatened with damage, and the process of cell division will go according to the plan laid down by nature.
The danger lies in the fact that alcohol activates the production of a specific fluid in the fallopian tubes. The latter are the springboard through which the egg enters the uterus. If the fallopian tubes are blocked, the embryo will simply get stuck and attach to the wall of the tube before reaching the uterus.
On the 4-5th day after the onset of pregnancy, the embryo has about 58 cells and enters the uterus. It is built into its wall, and the formation of the chorion, the outer shell of the embryo, begins.
Up to 12-13 days, that is, before the circulatory system appears in the placenta, alcohol drunk by a pregnant woman can destroy the embryo, causing a miscarriage. However, he is not capable at this stage of pregnancy to cause any pathology.
All of the above does not apply to women suffering from alcoholism, and only applies to those who drink a little, rarely and only quality drinks.
If a pregnant woman drank alcohol at an early date, not yet knowing about her “interesting position”, you should not worry too much. It is unlikely that this will affect the health of the unborn child. However, you need to make sure that there is no ectopic pregnancy.
Why alcohol should not be drunk from the 12th-13th day to the 13th week of pregnancy
Around this time, the placental circulatory system begins to form. This means that the fetus takes oxygen and nutrition directly from the mother's body. If the mother drinks alcohol during pregnancy, the blood vessels will narrow, and the child will receive less oxygen: he will experience a state of hypoxia (oxygen starvation).
Even the liver of an adult perceives alcohol as a poisonous substance. In the fetus, the liver is just beginning to form and is not able to cope with the poison, the amount of which in his blood is similar to that in the blood of the mother, thanks to the placental circulatory system.
The patient turned to the gynecologist for advice about a possible pregnancy with the question "to save or not to save." She admitted that she drank alcohol, not knowing about her condition. The term is 12 weeks. Ultrasound showed the absence of fetal abnormalities and the threat of miscarriage. In due time, the woman gave birth to a healthy child.
Pregnant women cannot drink alcohol in the 1st trimester, as all systems and organs of the baby are laid. You should be especially careful in the period from 28 to 49the day when the laying of facial features occurs. Drinking alcohol can negatively affect a child's appearance.
Drinking alcohol during pregnancy at the very beginning of the term is highly undesirable. The consequences can be catastrophic:
No. p / p
Consequences of drinking alcohol
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), which includes a whole set of congenital malformations
dysfunction of the brain and spinal cord
problems with the nervous system, the manifestations of which can range from mood swings to psychosis and suicidal tendencies
defects in the structure of the genital organs - for example, undescended testicles in boys, doubling of the uterus and vagina in girls
Alcohol during early pregnancy significantly increases the risk of miscarriage and premature birth. But it is important to know that even with the birth of a healthy child, the consequences may appear later. Most often they occur during puberty.
Important! It doesn't matter what the mother drinks - red or white wine, beer, cider, low-alcohol cocktails or homemade liquor.
Is it possible to drink wine during pregnancy in the second trimester
With the second trimester, everything is both easier and more difficult. The question is how much and when. Of course, it is better to completely refrain from alcohol, replacing them with tasty and healthy juices.
Intemperance in relation to alcohol can provoke a child:
distortion of facial features, disproportion of body parts;
reduced muscle tone;
impaired ability to concentrate, which will lead to learning difficulties;
violation of diction, speech;
One of the consequences of drinking alcohol by a pregnant woman is the fading of the fetus.
However, there is no complete ban on wine during pregnancy in the second trimester. That's just to afford alcohol is allowed only in the middle of the 2nd trimester. At the beginning of this period, the fetus is not yet protected by the placenta, and its organs are actively developing.
1 sip of wine is allowed to drink at the beginning of the 2nd trimester if nausea is tormented.
A glass of wine during pregnancy can help:
increase hemoglobin and prevent anemia;
strengthen the cardiovascular system;
improve mood, normalize the emotional background;
replenish stocks of trace elements;
stabilize blood pressure.
Pregnant women in the second trimester are allowed to drink a little wine no more than 1 time in 2 weeks.
However, towards the end of the 2nd trimester, you can’t drink at all, since alcohol can harm the baby and provoke various pathologies. Some experts believe that the intake of alcohol by the mother during this period can lead to alcoholism in the child in the future.
In addition, along with the period, the body weight of the mother and child increases, therefore, products that contribute to weight gain are limited. Red wine is one of them.
Why pregnant women shouldn't drink champagne
Despite the fact that champagne is a type of wine, it is more harmful. Champagne is quite strong and is quickly absorbed into the bloodstream due to carbon dioxide bubbles, causing almost instant intoxication.
Alcohol and pregnancy are incompatible. To make your pregnancy go smoothly, get a consultation with an obstetrician-gynecologist by phone. He will give valuable advice and recommendations.
Beer for pregnant women - is it possible or not
It is undesirable to drink beer during pregnancy, and not only because of the alcohol content in it. There are many different additives in the foamy drink - in particular, cobalt is the foam stabilizer in it. And this element is harmful to the expectant mother and her child.
The amount of cobalt in beer exceeds the permissible norm by 10 times.
A pregnant woman from a drinking family regularly drank beer, believing that weak alcohol could be drunk and even useful. By her own admission, sometimes she drank a little vodka. The result was the birth of a baby with fetal alcohol syndrome of the 1st degree (small head, low body weight). A full examination revealed a number of other irregularities.
Why You Shouldn't Drink Non-Alcoholic Beer While Pregnant
The so-called non-alcoholic beer contains from 0.5 to 1.5% ethanol, and drinking alcohol during pregnancy is not worth it, even such a weak one.
Any beer is also harmful because:
contains many preservatives to ensure long-term storage;
has a diuretic effect, undesirable for a pregnant woman;
due to cobalt in its composition, it can cause inflammation in the esophagus and stomach.
Doctors strongly advise pregnant women to exclude soda from the diet, as it adversely affects the stomach and increases gas formation in the intestines.
Carbonated water has a negative effect on the kidneys and gallbladder due to the content of phosphoric acid. This acid is responsible for the regulation of acidity and increases the risk of kidney and gallstone formation, especially in people with a predisposition to stone formation. During pregnancy, the load on the kidneys is already high, so it is better not to drink soda.
Alcohol in the 3rd trimester
Pregnant women in the third trimester are allowed to drink wine, but in an extremely limited amount. Half a glass of the drink can be drunk a maximum of 2 times a week.
The absence of a complete ban on alcohol is justified by the fact that by the third trimester all important processes in the fetal body have been completed, and the likelihood of a violation of its development is minimal.
What is the best wine during pregnancy?
It is better for pregnant women to drink dry table wine. It helps to cope with low blood pressure, removes nausea, stimulates appetite. But for some, dry wines are too acidic, in which case they can be replaced with semi-sweet varieties.
Which is better - white or red wine during pregnancy?
There is not much difference here, a matter of personal preference. White wine has a positive effect on the functioning of the lungs and heart, but is inferior to red in the amount of antioxidants and the ability to increase hemoglobin. But after it, the head is less often dizzy and there is weakness in the body. Red wine reduces the risk of thrombosis, improves blood formation and helps to eliminate toxins from the body.
How about kvass?
Alcohol can be pregnant only at certain times described above. And in kvass, the volume of ethanol ranges from 0.3-2.5%. In addition, this drink can provoke an increase in the tone of the uterus due to active fermentation processes in the intestines and gas formation.
I drank homemade liqueur. What will happen to the child now?
If this happened after the start of the second trimester, and there is little alcohol consumed, then the chance of harming the baby is minimal. In addition, homemade drinks are prepared from quality products, and they do not contain harmful additives. Permissible dose - 150 ml.
Remember that alcohol and pregnancy are incompatible in principle. Even small doses of ethanol can cause irreversible changes in the development of the child. Alcohol at any stage of pregnancy has a negative impact on both the expectant mother and the baby. If you have been drinking alcohol, then in order to avoid unpleasant consequences, it is better to consult a doctor.
Drank a glass of wine while pregnant? It's okay
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There is "surprisingly little" evidence that low alcohol consumption during pregnancy can harm the fetus, say British scientists.
They reviewed all available research on the subject since 1950s, and found no convincing evidence that one or two small glasses of wine per week do any noticeable harm to the health of the mother or child.
However, this does not mean that it is completely safe, the team of scientists from the University of Bristol who conducted the study emphasizes and urges pregnant women not to drink at all just in case - as the official recommendations of the National Health Service prescribe.
At the same time, those women who drank a little during pregnancy should not worry about the fact that they harmed the health of the child.
In 2016, the chief medical officer of the British National Health Service, Professor Sally Davies, revised the recommendations for pregnant women, urging them to completely abstain from alcohol throughout the entire period of pregnancy.
Similar recommendations in Western countries are usually expressed in conventional units of alcohol; one standard unit roughly corresponds to 76 ml of wine (less than half a glass in a restaurant) or 250 ml of beer.
Prior to this, pregnant women were advised that they could drink one to two conventional units per week.
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It is not known how much drinking is "safe" for a pregnant woman, but it is well known what excessive drinking during pregnancy can lead to.
Alcohol intoxication or excessive drinking in this position increases the risk of miscarriage and premature birth, and can also lead to the development of fetal alcohol syndrome in a child, that is, a combination of congenital malformations, both mental and physical.
At the same time, the risks associated with infrequent moderate drinking are not so obvious.
Dr. Louise Zucollo and her colleagues found 26 studies on this subject.
After reviewing and analyzing all of the data, the researchers did not find unequivocal evidence of the harm of moderate alcohol consumption, but in seven studies moderate drinking was associated with an 8% increase in the likelihood that a child would be born with a low birth weight.