Anatomy of pregnancy and birth - uterus | Pregnancy Birth and Baby beginning of content
What does the uterus look like?
One of the most recognised changes in a pregnant woman’s body is the appearance of the ‘baby bump’, which forms to accommodate the baby growing in the uterus. The primary function of the uterus during pregnancy is to house and nurture your growing baby, so it is important to understand its structure and function, and what changes you can expect the uterus to undergo during pregnancy.
The uterus (also known as the ‘womb’) has a thick muscular wall and is pear shaped. It is made up of the fundus (at the top of the uterus), the main body (called the corpus), and the cervix (the lower part of the uterus ). Ligaments – which are tough, flexible tissue – hold it in position in the middle of the pelvis, behind the bladder, and in front of the rectum.
The uterus wall is made up of 3 layers. The inside is a thin layer called the endometrium, which responds to hormones – the shedding of this layer causes menstrual bleeding. The middle layer is a muscular wall. The outside layer of the uterus is a thin layer of cells.
Illustration showing the female reproductive system.
The size of a non-pregnant woman's uterus can vary. In a woman who has never been pregnant, the average length of the uterus is about 7 centimetres. This increases in size to approximately 9 centimetres in a woman who is not pregnant but has been pregnant before. The size and shape of the uterus can change with the number of pregnancies and with age.
How does the uterus change during pregnancy?
During pregnancy, as the baby grows, the size of a woman’s uterus will dramatically increase. One measure to estimate growth is the fundal height, the distance from the pubic bone to the top of the uterus. Your doctor (GP) or obstetrician or midwife will measure your fundal height at each antenatal visit from 24 weeks onwards. If there are concerns about your baby’s growth, your doctor or midwife may recommend using regular ultrasound to monitor the baby.
Fundal height can vary from person to person, and many factors can affect the size of a pregnant woman’s uterus. For instance, the fundal height may be different in women who are carrying more than one baby, who are overweight or obese, or who have certain medical conditions. A full bladder will also affect fundal height measurement, so it’s important to empty your bladder before each measurement. A smaller than expected fundal height could be a sign that the baby is growing slowly or that there is too little amniotic fluid. If so, this will be monitored carefully by your doctor. In contrast, a larger than expected fundal height could mean that the baby is larger than average and this may also need monitoring.
As the uterus grows, it can put pressure on the other organs of the pregnant woman's body. For instance, the uterus can press on the nearby bladder, increasing the need to urinate.
How does the uterus prepare for labour and birth?
Braxton Hicks contractions, also known as 'false labour' or 'practice contractions', prepare your uterus for the birth and may start as early as mid-way through your pregnancy, and continuing right through to the birth. Braxton Hicks contractions tend to be irregular and while they are not generally painful, they can be uncomfortable and get progressively stronger through the pregnancy.
During true labour, the muscles of the uterus contract to help your baby move down into the birth canal. Labour contractions start like a wave and build in intensity, moving from the top of the uterus right down to the cervix. Your uterus will feel tight during the contraction, but between contractions, the pain will ease off and allow you to rest before the next one builds. Unlike Braxton Hicks, labour contractions become stronger, more regular and more frequent in the lead up to the birth.
How does the uterus change after birth?
After the baby is born, the uterus will contract again to allow the placenta, which feeds the baby during pregnancy, to leave the woman’s body. This is sometimes called the ‘after birth’. These contractions are milder than the contractions felt during labour. Once the placenta is delivered, the uterus remains contracted to help prevent heavy bleeding known as ‘postpartum haemorrhage‘.
The uterus will also continue to have contractions after the birth is completed, particularly during breastfeeding. This contracting and tightening of the uterus will feel a little like period cramps and is also known as 'afterbirth pains'.
Read more here about the first few days after giving birth.
The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (Labour and birth), StatPearls Publishing (Anatomy, Abdomen and Pelvis), Department of Health (Clinical practice guidelines: Pregnancy care), Better Health Channel Victoria (Pregnancy stages and changes), Mater Mother's Hospital (Labour and birth information), Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (The First Few Weeks Following Birth), Queensland Health (Queensland Clinical Guidelines – maternity and neonatal), King Edward Memorial Hospital (Fundal height: Measuring with a tape measure), Royal Hospital for Women (Fetal growth assessment (clinical) in pregnancy), MSD Manual (Female internal genital organs)
Learn more here about the development and quality assurance of healthdirect content.
Last reviewed: October 2020
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Anatomy of pregnancy and birth - perineum and pelvic floor
Anatomy of pregnancy and birth - pelvis
Anatomy of pregnancy and birth - cervix
Anatomy of pregnancy and birth - abdominal muscles
Anatomy of pregnancy and birth
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Prolapsed uterus - Better Health Channel
The pelvic floor and associated supporting ligaments can be weakened or damaged in many ways, causing uterine prolapse.
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Uterus, cervix & ovaries - fact sheet | Jean Hailes
This fact sheet discusses some of the health conditions that may affect a woman's uterus, cervix and ovaries.
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Dilatation and curettage (D&C)
A D&C is an operation to lightly scrape the inside of the uterus (womb).
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An ectopic pregnancy occurs when a fertilised egg implants outside the uterus (womb)
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Placental abruption - Better Health Channel
Placental abruption means the placenta has detached from the wall of the uterus, starving the baby of oxygen and nutrients.
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Placenta previa - Better Health Channel
Placenta previa means the placenta has implanted at the bottom of the uterus, over the cervix or close by.
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Pelvic Floor | Family Planning NSW
The pelvic floor is a group of muscles in the pelvic area that support the bladder, bowel and uterus (womb).
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Mirena IUD | Hormonal IUD Mirena | IUD Mirena insertion | IUD Mirena cost | Mirena IUD Melbourne - Sexual Health Victoria
The hormonal intrauterine device (IUD) is a small contraceptive device that is put into the uterus (womb) to prevent pregnancy.
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Contraception - intrauterine devices (IUD) - Better Health Channel
An intrauterine device (IUD) is a small contraceptive device that is put into the uterus (womb) to prevent pregnancy.
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Endometriosis | Your Fertility
Endometriosis is a condition where the tissue that lines the uterus also grows in other areas of the body
Read more on Your Fertility website
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Amniotic fluid: Functions and disorders
Amniotic fluid is a clear, yellow fluid which is found within the first 12 days following conception within the amniotic sac. It surrounds the growing baby in the uterus.
Amniotic fluid has many important functions and is vital for healthy fetal development. However, if the amount of amniotic fluid inside the uterus is too little or too great, complications can occur.
This article looks at the many functions of amniotic fluid, as well as what happens when the levels of amniotic fluid are either too high or too low.
Fast facts on amniotic fluid
At first, amniotic fluid consists of water from the mother’s body, but gradually, the larger proportion is made up of the baby’s urine.
It also contains important nutrients, hormones, and antibodies and it helps protect the baby from bumps and injury.
If the levels of amniotic fluid levels are too low or too high, this can pose a problem.
Share on PinterestAmniotic fluid protects and nourishes the baby in the womb.
While a baby is in the womb, it is situated within the amniotic sac, a bag formed of two membranes, the amnion, and the chorion. The fetus grows and develops inside this sac, surrounded by amniotic fluid.
Initially, the fluid is comprised of water produced by the mother. By around 20 week’s gestation, however, this is entirely replaced by fetal urine, as the fetus swallows and excretes the fluid.
Amniotic fluid also contains vital components, such as nutrients, hormones, and infection-fighting antibodies.
When amniotic fluid is green or brown, this indicates that the baby has passed meconium before birth. Meconium is the name of the first bowel movement.
Meconium in the fluid can be problematic. It can cause a breathing problem called meconium aspiration syndrome that occurs when the meconium enters the lungs. In some cases, babies will require treatment after they are born.
Amniotic fluid is responsible for:
Protecting the fetus: The fluid cushions the baby from outside pressures, acting as a shock absorber.
Temperature control: The fluid insulates the baby, keeping it warm and maintaining a regular temperature.
Infection control: The amniotic fluid contains antibodies.
Lung and digestive system development: By breathing and swallowing the amniotic fluid, the baby practices using the muscles of these systems as they grow.
Muscle and bone development: As the baby floats inside the amniotic sac, it has the freedom to move about, giving muscles and bones the opportunity to develop properly.
Lubrication Amniotic fluid prevents parts of the body such as the fingers and toes from growing together; webbing can occur if amniotic fluid levels are low.
Umbilical cord support: Fluid in the uterus prevents the umbilical cord from being compressed. This cord transports food and oxygen from the placenta to the growing fetus.
Normally, the level of amniotic fluid is at its highest around 36 of pregnancy, measuring around 1 quart. This level decreases as birth nears.
When the waters break, the amniotic sac tears. The amniotic fluid contained within the sac then begins to leak out via the cervix and vagina.
The waters usually break toward the end of the first stage of labor. According to Today’s Parent, only about 15 percent of waters break upon the onset of labor. When this happens, it is time to contact the health provider as delivery may be imminent.
Some conditions can cause there to be more or less than the normal amounts of amniotic fluid.
Oligohydramnios is when there is too little amniotic fluid.
Polyhydramnios, also referred to as hydramnios or amniotic fluid disorder, is when there is too much fluid.
Low levels of amniotic fluid, referred to as oligohydramnios, occur in 4 percent of all pregnancies and 12 percent of post-date pregnancies.
Oligohydramnios is present when the amniotic fluid index (AFI) seen on ultrasound measures less than 5 cm (a normal index is 5-25cm) and the maximum vertical pocket (MVP) is less than 2 cm.
This may be evident in cases of leaking fluid from a tear in the amniotic membranes, measuring small for a certain stage of pregnancy or if the fetus is not moving as much as it would be expected to.
It may also occur in mothers with a history of any of the following medical conditions:
prior growth-restricted pregnancies
chronic high blood pressure (hypertension)
problems with the placenta, for example, abruption
multiple pregnancies, for example twins or triplets
birth defects, such as kidney abnormalities
delivering past the due date
other unknown reasons, known as idiopathic
Oligohydramnios can happen during any trimester but is a more concerning problem during the first 6 months of pregnancy. During that time, there is a higher risk of birth defects, loss of pregnancy, preterm birth, or neonatal loss of life.
If fluid levels are low in the last trimester, the risks include:
slow fetal growth
the need for a Cesarean delivery
The rest of the pregnancy will be monitored closely to ensure normal development is taking place.
Doctors may use the following tests:
Nonstress tests: This is to check the baby’s heartbeat when it is resting and when it is moving.
Biophysical profiling: An ultrasound scan can detect the baby’s movements, muscle tone, breathing and amniotic fluid levels. This may be followed up with a nonstress test.
Fetal kick counts: This is to time how long it takes for the baby to kick a certain number of times.
Doppler studies: These use sound waves to check the flow of blood in the baby.
In some cases, doctors may decide that labor will need to be induced, in order to protect the mother or the child. Amnioinfusion (the infusion of saline into the uterus), increasing maternal fluids, and bed rest may also be necessary.
There is a higher chance of labor complications, due to the risk of umbilical cord compression. Amnioinfusion may be needed during labor. In some cases, a cesarian delivery may be necessary.
When there is too much amniotic fluid, this is called polyhydramnios. According to the American Pregnancy Association, it occurs in 1 percent of all pregnancies.
Polyhydramnios is present when the AFI is more than 24 centimeters (cm) and the MVP measures more than 8cm.
Fetal disorders that can lead to polyhydramnios include:
gastrointestinal disorders, including duodenal or esophageal atresia, gastroschisis, and diaphragmatic hernia
brain or nervous system disorders, such as anencephaly or myotonic dystrophy
achondroplasia, a bone growth disorder
fetal heart rate problems
Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, which is a congenital growth disorder
fetal lung abnormalities
hydrops fetalis, in which an abnormal level of water builds up inside multiple body areas of a fetus
twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, where one child gets more blood flow than the other
mismatched blood between mother and child, for example Rh incompatibility or Kell diseases
Poorly controlled maternal diabetes also increases the risk.
Too much fluid can also be produced during multiple pregnancies, when the mother is carrying more than one fetus.
Maternal symptoms can include abdominal pain and difficulty breathing due to the enlargement of the uterus.
Other complications include:
premature rupture of membranes
Testing for maternal diabetes may be recommended, and frequent ultrasounds will be obtained to monitor the levels of amniotic fluid in the uterus.
Mild cases of polyhydramnios typically resolve without treatment.
In more severe cases, fluid may need to be reduced with either amniocentesis or a medication called indomethacin. This reduces the amount of urine the baby produces.
Sometimes, fluid leaks before the waters break. According to the American Pregnancy Association, only 1 in 10 women will experience a dramatic flow of fluid as the waters break. For most, it will start as a trickle, or leak.
Sometimes, what looks like fluid leaking is actually urine, because the uterus is pressing on the bladder.
If the fluid has no color and no smell, it will be amniotic fluid, and you should contact a healthcare provider as labor will normally begin soon.
If the fluid is green, brownish-green, or foul-smelling, this may indicate the presence of meconium or an infection. Medical advice should be sought.
Premature rupture of membranes
If leaking or rupture happens before 37 weeks, this is known as premature rupture of membranes (PROM). Depending on how early this happens, it can have serious consequences for the mother and the unborn child. It affects around 2 in 100 pregnancies.
This is known as premature rupture preterm, but it is also possible to have premature rupture at term. That is when 37 weeks or more of pregnancy are complete, but labor does not start spontaneously within 6 hours of the membrane rupturing.
It is important to seek medical help as soon as possible and to avoid having sex or introducing anything into the vagina, as this could lead to an infection.
Anyone who is concerned about leaking or levels of amniotic fluid during pregnancy should discuss this with their healthcare provider.
Child development by weeks | Regional Perinatal Center
Expectant mothers are always curious about how the fetus develops at a time when it is awaited with such impatience. Let's talk and look at the photos and pictures of how the fetus grows and develops week by week.
What does the puffer do for 9 whole months in mom's tummy? What does he feel, see and hear?
Let's start the story about the development of the fetus by weeks from the very beginning - from the moment of fertilization. A fetus up to 8 weeks old is called embryo , this occurs before the formation of all organ systems.
Embryo development: 1st week
The egg is fertilized and begins to actively split. The ovum travels to the uterus, getting rid of the membrane along the way.
On the 6th-8th days, implantation of eggs is carried out - implantation into the uterus. The egg settles on the surface of the uterine mucosa and, using the chorionic villi, attaches to the uterine mucosa.
Embryo development: 2-3 weeks
Picture of embryo development at 3 weeks.
The embryo is actively developing, starting to separate from the membranes. At this stage, the beginnings of the muscular, skeletal and nervous systems are formed. Therefore, this period of pregnancy is considered important.
Embryo development: 4–7 weeks
Fetal development by week in pictures: week 4
Fetal development by week photo: week 4
Photo of an embryo before the 6th week of pregnancy.
The heart, head, arms, legs and tail are formed in the embryo :) . Gill slit is defined. The length of the embryo at the fifth week reaches 6 mm.
Fetal development by weeks photo: week 5
At the 7th week, the rudiments of the eyes, stomach and chest are determined, and fingers appear on the handles. The baby already has a sense organ - the vestibular apparatus. The length of the embryo is up to 12 mm. nine0003
Fetal development: 8th week
Fetal development by week photo: week 7-8
The face of the fetus can be identified, the mouth, nose, and auricles can be distinguished. The head of the embryo is large and its length corresponds to the length of the body; the fetal body is formed. All significant, but not yet fully formed, elements of the baby's body already exist. The nervous system, muscles, skeleton continue to improve.
Fetal development in the photo already sensitive arms and legs: week 8
The fetus developed skin sensitivity in the mouth (preparation for the sucking reflex), and later in the face and palms.
At this stage of pregnancy, the genitals are already visible. Gill slits die. The fruit reaches 20 mm in length.
Fetal development: 9–10 weeks
Fetal development by week photo: week 9
Fingers and toes already with nails. The fetus begins to move in the pregnant woman's stomach, but the mother does not feel it yet. With a special stethoscope, you can hear the baby's heartbeat. Muscles continue to develop. nine0003
Weekly development of the fetus photo: week 10
The entire surface of the fetal body is sensitive and the baby develops tactile sensations with pleasure, touching his own body, the walls of the fetal bladder and the umbilical cord. It is very curious to observe this on ultrasound. By the way, the baby first moves away from the ultrasound sensor (of course, because it is cold and unusual!), And then puts his hands and heels trying to touch the sensor.
It's amazing when a mother puts her hand to her stomach, the baby tries to master the world and tries to touch with his pen "from the back". nine0115
The development of the fetus: 11–14 weeks
Development of the fetus in the photo of the legs: weeks 11
The baby, legs and eyelids are formed, and the genitals become distinguishable (you can find out the gender (you can find out the gender child). The fetus begins to swallow, and if something is not to its taste, for example, if something bitter got into the amniotic fluid (mother ate something), then the baby will begin to frown and stick out his tongue, making less swallowing movements. nine0003
Fruit skin appears translucent.
Fruit development: Week 12
Photo of the fetus 12 weeks per 3D Uzi
Development of the fetus for weeks: Week 14 9000 9000
buds are responsible for production for production urine. Blood forms inside the bones. And hairs begin to grow on the head. Moves more coordinated.
Fetal development: 15-18 weeks
Fetal development by weeks photo: week 15
The skin turns pink, the ears and other parts of the body, including the face, are already visible. Imagine, a child can already open his mouth and blink, as well as make grasping movements. The fetus begins to actively push in the mother's tummy. The sex of the fetus can be determined by ultrasound.
Fetal development: 19-23 weeks
Fetal development by week photo: week 19
Baby sucks his thumb, becomes more energetic. Pseudo-feces are formed in the intestines of the fetus - meconium , kidneys begin to work. During this period, the brain develops very actively.
Fetal development by weeks photo: week 20
The auditory ossicles become stiff and now they are able to conduct sounds, the baby hears his mother - heartbeat, breathing, voice. The fetus intensively gains weight, fat deposits are formed. The weight of the fetus reaches 650 g, and the length is 300 mm.
The lungs at this stage of fetal development are so developed that the baby can survive in the artificial conditions of the intensive care unit. nine0003
Fetal development: 24-27 weeks
Lungs continue to develop. Now the baby is already falling asleep and waking up. Downy hairs appear on the skin, the skin becomes wrinkled and covered with grease. The cartilage of the ears and nose is still soft.
Fetal development by week photo: week 27
Lips and mouth become more sensitive. The eyes develop, open slightly and can perceive light and squint from direct sunlight. In girls, the labia majora do not yet cover the small ones, and in boys, the testicles have not yet descended into the scrotum. Fetal weight reaches 900–1200 g, and the length is 350 mm.
9 out of 10 children born at this term survive.
Fetal development: 28-32 weeks
The lungs are now adapted to breathe normal air. Breathing is rhythmic and body temperature is controlled by the CNS. The baby can cry and responds to external sounds.
Child opens eyes while awake and closes during sleep.
The skin becomes thicker, smoother and pinkish. Starting from this period, the fetus will actively gain weight and grow rapidly. Almost all babies born prematurely at this time are viable. The weight of the fetus reaches 2500 g, and the length is 450 mm. nine0003
Fetal development: 33-37 weeks
Fetal development by week photo: week 36
The fetus reacts to a light source. Muscle tone increases and the baby can turn and raise his head. On which, the hairs become silky. The child develops a grasping reflex. The lungs are fully developed.
Fetal development: 38-42 weeks
The fetus is quite developed, prepared for birth and considered mature. The baby has mastered over 70 different reflex movements. Due to the subcutaneous fatty tissue, the baby's skin is pale pink. The head is covered with hairs up to 3 cm.
Fetal development by weeks photo: week 40
The baby perfectly mastered the movements of his mother , knows when she is calm, excited, upset and reacts to this with her movements. During the intrauterine period, the fetus gets used to moving in space, which is why babies love it so much when they are carried in their arms or rolled in a stroller. For a baby, this is a completely natural state, so he will calm down and fall asleep when he is shaken.
The nails protrude beyond the tips of the fingers, the cartilages of the ears and nose are elastic. In boys, the testicles have descended into the scrotum, and in girls, the large labia cover the small ones. The weight of the fetus reaches 3200-3600 g, and the length is 480-520 mm. nine0003
After the birth, the baby longs for touching his body, because at first he cannot feel himself - the arms and legs do not obey the child as confidently as it was in the amniotic fluid. Therefore, so that your baby does not feel lonely, it is advisable to carry him in your arms, press him to you while stroking his body.
And one more thing, the baby remembers the rhythm and sound of your heart very well . Therefore, you can comfort the baby in this way - take him in your arms, put him on the left side and your miracle will calm down, stop crying and fall asleep. And for you, finally, the time of bliss will come :) . nine0003
What does a child do while it is in the mother’s belly
August 17, 2018
In 9 months, a child goes a long way from a tiny embryo to a chubby baby and already in the womb acquires some features that will remain with him for life: for example , you can understand whether he will become right-handed or left-handed and what kind of food he will prefer. In a fairly short period of time, a lot of interesting things happen to a child, and today we invite you to go through the path from birth to birth with your baby. nine0025
1st trimester of pregnancy 1st–2nd week
So the long journey began. For the first 4 days, the future person is smaller than a grain of salt - its size is only 0.14 mm. However, starting from the 5th day, it begins to grow and by the 6th it almost doubles - up to as much as 0.2 mm. On the 4th day, the embryo "comes" to where it will spend the next 9 months - into the uterus, and on the 8th day it is implanted in its wall.
Around the 20th day of pregnancy, a very important event occurs: the neural tube appears, which will then turn into the spinal cord and brain of the child. Already on the 21st day, his heart begins to beat and all important organs, such as the kidneys and liver, begin to form. The eyes have not yet taken their usual position - the bubbles from which they will then take shape are located on the sides of the head. By the end of the 1st month, the embryo has a circulatory system, and the spine and muscles begin to develop. nine0003
At the 5th week, the hands appear in the embryo, however, the fingers are still very difficult to distinguish, but in the joints the arms and legs are already bent. It was at this time that the external genitalia begin to form, but it is not yet possible to see on an ultrasound whether it is a boy or a girl. By the way, since its appearance, the embryo has grown a lot - it has increased by as much as 10 thousand times. Already now, the baby's face is beginning to form, and the eyes, which will be closed for a very long time, darken, becoming more human-like. nine0003
The 7th week of pregnancy is the time when the baby begins to move, however, so far completely unnoticed by the mother, and the fingers and toes become almost the same as in adults. At this stage, the rudiments of milk teeth appear in the embryo and the reproductive system develops, and the kidneys begin to produce urine. Despite the fact that the growth of the fetus is only 2.5 cm, it acquires its own facial expressions, it has eyelids, and the tip of the nose becomes more defined. nine0003
By this time, the baby has already grown well - its weight is 4 grams, and its height is 2-3 cm. Despite its tiny size, the brain is already divided into two hemispheres, and milk teeth and taste buds are beginning to form. The baby's tail and the membranes between the fingers on the hands disappear, he begins to swim in the amniotic fluid and move even more actively, although still unnoticed by the mother. It was at this time that the child's individual facial features appear, and hair begins to grow on the head. nine0003
At this time, the genital organs are formed in the child, so it is already possible to find out his sex on an ultrasound scan, although the probability of an error is still high. The child still looks a little alien: he has a big head and a small body, but his face is more and more like an adult. The ears are almost in the right position, eyebrows and eyelashes appear. The cartilage that makes up the skeleton gradually ossifies, new blood vessels appear, and hormone production begins. By the way, the baby has already grown up to 6 cm and weighs about 20 grams. nine0003
Baby at 14 weeks pregnant.
Despite the fact that the child's head is half the length of the entire body, the face is more and more reminiscent of an adult, and the rudiments of all 20 milk teeth have already been formed in the oral cavity. The child is already able to put his finger in his mouth, but he will learn to suck a little later. Due to the active formation of blood vessels, the baby's skin is red and very thin, so vellus hair appears on the body - lanugo, which is necessary to maintain a special lubricant that protects against hypothermia. nine0003
2nd trimester of pregnancy 15th–16th week
By the 15th week, the baby has grown to 10 cm and is gaining weight - now he weighs about 70 grams. Despite the fact that the eyes are still quite low, the face is already quite recognizable, moreover, the child begins to “make faces”, since the facial muscles are well developed. By this time, he already knows how to suck his thumb, and the sebaceous and sweat glands begin their work.
17th–18th week nine0003
And finally, the child's auditory canals are formed, so he begins to distinguish sounds well and hears the mother's voice, moreover, he is able to recognize it. In addition to the milk teeth, the embryos of the molars also appear, the bones are finally formed and begin to harden. By the way, the bones of the skull will remain mobile until birth - when passing through the birth canal, they will overlap each other to make it easier for the baby to be born. But the mother is finally beginning to feel the movements of the child, who has grown to 14 cm and 190 grams.
Baby at 20 weeks pregnant.
Despite the fact that the child's eyes are still closed, he is already well oriented in the surrounding space. Moreover, now you can understand whether the child will be right-handed or left-handed, because right now he begins to use his dominant hand more actively. Fingerprints appear on the baby's fingers - another unique sign of each of us. By the way, the child is already beginning to gradually distinguish day from night and is active at a certain time. nine0003
The 21st week is the time when the baby begins to gain weight due to the formation of subcutaneous fat. Soon, the folds that newborns have will appear on his arms and legs. On the 22nd week, those neurons are formed in the brain that will be with a person all his life. Very soon the child will open his eyes, he is already trying to do this, and the eyeballs move almost like an adult.
At 23 weeks, the baby may begin to dream, and his face is so formed that an ultrasound can determine whose facial features he has inherited. His skin becomes opaque, his eyes open, and the child can already react to light, moreover, bright flashes can scare him. By the 24th week, the baby grows to almost 30 cm, and its weight reaches 0.5 kg.
At this time, the taste buds of the child are finally formed and, tasting the amniotic fluid, he can frown if he does not like it. By the way, this is how eating habits are formed - already in the womb we have our favorite and unloved foods. Very soon the child will learn to blink and can already see a little, however, so far it is very, very vague. nine0003
3rd trimester of pregnancy 27th–28th week
Baby at 27–28 weeks of gestation.
If you do an ultrasound at this time, you can see how the baby smiles and intensively sucks his thumb. At this time, the baby has the first "toy" - his own umbilical cord, and he actively studies his body. At the end of the 7th month of pregnancy, the child develops an individual metabolism, which he will have all his life. The baby is already quite large - his weight reaches 1.2 kg, and his height is 35 cm.
The layer of subcutaneous fat is increasing, and the baby is becoming more and more plump and well-fed. In addition, he already knows how to cry, cough, and even sometimes hiccups - this happens, most likely, when he swallows too much amniotic fluid. By the 30th week, the baby's brain is already so developed that it is quite capable of remembering and even analyzing information. nine0003
At this time, a person has all 5 senses, and his daily routine is more and more reminiscent of the one he will follow after birth. The child hears the work of all the organs of the mother, knows her voice perfectly, thanks to which, immediately after birth, he is able to distinguish her from all other people. The baby's immune system begins to produce antibodies that will protect him from all kinds of infections that may lie in wait in the first days and months after birth. nine0003
And finally, subcutaneous fat is already formed, and lanugo disappears from the body of the fetus. By this time, the baby has grown a lot - the length of his body reaches 40 cm, and the weight is very close to or even exceeds 2 kg. The baby's nervous system is already fully formed, but the lungs are still developing.
The child yawns. 3D ultrasound at 36 weeks pregnant. nine0003
At this time, the child looks almost exactly the same as when he was born. He is still quite thin, but the layer of subcutaneous fat is increasing more and more intensively. However, his hair and nails are already fully developed, and he himself becomes so big that he has almost no room to maneuver, so he can move less than in earlier stages.
And finally, the process of forming a person has finally ended - now he is completely ready for birth, and obstetricians consider the pregnancy to be full-term. Lanugo completely disappears from his body and can only sometimes remain on his arms and legs. Since there is almost no space left in the uterus, it may seem to the mother that the child has begun to move more intensively, but in fact, the force of the blows has increased, because the child’s muscles have already completely formed and strengthened. nine0003
The lungs of the child continue to form until the very birth, and only at the time of birth they release the right amount of surfactant - a substance that prevents the alveoli from sticking together after the first independent breath.