By: Dina DiMaggio, MD, FAAP & Julie Cernigliaro, DMD
1. Most babies will develop teeth between 6 and 12 months.
There is a wide range of variability of when a first tooth may appear—some babies may not have any teeth by their first birthday! Around 3 months of age, babies will begin exploring the world with their mouth and have increased saliva and start to put their hands in their mouth. Many parents question whether or not this means that their baby is teething, but a first tooth usually appears around 6 months old.
Typically, the first teeth to come in are almost always the lower front teeth (the lower central incisors), and most children will usually have all of their baby teeth by age 3.
2. Fluoride should be added to your child's diet at 6 months of age.
Fluoride is a mineral that helps prevent tooth decay by hardening the enamel of teeth. The good news is that fluoride is often added to tap water. Give your baby a few ounces of water in a sippy or straw cup when you begin them on solid foods (about 6 months of age). Speak with your pediatrician to see if your tap water contains fluoride or whether your child needs fluoride supplements. Fluoride is not typically found in most bottled water. See FAQ: Fluoride and Children for more information.
3. Massaging sore gums, offering something cold, or acetaminophen, on an occasional rough night, can help soothe your baby's teething pain.
Usually teething doesn't cause children too much discomfort, however, many parents can tell when their baby is teething. Babies may show signs of discomfort in the area where the tooth is coming in, the gums around the tooth may be swollen and tender, and the baby may drool a lot more than usual.
Parents can help ease teething pain by massaging their baby's gums with clean fingers, offering solid, not liquid-filled, teething rings or a clean frozen or wet washcloth. If you offer a teething biscuit, make sure to watch your baby while they are eating it. Chunks can break off easily and can lead to choking. Also, these biscuits are not very nutritious and most contain sugar and salt.
A baby's body temperature may slightly rise when teething; however, according to a 2016 study in Pediatrics, a true fever (temperature over 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit or 38 degrees Celsius) is not associated with teething and is actually a sign of an illness or infection that may require treatment. If your baby is clearly uncomfortable, talk with your pediatrician about giving a weight-appropriate dose of acetaminophen (e.g., Tylenol) or if over 6 months, ibuprofen (e.g., Advil, Motrin). Make sure to ask your pediatrician for the right dose in milliliters (mL) based on your child's age and weight.
Many children, however, will have no problems at all when their teeth come in!
4. Do not use teething tablets, gels with benzocaine, homeopathic teething gels or tablets, or amber teething necklaces.
Stay away from teething tablets that contain the plant poison belladonna and gels with benzocaine. Belladonna and benzocaine are marketed to numb your child's pain, but the FDA has issued warnings against both due to potential side effects.
In addition, amber teething necklaces are not recommended. Necklaces placed around an infant's neck can pose a strangulation risk or be a potential choking hazard. There is also no research to support the necklace's effectiveness. See Teething Necklaces and Beads: A Caution for Parents for more information.
5. You should brush your child's teeth twice a day with fluoride toothpaste.
Once your child has a tooth, you should be brushing them twice a day with a smear of fluoride toothpaste the size of a grain of rice, especially after the last drink or food of the day. Remember not to put your baby to bed with a bottle—it can lead to tooth decay.
Once your child turns 3, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), the American Dental Association (ADA), and the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD)recommend that a pea-sized amount of fluoride toothpaste be used when brushing.
When your child is able, teach them to spit out the excess toothpaste. It is best if you put the toothpaste on the toothbrush until your child is about age 6. Parents should monitor and assist their child while brushing until they are around 7 or 8 years old. When your child can write their name well, he or she also has the ability to brush well.
6. Ask your pediatrician about your baby's teeth and fluoride varnish.
During regular well-child visits, your pediatrician will check your baby's teeth and gums to ensure they are healthy and talk to you about how to keep them that way. The AAP and the United States Preventive Services Task Force also recommend that children receive fluoride varnish once they have teeth.
If your child does not yet have a dentist, ask your pediatrician if they can apply fluoride varnish to your baby's teeth. Once your child has a dentist, the varnish can be applied in the dental office. The earlier your child receives fluoride varnish the better to help prevent tooth decay.
7. Make your first dental appointment when the first tooth appears.
Try to make your baby's first dental appointment after the eruption of the first tooth and by his or her first birthday.
Both the AAP and the AAPD recommend that all children see a pediatric dentist and establish a "dental home" by age one. A pediatric dentist will make sure all teeth are developing normally and that there are no dental problems. They will also give you further advice on proper hygiene. If you don't have a pediatric dentist in your community, find a general dentist who is comfortable seeing young children.
Brushing Up On Oral Health: Never Too Early to Start
How to Prevent Tooth Decay in Your Baby
Brush, Book, Bed: How to Structure Your Child's Nighttime Routine
Give Your Baby the Best Possible Start
Dina DiMaggio, MD, FAAP, is a board certified pediatrician at Pediatric Associates of NYC and at NYU Langone Medical Center. She is the co-author of The Pediatrician's Guide to Feeding Babies and Toddlers, a comprehensive manual written by a team of medical, nutrition, and culinary experts. Follow her on Instagram @Pediatriciansguide.
About Dr. Cernigliaro:
Julie Cernigliaro, DMD, is a board certified pediatric dentist and the Associate Director of the Pediatric Dental Residency Program at Lutheran Medical Center in Brooklyn, NY. She holds a faculty position at NYU College of Dentistry and currently works in private practice at Happy Smile Pediatric Dentistry, PC in NYC.
The information contained on this Web site should not be used as a substitute for the medical care and advice of your pediatrician. There may be variations in treatment that your pediatrician may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.
Teeth development in children - Better Health Channel
The development of primary teeth begins while the baby is in the womb. At about 5 weeks' gestation, the first buds of primary teeth appear in the baby's jaws. At birth, the baby has a full set of 20 primary teeth (10 in the upper jaw, 10 in the lower jaw) hidden under the gums. Primary teeth are also known as baby teeth, milk teeth or deciduous teeth.
Types of teeth
The names of the different types of teeth are:
Incisors – the front teeth located in the upper and lower jaws. Each incisor has a thin cutting edge. The upper and lower incisors come together like a pair of scissors to cut the food.
Canines – the pointy teeth on both sides of the incisors in the upper and lower jaws; used to tear food.
Premolars – which have flat surfaces to crush food.
Molars – these are larger than premolars towards the back of the mouth, with broad, flat surfaces that grind food.
'Eruption' refers to the tooth breaking through the gum line. In babies, tooth eruption is also called teething. The timing of tooth eruption differs from child to child. For example, one child may cut their first tooth when only a few months old, while another may not start teething until they are 12 months old or more.
The exact timing may be different from child to child but the order of tooth development is more consistent.
Generally, the average child has their full set of 20 primary teeth by the age of 3 years.
Managing the teething process
Babies’ immune systems start to change when they are around 6 months old. Along with the tendency to put things in their mouths, this makes them more prone to illnesses. Symptoms of common childhood illnesses such as changes in sleep and eating patterns, fussiness, rash, drooling, runny nose and diarrhoea are often linked to teething when that might not be the cause. If your child has these symptoms, speak to your child’s doctor about other possible causes such as bacterial, viral or middle ear infections.
Teething takes about 8 days, which includes 4 days before and 3 days after the tooth comes through the gum. (You may see a blue-grey bubble on the gum where the tooth is about to appear. This is called an eruption cyst and will usually go away without treatment.) During this time, it can be tough to keep children comfortable.
Some tips include:
Massage – gently massage the gum with clean fingers or a soft, wet cloth.
Chilled (not frozen) teething rings or rusks – pressure from a cold object can relieve discomfort from teething. Do not sterilise plastic teething rings in boiling water or dishwater, unless specified by the manufacturer. Be sure to check product information before buying teething rings. Avoid the ones that use a plastic softener called 'diisononyl phthalate'.
Unsweetened teething rusks or sugar-free teething biscuits – these can be given to infants over 6 months who have started eating solids.
Pain-relieving medications – paracetamol works well for children. Ibuprofen may also help, but it is not as well tolerated by children.
Dry the drool – the skin around the mouth, particularly the chin area, can become irritated. Gently wipe this away with a soft cloth throughout the day.
Some treatments should be used with caution or not at all. These include:
Teething necklaces – amber is believed by some people to release healing oil on contact with warm skin. The oil is thought to be soothing or help to reduce pain. Although amber teething strings or necklaces are designed to be worn around the neck, wrist or ankle, they have been incorrectly used to chew on. The ACCC has issued a product safety statement about amber teething necklaces, warning of possible choking and strangulation hazards. Parents are asked to consider other less risky ways of providing relief from teething.
Teething gels – common teething gels contain 8.7–9.0% of the ingredient choline salicylate. Salicylate is related to aspirin. The use of aspirin for children younger than 16 is not recommended because in some children it has been known to cause Reye's syndrome – a rare but potentially lethal condition that can cause liver and brain damage. Although there has not been a reported case of Reye's syndrome associated with the use of teething gels, the general advice is that it is a risk not worth taking when there are other things available.
Teething gels containing benzocaine are also not recommended for use in children. Research also suggests that teething gels may not relieve teething pain, rather the act of massaging it into the gum is what helps.
Caring for baby teeth
Some parents may feel that caring for baby (primary) teeth isn't as important as caring for adult (permanent) teeth, simply because baby teeth fall out.
However, baby teeth are very important. They allow children to chew food and speak properly, and they reserve the spaces in the gums for future adult teeth.
Tooth decay in baby teeth
Tooth decay is preventable. The risk of developing dental decay can be significantly reduced by good oral hygiene habits and a healthy diet from a young age.
Decayed baby teeth need to be treated by a dental practitioner. In some cases, specialist treatment in a hospital under a general anaesthetic is needed. If neglected, decayed baby teeth can lead to mouth pain, dental abscesses (a boil or swelling resulting from infected teeth), and problems with the surrounding teeth. Severe decay in baby teeth can affect eating and sleep, which can slow growth.
If a baby molar is lost too early due to severe decay, adjacent baby teeth may drift into the gap and create spacing problems for the adult tooth when it comes through.
Watch this Australian Dental Association video about caring for children’s oral health.
Loss of baby teeth
From the age of about 6 years, baby teeth start to become 'wobbly' and fall out to make way for adult teeth. It is perfectly normal for a child to lose their first tooth up to a year or 2 earlier or later than 6 years of age. Girls generally lose teeth earlier than boys. The first tooth to fall out is usually located in the front of the lower jaw.
Losing baby teeth can be unsettling and painful for young children. Suggestions for parents include:
Reassure your child that losing baby teeth is a natural process and new adult teeth will come in their place. It's normal for gums to be tender and bleed a little, although some children experience little or no discomfort while losing their teeth.
Use cold packs or over-the-counter anti-inflammatory or pain-relieving medication to help relieve loose tooth pain. Ask your dentist or pharmacist for recommendations on appropriate medication for your child.
Make use of the Tooth Fairy. This myth has lasted a long time with good reason! The idea of getting some money or another reward in exchange for a tooth might soften the idea of tooth loss for your child.
Permanent teeth are also known as adult teeth or secondary teeth. The permanent teeth start to develop in the jaws at birth and continue after a child is born. By about 21 years, the average person has 32 permanent teeth, including 16 in the upper jaw and 16 in the lower jaw. (In some cases, the third molars – commonly called wisdom teeth – do not develop or do not erupt so some people only have a set of 28 permanent teeth.)
At about the age of 6 years, the first permanent molar teeth erupt. These 4 molars (2 in each jaw) come out behind the child's baby teeth. Other permanent teeth, such as the incisors, canines, and premolars, erupt into the gaps in the gum left by baby teeth that are lost.
As with baby teeth, the timing for when the permanent teeth come through can differ. Generally, the order of and rough timeline for each type of permanent tooth is:
First molars – between 6 and 7 years.
Central incisors – between 6 and 8 years.
Lateral incisors – between 7 and 8 years.
Canine teeth – between 9 and 13 years.
Premolars – between 9 and 13 years.
Second molars – between 11 and 13 years.
Third molars (wisdom teeth) – between the ages of 17 and 21 years, if at all.
Mouthguards protect children's teeth
Mouthguards help protect teeth and prevent dental injuries, particularly when playing and training for contact sports. All children playing contact sports should wear a custom-fitted mouthguard, even primary school-age children. Custom-fitted mouthguards are comfortable, allow speech and do not restrict breathing. Learn more about mouthguards.
Where to get help
Australian Dental Association ‘Find a Dentist’ or Tel. (03) 8825 4600
Dental Health Services Victoria Tel. (03) 9341 1000 or 1800 833 039 outside Melbourne metro - provides public dental services through the Royal Dental Hospital of Melbourne and community dental clinics, for eligible people.
Maternal and Child Health Line (24 hours) Tel. 13 22 29
NURSE-ON-CALL (24 hours, 7 days) Tel. 1300 60 60 24 – for expert health information and advice
Royal Children's Hospital (Dentistry) Tel. (03) 9345 5344
According to the tradition of many peoples of the world, there is a custom to give gifts to a child when the first tooth appears. This ceremony symbolizes the wish of the baby health, happiness and long life. The appearance of the first tooth in a baby for relatives and parents is a solemn moment, but along with this, teething can also be a “restless” period for parents and a baby. I would like to reassure parents and orient them to the fact that teething is a physiological process and should be approached philosophically. Like the inevitable. And timely and correct teething is a guarantee of a healthy unborn child.
What is teething?
Teething is the process of vertical movement of a tooth from its origin and development inside the jaw until a crown appears in the oral cavity. The process of teething begins after the crown has finally formed and is accompanied by its further development, the growth of the jaw bones. Signs of physiological teething are: timeliness, sequence of teething of certain groups of teeth and parity.
There are temporary teeth (more often they are called milk teeth) and permanent ones. According to the number of teeth of temporary teeth 20, permanent bite is 32 teeth. According to modern data, the timing of eruption of the first temporary teeth is considered to be from 4 months. The timing of the end of the eruption is 3-3.5 years. Most often, the first teeth appear at the age of 6 months, and as a rule, the teeth on the lower jaw erupt first - the central incisors, then the lateral incisors, canines and molars. The timing of teething can vary from 4 months to 2 years (earlier eruption) or from 8-10 months to 3.5-4 years (late eruption).
Average terms of eruption of temporary teeth according to (R. Illingworth, 1997)
Eruption period (life month)
First molar (chewing group of teeth)
Second molar (chewing group of teeth)
It should be noted that the quality of nutrition, sanitary and hygienic conditions and pathological conditions of the child (rickets, hypovitaminosis, intoxication, oxygen starvation, the nature of feeding, etc.) significantly affect the process of teething. For example, erratic teething with a violation of the time intervals between a group of teeth, a delay in eruption can be a manifestation of such a pathology as rickets.
Unfavorable manifestations during teething
Temporary teeth are not eternal, that's why they are called so. As the child grows and develops, after a certain period of time, all 20 milk teeth will be replaced. As an exception, in individuals, milk teeth do not change, remaining even in adulthood (most often this occurs due to the absence of rudiments of permanent teeth).
During the eruption of temporary teeth, the child is in a state of "stress" and can often manifest as general somatic disorders. The first signs of teething, often the main ones, are the appearance of swelling of the mucous membrane of the gums in the projection of the erupted teeth. Abundant salivation appears, the child may be irritated, tearful. The eruption of the central teeth often occurs, without any manifestations, with the exception of swelling of the gums and profuse salivation. With the eruption of the chewing group of teeth and the involvement of a larger area of the mucous membrane of the gums, a secondary infection may join, in case of a decrease in the resistance of the child's body. There may be symptoms such as: fever, stool disorder, reddening of the gum mucosa in the oral cavity, loss of appetite. gums, thereby damaging and infecting the mucosa. What can be manifested by the appearance of erosive rashes. And exacerbate this condition.
How to help a child when teething?
To relieve itching of the gums in a child, it is recommended to give hard vegetables or fruits (peeled apple, carrots), a crust of bread to gnaw. It is good to massage the gums with special “teethers” rings or a toothbrush (silicone or ordinary children's with soft bristles). Some rings can be pre-cooled, but you should carefully inspect these devices, purchase them in special places in order to avoid fake non-certified goods and subsequently not harm the baby’s health so that the child does not get hurt. When the temperature rises, antipyretic drugs can be given. To reduce the sensitivity of the mucous membrane and reduce pain in pharmacies, manufacturers of pharmaceutical companies offer special anesthetic gels for topical use. But we recommend using these drugs only as prescribed by a doctor, so as not to cause allergies in the baby and not to miss more serious complications. Contact a specialist pediatric dentist who will conduct an examination and give qualified appointments to improve well-being.
Replacement of temporary teeth
Permanent teeth most often appear at the age of 5.5-7 years. Their eruption practically occurs in the same sequence as temporary teeth. The lower central incisors appear first, then the upper central incisors and in parallel, and sometimes even earlier, the first large molars erupt (the first molars or they are called “sixths” by number). Pay attention Sixth teeth do not fall out! They should serve your child for life. Parents take them for temporary teeth, which is a delusion, especially in the case of lack or poor oral hygiene and damage to this group of teeth. Which can lead to a deplorable result - loss of teeth. But this group of teeth - "First molars" are fundamental in the formation of the correct bite, they are also called the key of occlusion. The shape of permanent "young" teeth differs from more mature ones. The tubercles and the cutting edge of the crowns are more pronounced, especially the cutting edges of the central teeth have a scalloped (wavy edge), the permanent tooth differs in size from the temporary tooth, it is larger. This fact is alarming for some parents. To which we answer, there is no reason to worry, literally a year after eruption, the enamel edge will equalize, become even. And at the expense of the size of the crowns of the teeth, while the child is small (the appearance of the first permanent teeth is 5.5-6 years old), there is a certain disproportion relative to the facial skeleton as the bones of the facial region grow and develop, a harmonious ratio of the face to the teeth occurs.
Average eruption of permanent teeth in children (according to Schroder, 1991)
Terms of eruption (year of life of the child)
First premolar (small molar)
Second premolar (molar)
Third molar (wisdom tooth)
15 and older
15-16 and older
1. In order for the teeth to serve for a long time, and they do not have to “say goodbye” before the appointed time, they need careful care at the moment of their eruption
2. Go to a consultation with a pediatric dentist in advance, who will select hygiene products (toothbrush and paste) for your baby according to his age. He will teach you how to brush your teeth
breakfast and in the evening before bed). Helping to clean hard-to-reach areas from a very early age
4. Limit your child's intake of carbohydrate-containing foods (we do not recommend sweets for children under 3 years old)
5. If the child consumes liquid drinks before bed or at night, they should be replaced with regular, drinking water, without added sugars.
6. The use of toothpastes containing fluoride is very important for children of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug-Yugra
7. Visit the dentist 2 times a year!!!
article prepared by: pediatric dentist Malakhova A. A. Head of TOD - Mokrinskaya N.G.
Photos used in the article from websites:
Teething in a child: terms, care, ways to relieve pain
Children will definitely appreciate the parental contribution to maintaining health teeth when they grow up. In order to help the baby from the very beginning, it is necessary to know the structural features, the stages of formation and the correct order of teething.
Teeth development before eruption
Your baby's teeth should be taken care of long before they erupt. It is useful for expectant mothers to know that the rudiments of milk teeth are formed already at the 7-8th week of intrauterine development, and permanent ones at the end of 4 months. Not just teething timing, but even level enamel mineralization both milk and molars depends on how the pregnancy proceeds. Therefore, it is so critical that a woman receives all the vitamins, microelements and is as healthy as possible.
But not only food is important. The results of the research showed that in the presence of industrial harmful substances in the environment of the expectant mother during pregnancy and numerous stressful situations, the formation of all dental tissues is disrupted in the child and the timing of the appearance of milk teeth is shifted. Among children born to women with high blood pressure, late eruption of temporary teeth was noted in 56.7%. Approximately one third of the examined children born to mothers with heart defects revealed late eruption of temporary teeth, as well as deviations in the pairing and sequence of their eruption. The duration of pregnancy also plays a role. There is a pronounced dependence of the timing of the eruption of the first teeth on the degree of prematurity: the earlier the baby was born, the later the first teeth erupt [1, 2] .
Why baby teeth are needed
Nature has conceived the correct order and timing of teething in children. Evolutionarily, this is due to the need to form the bite and jaw bones for chewing and speech. Over the years, the bones grow, and the milk teeth, which at the beginning of their appearance fit snugly against each other, diverge by the age of 6-7, forming wide, natural interdental spaces for this period - tremas and diastemas.
There are only 20 teeth in the milk bite. This is due to the fact that they must be correctly placed in the small children's jaw of the first years of a baby's life, and excludes crowding of teeth that provokes dental diseases. The last of the milk teeth are replaced at the age of 10-12 years. However, they are very important for the physiological formation of the jawbones and permanent occlusion.
Proper growth and health of milk teeth help:
rebuild the body from lactophoric to a mixed type of nutrition;
reserve space for the normal positioning of future molars;
to form a mixed bite.
There is an erroneous opinion that milk teeth in case of infection with caries can not be treated, but immediately removed. But modern dentists are against such tactics. Early removal is fraught with displacement of neighboring milk teeth and the appearance of problems already with an adult bite. Therefore, it is so important to maintain the presence and health of all milk teeth until the moment when permanent teeth erupt on their own  .
The structure of milk teeth
Temporary teeth have thinner enamel, and their internal pulp cavity is larger compared to permanent ones. All this makes the tooth lighter, which helps with the eruption of permanent teeth, but at the same time accelerates the development of caries and pulpitis. However, there are bonuses: by the time the molars begin to erupt, which will remain with the child until the end of life, the roots of milk teeth even dissolve to ensure their rapid and relatively painless loss.
Terms of eruption of milk teeth
Teething is a genetically programmed event that occurs at a certain period. Physiological teething is characterized by three main features: certain timing, pairing and sequence of teething Galaktionova M. Yu.
Children's milk teething rates differ depending on their ethnicity. But as studies show, in general, the world is experiencing a reduction in the time from birth to the moment when the first tooth appears. This is due, according to most researchers, to the global acceleration of human development  . How and when milk teeth erupt is one of the indicators of a child's physical development.
Causes of violation of the order and timing of teething in children can be:
nature of feeding;
certain diseases, such as rickets.
Standards for eruption of milk teeth according to the American Dental Association are presented in the table.
Upper jaw eruption / month
Lower jaw eruption / month
The specified periods are average indicators, varying depending on individual and family characteristics [4,5] . But the sequence of appearance of teeth is essential, and it is better to track and record it. From a physiological point of view, the correct order of eruption of milk teeth in children is important for bite formation .
Appearance of milk teeth is not an easy process not only for the children themselves, but also for their parents. The most common teething symptoms:
swelling and redness of the gums;
itching and urge to hold hands, toys;
capriciousness of a child;
refusal to breast, bottle or complementary foods;
The following will help you get through this period as comfortably as possible:
special teething rings that relieve itching, especially with a cooling effect;
local anesthetic dental gels;
antipyretic and analgesic preparations;
Gentle massage with a silicone fingertip to soothe and relieve your baby 
Baby Teeth Care
Once the first tooth has erupted, don't put off going to the dentist. Schedule a visit (at least once every 3-4 months). And after the first birthday, it is also desirable to be observed by an orthodontist. If there are no problems, visits to him should be repeated once a year [7,8]
Proper care at home is important.
milk teeth are suitable for an ultra-soft toothbrush with a small head.
Children's mouth rinses are used from about 4 years of age or from the time the child can spit.
Parents should supervise the brushing of preschool children's teeth and, if necessary, help and clean missed areas.
Adults should teach their children to rinse their mouth after meals from a very young age.
Until the child has learned to spit on his own, toothpaste should not contain fluoride.
A bathroom timer or favorite song helps you stick to the 2-minute brushing time.
Solid food should be included in the diet daily in sufficient quantities to properly form the bite and stimulate the gums.
These simple tips help keep baby teeth healthy from the very beginning until they are naturally replaced by permanent teeth.
List of sources
Izmestieva OV, Galaktionova M. Yu., Manashev GG Characteristics of exogenous and endogenous factors affecting the eruption of temporary teeth in children. 2012 // https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/harakteristika-ekzogennyh-i-endogennyh-faktorov-vliyayuschih-na-prorezyvanie-vremennyh-zubov-u-detey (date of access: 21.02.2020)
Galaktionova M. Yu., Izmest'eva OV Timing of eruption of temporary teeth and the nature of feeding children in the first year of life. 2012 // https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/sroki-prorezyvaniya-vremennyh-zubov-i-harakter-vskarmlivaniya-detey-pervogo-goda-zhizni (date of access: 02/21/2020)
Iordanishvili AK, Korovin NV, Serikov AA Anatomical and topometric characteristics of the jaws during eruption and retention of wisdom teeth. 2017 //https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/anatomo-topometricheskie-harakteristiki-chelyustey-pri-prorezyvanii-i-retentsii-zubov-mudrosti (Accessed: 02/21/2020)
Bimbas E. S., Saipeeva M. M., Shishmareva A. S. Terms of eruption of permanent teeth in children of primary school age. 2016 //https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/sroki-prorezyvaniya-postoyannyh-zubov-u-detey-mladshego-shkolnogo-vozrasta (date of access: 02/21/2020)
Shilova N., Berzina S., Brinkmane A., Dulevska I., Umbraszko S., Briede I. Timing and sequence of eruption of milk teeth and factors influencing them. 2017 // https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/sroki-i-posledovatelnost-prorezyvaniya-molochnyh-zubov-i-vliyayuschie-na-nih-faktory (date of access: 02/21/2020)
Bogdanova NA, Zueva TE How to help a child with teething? A new look at an old problem. 2019 // https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/kak-pomoch-rebenku-pri-prorezyvanii-zubov-novyy-vzglyad-na-staruyu-problemu (date of access: 02/21/2020)
Ayupova FS Tactics of treatment of children with anomalies in the eruption of permanent posterior teeth.