We’re talking about the 'fertile window’ – the days in a woman’s menstrual cycle when pregnancy is possible. The ‘fertile window’ depends on the length of the menstrual cycle, which varies among women.
The ‘fertile window’ is the day an egg is released from the ovary (ovulation) and the five days beforehand. Having sex (intercourse) during this time gives you the best chance of getting pregnant.
What day did you your most recent period start?
Number of days in your cycle Please select20 Days21 Days22 Days23 Days24 Days25 Days26 Days27 Days28 Days29 Days30 Days31 Days32 Days33 Days34 Days35 Days36 Days37 Days38 Days39 Days40 Days41 Days42 Days43 Days44 Days45 Days
Your ovulation day
Most fertile time
What is an ovulation calculator and how does it help you get pregnant?
This ovulation calculator or ovulation calendar can help you work out your most fertile time. These are the days you are most likely to get pregnant.
It can also estimate your due date if you do become pregnant during your next fertile days.
Others ways to help you work out when you're ovulating:
Notice changes in vaginal mucus
A few days before ovulation, you may notice your vaginal mucus becomes clear, slick and slippery, and feels a bit like egg white.
This is a sign that ovulation is about to happen. It’s the best time to have sex, as sperm travel more easily in this kind of mucus.
Use an ovulation predictor kit
You can use a predictor kit from a supermarket or pharmacy, to test your urine for signs of ovulation. If you start testing your urine a few days before the day you next expect to ovulate, a positive result means you are going to ovulate within the next 24 to 36 hours (one to two days).
Facts about timing
Ovulation is when a mature egg is released from the ovary. The egg then moves down the fallopian tube where it can be fertilised. If sperm are in the fallopian tube when the egg is released, there is a good chance that the egg will be fertilised, creating an embryo, which can grow into a baby.
Pregnancy is technically only possible if you have sex during the five days before ovulation or on the day of ovulation. But the most fertile days are the three days leading up to and including ovulation. Having sex during this time gives you the best chance of getting pregnant.
By 12-24 hours after ovulation, a woman is no longer able to get pregnant during that menstrual cycle because the egg is no longer in the fallopian tube.
There’s almost no chance of getting pregnant if you have sex before or after the fertile window (but if you’re not trying to get pregnant, don’t rely on this – contraception is your best option!).
How to know when you’re ovulating
Knowing when you ovulate can help you plan for sex at the right time and improve your chance of getting pregnant. You can keep track of your menstrual cycles on a chart, in a diary, or on a free period-tracker app on your smartphone.
To work out the length of your menstrual cycle, record the first day you start bleeding (first day of your period). This is day 1. The last day of your cycle is the day before your next period begins.
What is a ‘menstrual cycle’ and a ‘period’?
Some people think the ‘menstrual cycle’ and a ‘period’ are the same thing.
A period is when you bleed (or menstruate).
A menstrual cycle starts on the day when a period starts (day 1) and ends the day before the next period. A cycle’s length is considered normal if it’s between 21 and 35 days. They can vary between women and from one cycle to the next.
Working out your ‘average’ menstrual cycle length
If your menstrual cycles are different lengths (most women’s cycles are) you can work out your average cycle length.
The number of days in a woman’s menstrual cycle can vary month to month. Periods are not always regular. It can be useful to work out an ‘average’ cycle length, based on the length of three menstrual cycles, to estimate when you’re most likely to be ovulating.
If you add the number of days in three cycles and divide the total number by three, it gives you your average cycle length.
Sarah tracked her last three menstrual cycles by counting the time from the first day of one period, to the day before the next period.
Cycle 1 was 28 days; Cycle 2 was 32 days; Cycle 3 was 27 days
28 + 32 + 27 = 87
87 divided by 3 = 29
So the average length of Sarah’s menstrual cycles is 29 days.
Working out your most fertile days
When you know your average menstrual cycle length, you can work out when you ovulate.
Ovulation happens about 14 days before your period starts.
If your average menstrual cycle is 28 days, you ovulate around day 14, and your most fertile days are days 12, 13 and 14.
If your average menstrual cycle is 35 days ovulation happens around day 21 and your most fertile days are days 19,20 and 21.
If you have shorter cycles, say 21 days, ovulation happens around day 7 and your most fertile days are days 5, 6 and 7.
Your most fertile days are the three days leading up to and including the day of ovulation.
Some women have very irregular cycles or find it difficult to work out an average cycle length. This can make it hard to work out when ovulation happens. If it’s all too hard, having sex every 2-3 days covers all bases and improves your chance of getting pregnant.
A woman can get pregnant any time of the month.
A woman can only get pregnant on a few days during her menstrual cycle.
Because eggs and sperm only live for a short time:
Sperm live for around five days.
Eggs can only be fertilised for around 24 hours (one day) after being released from the ovary.
Eggs and sperm need to come together at the right time for fertilisation to happen to create an embryo.
Getting the timing right
If you're trying to get pregnant, timing is everything. Dr Karin Hammarberg explains how to work out when you are ovulating and the right time to have sex to improve your chance of pregnancy.
What are the chances?
Having sex as close as possible to the time of ovulation increases the chance of pregnancy.
If a woman has sex six or more days before she ovulates, the chance she will get pregnant is virtually zero.
If she has sex five days before she ovulates, her probability of pregnancy is about 10 percent.
If she has sex on the day of ovulation, or the two days before, the chance of getting pregnant is around 30 percent.
These are average figures and depend on a woman’s age.
When does preconception health begin?
Professor Sarah Robertson, Director of Robinson Research Institute, University of Adelaide, highlights the key time before pregnancy that your health is most important to ensure your child has the best start to life.
How to know you are ovulating
Kerry Hampton, a registered nurse and fertility specialist, discusses the importance of fertility awareness, and how to determine your fertile window to improve your chances of conceiving.
American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Optimizing natural fertility, https://www.reproductivefacts.org/news-and-publications/patient-fact-sheets-and-booklets/documents/fact-sheets-and-info-booklets/optimizing-natural-fertility/
Berglund Scherwitzl, et al. (2015). Identification and prediction of the fertile window using Natural Cycles. The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care, 20(5), 403-408. doi:10.3109/13625187.2014.988210
Ecochard, R., et al. (2015). Self-identification of the clinical fertile window and the ovulation period. Fertility and Sterility, 103(5), 1319-1325.e1313. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2015.01.031
Pfeifer, S., et al. (2017). Optimizing natural fertility: a committee opinion. Fertility and Sterility, 107(1), 52-58. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2016.09.029
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Stanford, et al. (2002). Timing intercourse to achieve pregnancy: current evidence. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 100(6), 1333-1341.
Stephenson, J., et al. (2018). Before the beginning: nutrition and lifestyle in the preconception period and its importance for future health. The Lancet, 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30311-8 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30311-8
Vélez, M. Pet al. (2015). Female exposure to phenols and phthalates and time to pregnancy: the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study. Fertility and Sterility. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2015.01.005
Verón, G. L., et al. (2018). Impact of age, clinical conditions, and lifestyle on routine semen parameters and sperm kinematics. Fertility and Sterility, 110(1), 68-75.e64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2018.03.016
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Page created on: 28/08/2018 | Last updated: 19/10/2022
How Healthy Weight Can Boost Your Fertility
Eating a healthy, balanced diet and exercising regularly are two of the best things you can do to improve your overall health and fertility. Both habits contribute to a healthy weight, which increases your chance of a pregnancy and healthy baby.
Women planning a pregnancy should also supplement their diet with folate and iodine – micronutrients that reduce the risk of birth defects such as spina bifida and cleft palate. You can read more about this below.
If you are a man or woman who is overweight or underweight it can take longer to conceive.
Why? For women, it can alter hormone levels that affect the menstrual cycle and egg quality. And for men, it can reduce sperm quality and cause erection problems. Being overweight can also reduce libido (sex drive) for both men and women.
It's not about having a perfect body – just a healthy body, because healthier parents have healthier babies.
A man's weight doesn't affect a couple's ability to have a baby.
On average, men who are overweight or obese are not as fertile as men who are a healthy weight.
How can I tell if I’m a healthy weight?
One way to measure whether you're in a healthy weight range is using the Body Mass Index or BMI. You can enter your height and weight into this BMI calculator to find out your BMI number.
A BMI between 18.5 and 24.9 is considered a ‘healthy weight’.
A BMI below 18.5 is considered ‘underweight’.
A BMI between 25 and 29.9 is considered ‘overweight’.
A BMI over 30 is considered ‘obese’.
You can also measure your waist to indicate whether you have a healthy weight.
The facts about weight and fertility
If you’re not in the healthy weight range, you’re not alone. Most of us carry more weight than our parents and grandparents did when they were our age.
In 2017-18, two-thirds (67 per cent) of Australian adults were overweight or obese, and obesity is on the rise.
Many factors contribute to weight gain, including genetics and the environment you live in, so some people gain weight more easily than others. If you want to aim for a healthy weight, assessing your diet and exercise habits can help you get there. You can read more about what a healthy diet consists of, and how much exercise is recommended, below.
Weight and male fertility
On average, men who are overweight or obese have lower sperm quality than men who are a healthy weight. Being underweight can also reduce a man’s sperm quality and therefore his fertility.
Being overweight or obese can cause hormonal changes that reduce fertility and make men less interested in sex. Men who are very overweight are also more likely to have problems getting and keeping an erection. Together, these factors reduce the chance of fathering a child.
Weight, female fertility and pregnancy health
Being a healthy weight increases your chance of getting pregnant and reduces the risk of complications during pregnancy.
Being underweight can affect your menstrual cycle, making it harder to conceive. And if you are a woman in the obese BMI category, it can take longer to get pregnant and you have a higher risk of:
hypertension (high blood pressure)
the need for medical intervention to bring on labour (induced labour)
Babies born to women who are obese are more likely than babies born to mothers in the healthy weight range to:
be larger than normal at birth
need intensive care after birth
have a birth defect
become obese and have health problems in childhood and later in life.
What you can do
The good news is, there are changes you can make to aim for the healthy weight range. If you or your partner are overweight or obese, losing even a few kilos can improve your chance of getting pregnant.
Losing weight is not easy, and it takes commitment and time. But for most people, it is possible. Research shows that if partners get healthier together, there’s a better chance of success. Having support from a partner, family or friend can help you set up healthy lifestyle habits for the future.
If you are underweight, consult your GP about factors that might be contributing.
Men who eat a healthy diet and exercise regularly can increase the quality of their sperm. See How to get ready to be a dad and Your Sperm and how to look after them.
Ways to make healthier changes
What is healthy eating?
If you want to eat a healthy, balanced diet, try eating a Mediterranean-style diet. The Mediterranean diet has lots of fresh vegetables and fruit, whole grains, legumes, fish and olive oil and very little red meat. It’s linked to good health and recommended by nutritionists. Research suggests it can also boost fertility and reduce the risk of gestational diabetes (diabetes that starts in pregnancy).
To get started on the Mediterranean diet:
Eat more fruits and vegetables. Aim for seven to 10 servings a day of fruit and vegetables.
Switch to whole-grain bread, cereal and pasta and try other whole grains, such as bulgur and farro.
Use healthy fats wherever possible. Replace butter with olive oil in cooking and try dipping bread in flavoured olive oil instead of putting butter or margarine on it.
Eat more seafood. Eat fish at least twice a week but avoid deep-fried fish.
Reduce red meat and replace it with fish, chicken, or beans. If you eat red meat, make sure it's lean and keep portions small.
Enjoy some dairy. Low-fat plain yogurt and small amounts of a variety of cheeses are allowed in moderation.
Limit foods and drinks with lots of sugar in them, including sweet biscuits, cakes, soft drinks and fruit juice.
Avoid fried foods such as French fries and doughnuts.
Avoid processed foods such as crisps and crackers.
Changing your diet can be challenging, so we also recommend:
Avoiding short-term fad diets or changes that you are unlikely to continue in the future.
Setting small achievable goals that you can manage (e.g. taking the stairs rather than the lift, using a pedometer or smart phone app to count your steps each day, swapping juice or soft drinks for water).
Being realistic and building your goals up slowly over time.
It’s best that women planning a pregnancy avoid eating fish that have high levels of mercury, including ling, orange roughy, shark and swordfish, as it can affect their unborn baby’s health. Find out more at Better Health Channel.
Our healthy weight fact sheet and the LiveLighter website offer tips for getting healthier.
The Dietitians Association of Australia can help you create your personal healthy eating plan.
The Australian Government’s Healthy Weight website has information about a balanced diet and explains how much exercise is recommended to reach or maintain a healthy weight.
What does regular exercise mean?
Experts recommend being active every day to prevent unhealthy weight gain and to maintain a healthy weight. This can be done by either:
2.5 to 5 hours of moderate intensity physical activity each week, such as a brisk walk or swimming.
1.25 to 2.5 hours of vigorous intensity physical activity each week – such as jogging, aerobics, fast cycling, soccer or netball.
an equivalent combination of moderate and vigorous activities each week.
You can also include muscle-strengthening activities on at least two days each week, such as:
squats or lunges
household tasks that involve lifting, carrying or digging.
Doing any physical activity is better than doing none. If you do no physical activity right now, start by doing some, then slowly build up to the recommended amount.
While studies show that exercise boosts female fertility it is important to note that a large amount of very high intensity exercise may actually reduce fertility and the chance of having a baby with fertility treatment. So, it’s a good idea to avoid very high intensity exercise, such as marathon running, while trying for a baby.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
For women, unhealthy weight can be associated with a medical condition called polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common cause of infertility. PCOS is a hormonal condition that affects up to one in seven women of reproductive age. Early diagnosis, a healthy lifestyle and medication can improve fertility for women with PCOS. Find out more about PCOS here.
Diabetes in both men and women affects the chance of having a baby but it can be controlled to reduce or remove symptoms. Men and women with diabetes should have a health check at least three to six months before trying for a baby to review general health and diabetes management.
For more information about how to manage diabetes before and during pregnancy visit the National Diabetes Services Scheme (NDSS) Pregnancy & Diabetes website (for women) and Andrology Australia website (for men).
Find out more about diabetes here.
Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S)
Relative energy deficiency in Sport is a syndrome that can affect both male and female athletes. It can affect a woman’s menstrual cycle and fertility. RED-S occurs when a person’s energy intake from food and drinks is insufficient to support the energy expenditure required for bodily functions beyond exercise and sporting activities. One sign of RED-S is weight loss. You can read more about it here.
Vitamin and mineral supplements before pregnancy
Vitamins and minerals (known as micronutrients) are essential for our bodies to function. They occur naturally in the food we eat but can also be taken as supplements.
A healthy diet is the best way to ensure you're getting the nutrients you need, but it is recommended that women planning a pregnancy supplement their diet with folate and iodine.
Research shows these micronutrients can reduce the risk of serious birth defects including spina bifida and cleft palate. Some of the following supplements may also help improve fertility. You can talk to your GP for more information about supplements.
Folate is a B-group vitamin that supports the baby’s brain and spinal cord to develop properly, during the very early stages of pregnancy. It is difficult for women to get enough folate in their diet. Therefore, it is recommended that women take at least 400 micrograms of folic acid each day, starting at least one month before conceiving, and during the first few months of pregnancy. Your doctor will recommend the right dose for you during pregnancy.
You can get folate through a multivitamin tablet; it’s best to take one specifically for pregnancy or pre-conception because some vitamins, such as Vitamin A, are dangerous if taken in high amounts during pregnancy.
Some studies suggest that folic acid supplementation can improve fertility in some people but it is not yet known if this applies to everyone.
Iodine is also important for the baby’s development. Women planning a pregnancy should supplement their diet with 150 micrograms of iodine each day to support the development of the baby’s brain and nervous system.
It is not known if iodine supplementation directly improves fertility.
Vitamin D supplements may improve fertility in women and men who are vitamin D deficient.
During pregnancy vitamin D is involved in transferring calcium to the growing baby. You can ask your doctor for advice about testing whether you need vitamin D supplements.
Zinc and selenium
Zinc and selenium can reduce the damaging effects of free radicals. Free radicals are waste products from various chemical reactions in the cells in the body. Substances that produce free radicals include fried foods, alcohol, tobacco smoke, pesticides and air pollutants.
High levels of free radicals can cause health problems. Studies of infertile men have found that zinc and selenium can reduce the damage to sperm caused by free radicals and improve sperm quality. Whether this improves their chance of fathering a child is not yet known but it may be a good idea for men who want to be fathers to boost their zinc and selenium intake. The easiest way to do this is through a healthy diet. Supplements are also available from pharmacies.
It is not known if zinc or selenium supplements improve female fertility.
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Page created on: 29/08/2018 | Last updated: 19/10/2022
When is a woman most fertile?
If you are a woman taking precautions to prevent pregnancy, or if you are thinking about pregnancy in some way in the future, the issue of fertility usually remains in the background.
The question of when a woman is most fertile has two aspects.
First, is the menstrual monthly cycle and the period when a woman is most fertile.
To figure out the arithmetic, a fertility calendar or an ovulation calculator will help. The second aspect of the question concerns biological age and the stage of life at which women are most fertile. In our article, we will look at the monthly cycle, the days that are the most fertile during this cycle, and various means of monitoring and predicting ovulation. This makes it possible to predict the time of maximum fertility with some accuracy.
Second , we look at the stages of fertility at various times in a woman's life and their impact on her ability to conceive.
It is well known that fertility peaks at age 20 and begins to decline after age 30; after 35 years, natural conception rates begin to drop sharply. However, in today's society, many women, for understandable financial and social reasons, choose to delay childbearing until the age of thirty. Thus, we are faced with the paradoxical situation where many women, who have long sought to prevent pregnancy in their younger years, find themselves in a situation where they begin to look for ways to increase their chances of conceiving.
When is a woman most fertile? What does the menstrual cycle show?
In a woman, the ability to conceive is maximum a day or two before and after ovulation. This is when the egg is released from the ovaries. You can calculate with a reasonable degree of accuracy when ovulation will occur, especially if your cycle is regular, anywhere between 24 and 35 days. Consider the start of your period (bright spotting) as the first day of your cycle, and the day before the next as the end of your cycle. Ovulation usually occurs 12-16 days before the start of the next cycle. Thus, if you have a regular 28-day cycle, then the indicator remains the same: ovulation occurs on the 12th-16th day. However, fertile time is not limited to these few days. Remember that you can get pregnant if you have unprotected sex at any time during the week before ovulation, as sperm can live in a woman's genital tract for up to seven days.
Fertility specialists generally advise that if you are hoping to get pregnant, it is advisable to specifically schedule contacts around this time, as it can be difficult to calculate the exact day of ovulation, and trying to have sex on a schedule can cause unnecessary stress and anxiety. For the best chance of getting pregnant as long as there are no underlying fertility problems, it is recommended to have intercourse every 2-3 days during your cycle. In addition, fertility calendars, an ovulation test, and self-monitoring for signs of ovulation can help predict the ideal time to conceive.
It could be an old-fashioned pen and paper, a spreadsheet, or one of the many online calendars available. They are also known as ovulation calendars or ovulation calculators. They all do the same thing: keep track of your menstrual cycle dates and use the 12-16 day calculation outlined above to determine the days on which you are most likely to conceive.
These are test kits that measure the level of luteinizing hormone (LH) in your urine. The essence of the measurement is to capture the surge in LH levels that occurs during your cycle a couple of days before ovulation. There are also tests that measure the same hormone pulsation but use a saliva sample. In these tests, saliva takes on the appearance of a fern-like pattern when it dries on glass. However, the most accurate analysis that allows you to track the LH peak is a urinalysis (rarely used in routine practice).
Self-monitoring for signs of impending ovulation
Self-monitoring includes taking temperature every morning after waking up, as well as monitoring the quality and consistency of vaginal mucus secretions. This must continue for several months so that ovulation can be tracked. This is the least reliable of the methods, because there can be many different causes of body temperature fluctuations (night rises, colds, blood sugar fluctuations), and in fact, many girls rightly find this procedure tedious and difficult to perform.
Ovulation and pregnancy | Huggies® Official Website
How does ovulation and fertilization occur?
When does pregnancy occur? Right after ovulation?
So how do you calculate ovulation?
What should be the sensations after ovulation?
When will signs of pregnancy appear after ovulation and conception?
Why did not conception occur after ovulation?
Ovulation is a special event. It means that a woman has begun a period in which she can give a new life. How to calculate the date of ovulation? What are the best days for getting pregnant? How long after ovulation does conception occur? We answer the questions of expectant mothers.
How does ovulation and fertilization occur?
In the first phase of the menstrual cycle, follicle maturation begins in one of the ovaries. This small vesicle consists of an ovum enclosed in a "shell" of connective tissue. The follicle grows from 1 mm to 12–16 mm 1 and then bursts, releasing the egg into the fallopian tube. This moment is called ovulation.
What happens after ovulation? The egg becomes available for fertilization. For this to happen, there must be enough sperm in the fallopian tube. Contrary to popular belief, the winner will not be the most agile of them all. The ovum is surrounded by a special membrane called the "radiant crown" 2 (sounds very nice, doesn't it?). First, many fighters will die trying to destroy the protective shell, and only then one lucky one will get inside and fertilize the egg.
When does pregnancy occur? Right after ovulation?
The period in which a woman can become pregnant does not last very long: the egg cell lives only about 24 hours 3 . This gives us the answer to the question of how long after ovulation conception occurs - at any point in this short period. In particular, fertilization can happen almost immediately if the spermatozoa made their way into the fallopian tube even before the egg is released from the follicle.
Some women report that they did not become pregnant on the day of ovulation, but earlier or later. This is impossible in principle, and they are wrong - it's just that the actual date of this event may not coincide with the calculated one. It is normal if ovulation happened a day or two earlier or later than the plan, and under certain conditions (hormonal changes, stress, and others), it can go beyond this. More details in this article.
So how do you calculate ovulation?
Pregnancy begins after ovulation and fertilization of the egg by sperm. It's up to the small thing - to understand when this important event will happen. Take a calendar and look at our drawing. With it, you can calculate the approximate date of ovulation. But remember, this is just a prediction, and that's why we've drawn high, medium, and low pregnancy probability areas around the central day.
Do not try to get pregnant exactly at ovulation. It is better to cover the entire period of high probability with a “queue”. Start having sex for pregnancy 4 days before the planned date and do it every other day: 4th day before, 2nd day before, day of ovulation, 2nd day after, 4th day after. This will greatly increase your chances of success.
Approximate menstrual cycle schedule. Calculations are given for cycles with a duration of 25 to 31 days.
The ideal menstrual cycle is 28 days. In many articles on conception and ovulation, all the reasoning is built around this textbook case. Indeed, it is very convenient - ovulation in it occurs on the 14th day, dividing the cycle into two equal halves. Life is different from the ideal: the duration of the cycle for different women varies, but usually ranges from 25 to 31 days 4 .
Most likely, you will find your case in this figure, but if your cycle is shorter or longer, there is nothing strange in this - the duration is from 21 to 35 days 5 . The following knowledge will help calculate the day of ovulation: with a change in the length of the cycle, its first part usually decreases or grows, while the second remains unchanged and is always about two weeks. Set aside 14 days back from the planned first day of menstruation - get the approximate day of ovulation.
There are many more signs of ovulation that you can check out in this article.
In terms of conception, the menstrual cycle can be divided into the following phases (shown in the figure):
Menstruation. Sex during this period can only lead to conception under very unusual circumstances. For now, relax - auspicious days ahead.
From the end of menstruation to the 6th day to the planned ovulation. The probability of conception at this time is minimal. Most likely, the egg has not only not left the ovary, but has not even matured yet.
5 to 3 days before estimated ovulation date. The chance of getting pregnant increases, and there are two reasons for this. Firstly, the real day of ovulation does not always coincide with the calculated one. Secondly, spermatozoa know how to wait. Most of them will die in the vagina within a couple of hours - its acidic environment fights well not only with bacteria. However, those that can penetrate the uterus are able to live up to three, sometimes up to five days 6 .
Planned day of ovulation plus or minus two days. During this period, a woman is most fertile. Given the lifespan of the egg and sperm, sex these days is highly likely to lead to pregnancy. Of course, if there are no factors that can interfere with this.
3 to 4 days after estimated ovulation date. The chance of getting pregnant is decreasing, but still remains. Do you remember that calculating the day of ovulation is not a very exact science? So anything is possible.
From the 5th day after the planned ovulation until the end of the cycle. Do not seriously expect that you will be able to conceive these days, have sex just for fun. If you have tried to get pregnant on your fertile days, you may have already conceived!
What should be the feeling after ovulation?
During the menstrual cycle there is only one period in which a woman feels the changes taking place in her body. This is menstruation itself, and the sensations from it are very familiar to you. All other phases of the cycle are "asymptomatic".
The answer to the question of how to understand that ovulation was successful is prosaic: no way. The woman's body simply does not have a mechanism that would tell the brain about it. So, if you woke up with the certainty that today is that very day, these are just mind games that frolicked in a dream with the thought you desired about the joy of motherhood. Although, coincidences also happen :)
When will signs of pregnancy appear after ovulation and conception?
Reliable - not soon. A regular pregnancy test will show two cherished strips only after a delay, a test with increased sensitivity or laboratory analysis - 3-4 days earlier. The final confirmation with the help of ultrasound will have to wait another couple of weeks.
Do not expect pregnancy symptoms immediately after ovulation. While the fertilized egg slowly gets from the fallopian tube to its destination, almost no changes occur in the body. The first signs of pregnancy will appear only 6-10 days after ovulation, when the embryo attaches to the wall of the uterus 7 . And they will be almost invisible:
Change in basal body temperature. If you have been measuring your basal temperature all this time, you will notice a slight drop on the chart, and then a rise to a new, higher level.
Implantation bleeding. In the process of attaching the embryo to the wall of the uterus, the endometrium is damaged - its inner mucosa. In this case, the expectant mother may notice slight spotting.
Pain or cramps in the lower abdomen. Along with bleeding, mild pain may come. Therefore, women often attribute these first signs of pregnancy to early menstruation.
Why did not conception occur after ovulation?
You tried to get pregnant, but your next period started right on time. Why did it happen? Only your doctor can accurately answer this question, but we will list some likely causes.
Anovulatory cycle. Some menstrual cycles do not ovulate and this is perfectly normal 8 . They are called anovulatory and are needed by the body so that it can take a little break from the constant preparation for pregnancy. During the year, a woman experiences 1-2 anovulatory cycles.
Gynecological diseases. Sometimes conception after ovulation does not occur because the woman has gynecological diseases. Inflammation of the ovaries, blockage of the fallopian tubes, and some other conditions can significantly reduce the likelihood of pregnancy, and under certain conditions, even make conception impossible. A gynecologist can identify such diseases and prescribe treatment.
Immune or autoimmune reactions. Spermatozoa are very unusual cells. They contain only half of the chromosome set, and from the point of view of the immune system, they look like mutants. Everything is so bad that nature even had to collect them in special refrigerated bags and hang them outside the man's body. In some cases, the immune mechanisms of a woman can deal with spermatozoa at the time of passage of the cervix 9 . Autoimmune reactions also occur when a man's body destroys them. If the doctor considers that this may be the reason for unsuccessful attempts at conception, he will prescribe tests for both the expectant mother and the future dad.
Poor semen quality. After intercourse, spermatozoa will have to overcome the champion's obstacle course - survive in the aggressive environment of the vagina, break through the cervical mucus in the cervix, get to the right fallopian tube, destroy the protection of the egg. If the spermatozoa of the future dad are not very active, they can go the distance before conception. To exclude this cause, it is necessary to make a spermogram.
When conception occurs after ovulation, future parents take it for granted. If pregnancy does not occur, they often begin to panic and think with horror that they will never hear ringing children's laughter and light steps of tiny legs in their house. Drive unconstructive thoughts away - many couples were able to conceive far from the first time. Try again next month. We believe you will definitely succeed!
Links to sources:
Ovaries: follicles, growth and development disorders.
Pansky, Ben (1982), "Chapter 12: Fertilization", Review of MEDICAL EMBRYOLOGY.
Depares J, Ryder RE, Walker SM, Scanlon MF, Norman CM (1986). Ovarian ultrasonography highlights precision of symptoms of ovulation as markers of ovulation. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 292 (6535): 1562.
Chiazze L, Brayer FT, Macisco JJ, Parker MP, Duffy BJ (February 1968). "The length and variability of the human menstrual cycle". JAMA. 203(6): 377–80.
"Menstruation and the menstrual cycle fact sheet". Office of Women's Health, USA. December 23, 2014.