Influenza (Flu) in Children | Johns Hopkins Medicine
What is the flu in children?
Influenza (flu) is a very contagious viral infection that affects the air passages of the lungs. It causes a high fever, body aches, a cough, and other symptoms. It's one of the most severe and common viral illnesses of the winter season. Most children are ill with the flu for less than a week. But some children have a more serious illness and may need to be treated in the hospital. The flu may also lead to lung infection (pneumonia) or death.
Because of COVID-19, the CDC says getting a flu vaccine is more important than ever to protect yourself and the people around you from flu. Flu vaccines and COVID-19 vaccines can be given at the same time. Talk with your healthcare provider about vaccines.
What causes the flu in a child?
The flu is caused by flu viruses. Flu viruses are divided into 3 types:
Influenza types A and B. These 2 types of viruses cause widespread illness (epidemics) almost every winter. They often lead to more people needing to go to the hospital, and more people dying from the flu. Public health officials focus on stopping the spread of types A and B. One of the reasons the flu remains a problem is because the viruses change (mutate) often. This means that people are exposed to new types of the viruses each year.
Influenza type C. This type of virus causes a very mild respiratory illness or no symptoms at all. It does not cause epidemics. It does not have the severe public health impact that influenza types A and B do.
A flu virus is often passed from child to child through sneezing or coughing. The virus can also live for a short time on surfaces. This includes doorknobs, toys, pens or pencils, keyboards, phones and tablets, and countertops. It can also be passed through shared eating utensils and drinking. Your child can get a flu virus by touching something that was touched by an infected person, and then touching their mouth, nose, or eyes.
People are most contagious with the flu 24 hours before symptoms start, and while symptoms are most active. The risk of infecting others often ends about day 5 to 7 of the illness. Because the flu can be spread before symptoms start, it’s easy to pick up a flu virus. This is true especially with children, who often touch many surfaces and then their mouth, nose, or eyes.
Which children are at risk for the flu?
A child is more at risk for the flu if they:
Are around people infected with the flu
Have not had the flu vaccine
Do not wash their hands after touching infected surfaces
Young children and children with certain underlying health conditions are at increased risk for a hospital stay or severe or complicated influenza infection.
What are the symptoms of the flu in a child?
The flu is a respiratory disease, but it can affect the whole body. A child can become suddenly ill with any or all of these symptoms:
Fever, which may be as high as 103°F (39. 4°C) to 105°F (40.5°C)
Body aches, which may be severe
Cough that gets worse
Runny or stuffy nose
In some cases, your child may also have symptoms such as:
Most children recover from the flu within a week. But they may still feel very tired for as long as 3 to 4 weeks.
It’s important to note that a cold and the flu have different symptoms:
Low or no fever
Sometimes a headache
Headache in most cases
Stuffy, runny nose
Clear nose, or stuffy nose in some cases
Sneezing in some cases
Mild, hacking cough
Cough, often turning severe
Mild body aches
Severe body aches
Extreme tiredness that can last weeks
Sore throat in some cases
A cold is usually mild and often goes away after a few days. The flu can cause severe symptoms and lead to problems such as pneumonia and even death. Many flu symptoms may be caused by other health problems. Make sure your child sees their healthcare provider for a diagnosis.
How is the flu diagnosed in a child?
The healthcare provider will ask about your child’s symptoms and health history. They will give your child a physical exam. The symptoms are often enough to diagnose the flu. Other tests may be done such as a nose or throat swab. This depends on your child’s symptoms and overall health.
How is the flu treated in a child?
Treatment will depend on your child’s symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is. The goal of treatment is to help prevent or ease symptoms.
Treatment may include medicines such as:
Acetaminophen. This is to help lessen body aches and fever. Don't give aspirin to a child with a fever.
Antiviral medicine. This may help to ease symptoms, and shorten the length of illness. The medicine can lessen the chance of developing an ear infection from the flu. It may also be able to decrease other complications including the need for hospitalization. The medicine is most useful if started within 2 days after symptoms start. But it may be started later if the child is having complications or is at high risk for them.
Antibiotics aren’t effective against viral infections, so they are not prescribed. They may be used, though, if your child has developed bacterial pneumonia. Otherwise, treatment focuses on helping ease your child’s symptoms until the illness passes.
Talk with your healthcare providers about the risks, benefits, and possible side effects of all medicines.
Also make sure your child:
What are possible complications of the flu in a child?
The flu can cause severe breathing problems. A child with severe symptoms may need to stay in the hospital. The flu can lead to a lung infection called pneumonia. In some cases, the flu can lead to death.
Children who have other health conditions that affect breathing, such as asthma, are at greater risk for flu complications. Their asthma or other lung condition can also be triggered by the flu.
Children with the flu are also more likely to develop ear infections.
How can I help prevent the flu in my child?
The best way to prevent flu is to have the yearly flu vaccine. Each year, a new flu vaccine is available before the flu season starts. Flu shots and nasal spray are available. Talk with your healthcare provider if you have questions about how vaccines work and how well they prevent flu.
The flu vaccine is most often given as a shot into the muscle. For babies and young children, it's given as a shot in the thigh muscle. In older children, it's given as a shot in the upper arm muscle. It's also available as a nasal spray for healthy children over the age of 2, including teens who are not pregnant. Check with your child’s healthcare provider to see which is the best choice for your child.
The first time a child between the ages of 6 months and 8 years gets a flu vaccine, they will need a second flu vaccine 1 month later. This is to build up protection against the flu. Get your child’s first dose as soon as the vaccine is available. This allows the second dose to be given by the end of October. This will give your child the best protection for the flu season. After the first flu season, your child will need only 1 dose.
The vaccine is advised for all children 6 months and older. But for some children, it’s more critical for them to get a flu shot because they are more likely to have complications from the flu. The flu shot should be given to any child who has any of these:
A long-term heart or lung condition
An endocrine disorder such as diabetes
A kidney or liver disorder
Weak immune system from HIV/AIDS, long-term steroids, or other immune-suppressing medicines
A blood disorder such as sickle cell disease
A flu shot should also be given to:
A child who has a family member with a chronic health condition
A child or teen taking aspirin as long-term therapy
A child with parents or caregivers at high risk of complications from the flu
Some side effects of the vaccine can seem like mild flu symptoms. But the vaccine doesn't cause the flu. Side effects can be prevented by taking over-the-counter medicines such as acetaminophen. Never give your child aspirin without talking to your child's healthcare provider first. Possible side effects of the flu vaccine include:
Soreness in the arm where the shot was given
Short-term symptoms such as mild headache or a low-grade fever for about 1 day after the shot
In rare cases, an allergic reaction in a child who has a severe allergy to eggs. Vaccines are available for those with an egg allergy.
In addition to the flu vaccine, you can do other things to help reduce your child’s risk of getting the flu. You can also:
And you can help prevent your child spreading the flu to others if you:
Have your child cover their nose and mouth when coughing or sneezing. Use a tissue or cough or sneeze in the crook of the arm.
Wash your hands before and after caring for your child.
Clean surfaces in the home that others may touch.
When should I call my child's healthcare provider?
Call the healthcare provider if your child has:
Key points about the flu in children
Influenza (flu) is a very contagious viral infection of the respiratory system.
It causes a high fever, body aches, a cough, and other symptoms.
Most children are ill with the flu for less than a week. But some children have a more serious illness and may need to be treated in the hospital. The flu may also lead to lung infection (pneumonia) or death.
The flu may be treated with acetaminophen, cough medicine, and antiviral medicine. Your child will also need lots of rest and plenty of fluids.
The best way to prevent flu is to have the yearly flu vaccine. The vaccine is advised for all children 6 months and older.
Because of COVID-19, getting a flu vaccine is more important than ever to protect yourself and the people around you from flu.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your child’s healthcare provider:
Know the reason for the visit and what you want to happen.
Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you for your child.
Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed and how it will help your child. Also know what the side effects are.
Ask if your child’s condition can be treated in other ways.
Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
Know what to expect if your child does not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
If your child has a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
Know how you can contact your child’s provider after office hours. This is important if your child becomes ill and you have questions or need advice.
How It Spreads, Causes, Symptoms, Treatments, Prevention
Written by WebMD Editorial Contributors
It’s not always easy to tell if your child has the flu. The illness comes on fast and is more intense than a cold. Kids tend to feel worse during the first 2 or 3 days they're sick.
A sudden, high-grade fever up to 104 degrees F
Chills and shakes with the fever
Headache and body aches
Dry, hacking cough
Vomiting and belly pain
Some parents mistake the flu for a stomach bug. That’s because unlike adults, children with the flu can have nausea, stomach pain, and vomiting.
What Causes It?
Three main types of influenza viruses can give you the flu. Types A and B cause the yearly outbreaks. Type C leads to mild, random cases.
How Does It Spread?
The flu is highly contagious, particularly when kids share close quarters like they do in school classrooms. It spreads when they inhale droplets that are coughed up or sneezed by an infected person, or when they come in direct contact with mucus or spit from someone who has the flu.
Kids can spread the flu a day before their symptoms start, and 5-7 days after they get sick. It can easily move from kid to kid as they share things like pencils, toys, computers, remotes, spoons, and forks. Hand-to-hand contact is another main method.
How Do You Avoid the Flu?
The best way is to get a yearly vaccination. The CDC says all people 6 months and older should get one.
Pregnant women and caregivers of children younger than 6 months or of children with certain health conditions should get the vaccine.
Can the Flu Lead to Other Problems?
Yes. Those can include a sinus infection, ear infection, an asthma flare-up, or pneumonia. Call the doctor if your child's fever lasts more than 3 to 4 days. Also call if they complain of trouble breathing, ear pain, a stuffy nose or head, a cough that won’t go away, or they seem to be getting worse.
Young children under age 2 -- even healthy children -- are more likely than older children to be hospitalized from the complications of the flu.
Can Kids Take Antiviral Medicine?
If the doctor thinks your child is likely to have a complication from the flu, they may give them antiviral medicines like baloxavir marboxil (Xofluza), oseltamivir (Tamiflu) or zanamivir (Relenza).
These medicines can only be prescribed within the first 48 hours of getting sick. They may shorten the flu by 1 or 2 days. In some cases, they can prevent it. They stop the virus from reproducing, so it can’t spread. Still, the best way to prevent the flu is to get the vaccine.
Antibiotic drugs don’t work. They treat bacterial infections, and the flu is a viral infection.
Do Any Home Remedies Work?
Yes. These treatments can help your kid feel better:
Plenty of rest
Plenty of liquids
Using acetaminophen or ibuprofen to lower fever and ease aches -- you can get both in children's versions.
Don’t give aspirin to children or teenagers. It can boost their risk of Reye's syndrome, a rare disorder that can harm their liver or cause brain damage.
The FDA and drug makers say not to give over-the-counter cough and cold medicines to children under age 4. The American Academy of Pediatricians goes higher -- they warn against using them for children younger than 6. Talk to your doctor before you give your child one of these products.
If you have a very young child with congestion, use a nasal bulb to remove mucus. Or spray three drops of saline nasal spray into each nostril. Nasal saline is available in a gel form that can be used to minimize congestion once the nostrils are cleared of mucus
Some children are more likely to have serious complications with the flu. Talk to your doctor as soon as you know your child is sick if they're younger than 5 or has an ongoing (chronic) health condition like asthma or other lung disease, heart condition, or diabetes.
When Should I Take My Child to the Hospital?
Go to the emergency room or call 911 if they have one of the following symptoms:
They have trouble breathing that doesn’t get better after you suction and clean their nose.
Their skin turns bluish or gray skin.
They seem sicker than in any previous episode of illness or doesn’t respond like normal -- for example, if they don’t cry when expected or make good eye contact with you, or if they're listless or lethargic.
They aren’t drinking fluids well, continues to vomit frequently, shows signs of dehydration such as absence of tears, crying less or peeing less (dry diapers), is cranky, or has low energy.
They have a seizure.
Influenza in children
Children get the flu 4-5 times more often than adults. This is because their immune system is imperfect. Children of the first 3 years of age have the most severe course and a high risk of complications at any time from the onset of the disease. Children of large cities attending children's organized groups (kindergartens, schools, sports clubs) are at particular risk. In children living in big cities, immunity can be reduced due to polluted air and malnutrition.
Influenza is an acute, highly contagious infectious disease that affects the upper and lower respiratory tract and is caused by a virus.
The influenza virus is transmitted by airborne droplets through coughing, sneezing and talking and is highly contagious. It is very easily transmitted when children are in the same room for a long time.
The incubation period (the period from the moment of infection to the onset of the first symptoms) is from 1 to 5 days.
Flu symptoms :
The disease develops rapidly, acutely with the onset of chills and fever from 38. 5 to 40 gr. during the first day
In children of the first year of life at the peak of fever, convulsions may occur
Pain and pain in the eyeballs
Pain in the joints, muscles
Loss of appetite
In young children
marbling of the skin, pallor
May present with catarrhal symptoms such as runny nose, sore throat, dry cough
Breastfeeding, restlessness, sleep and wake disturbances may occur in infants.
Children of the neonatal period
Children of the first six months of life
Children attending preschool institutions
From 6 months to 5 years, the course of the disease can be very severe with the development of encephalitis.
Most often influenza is complicated by inflammation of the lungs (pneumonia), bronchitis, and damage to the nervous system. Otitis, sinusitis, inflammation of the heart muscle (myocarditis). In the worst case, inflammation of the brain and its membranes may develop.
It is not uncommon for children to develop laryngotracheitis, which can lead to false croup (an attack of suffocation that causes the airways to close). False croup can be fatal.
Joint complications such as rheumatoid arthritis are also possible, which leads to limited mobility and deformity of the joints.
Treatment of influenza in children
If a child is ill, the first thing to do is to see a doctor. During treatment for influenza, the following guidelines should be followed:
Follow your doctor's instructions
Stay in bed
Drink plenty of water (liquid speeds up the elimination of toxins that are formed during the vital activity of viruses)
Don't force your child to eat if he doesn't want to. Appetite decreases during the flu. It is necessary to follow a diet (light meals in small portions)
Do not wrap the child
It is necessary to ventilate the children's room as often as possible.
Most often, influenza is treated at home, but sometimes it becomes necessary to hospitalize the child in a hospital in case of a severe course of the disease or the development of a complication.
Prevention of influenza in children:
The main type of influenza prevention in children is vaccination. It is indicated for children attending preschool institutions, children who often suffer from colds, children with chronic diseases of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Vaccination is carried out from the beginning of autumn. Vaccination helps to develop immunity against the influenza virus. Even if a vaccinated child becomes ill, he will have a mild illness, and the chance of complications in such children is small. Vaccination can be used in children from 6 months. Vaccination should be done annually.
In addition to vaccination, there are other methods of prevention aimed at improving immunity, such as walking in the fresh air. Physical development, hardening.
Before visiting schools, kindergartens, polyclinics, it is recommended to lubricate the nose with oxolin ointment.
It is recommended to avoid crowded places.
Hands should be washed frequently and thoroughly. Do not touch your face with dirty hands, there may be virus particles on your hands.
If there is a sick person in the house, it is necessary:
Isolate the patient with influenza in a separate room
Regularly ventilate the room where the patient is located
When caring for the sick, use a medical mask
Wash hands with soap after each contact
Perform wet cleaning daily.
Dear parents, watch your child's health! At the slightest sign of a viral infection - consult a doctor!
how and how is influenza treated in a child?
Flu viruses in the midst of an epidemic do not spare anyone, especially babies. Children's immunity is imperfect, at an early age the body is not yet able to cope with the infection, and it needs help. Meanwhile, there are very few drugs that can be given to babies. How to treat flu in children? What medicines can defeat the virus, but will not harm the child's body? The answers to these questions are in the article.
What is the flu - we recognize the enemy in the face
Influenza is an acute infectious disease of viral origin, affecting mainly the upper respiratory tract. In other words, this is a type of SARS caused by a special type of virus. But due to the more severe course and frequent complications, influenza is considered separately from other infections.
Scientists know three variants of influenza viruses: A, B and C (epidemics are usually provoked by the first two). Moreover, within each of them there are many subtypes. A distinctive feature of influenza viruses (primarily A) is the variability of the properties of proteins in their structure. Despite the fact that after recovery, immunity is formed for life, this does not exclude the possibility of getting sick again. Only the next time the disease will be caused by another, already changed, subtype of the virus. This explains the regularity of epidemics.
Like all acute respiratory viral infections, influenza is transmitted:
by airborne droplets from people with obvious and erased forms of influenza - when sneezing, coughing, talking, patients release viral particles into the external environment;
by contact when shaking hands with sick people, as well as when touching surfaces (for example, in public places, transport) that sick people have previously touched: from unwashed hands, the virus is transferred to the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose, eyes.
Those who become ill are contagious for five to seven days after the first symptoms appear. Influenza is a seasonal disease: epidemics occur mainly during the cold period.
Influenza affects everyone without exception, but it is especially dangerous for patients at risk. These are people with chronic diseases, the elderly, as well as children under five years of age: their immune system is not able to fight viruses, so they often get flu with complications and even carry the threat of death.
Signs of the flu: how to identify the disease at a glance
Considering how dangerous the flu is for the smallest, it is important to recognize the disease in time and start the right treatment. This is not always easy, because in terms of clinical manifestations, the disease resembles ordinary acute respiratory viral infections, and an accurate diagnosis can only be made based on the results of the tests. But still there are characteristic differences by which it can be determined that the child has the flu.
So, first, about the similarity of influenza with other SARS. Common manifestations of any respiratory viral infections are a rise in temperature and signs indicating inflammation of the upper respiratory tract mucosa. But if with “harmless” SARS in the clinical picture, a runny nose and sore throat come to the fore, then the flu is characterized by nasal congestion and a dry, painful cough. Symptoms of respiratory tract damage in children are not obvious and appear, as a rule, one to two days later than the symptoms of intoxication.
Now for the differences. The first of these is the onset of the disease. If a simple ARVI progresses slowly, sometimes imperceptibly, then the symptoms of influenza develop rapidly. The state of health deteriorates sharply within a few hours. In children, signs of infectious toxicosis quickly appear: lethargy, poor appetite, sleep disturbance. General weakness, appearing from the very beginning of the disease, is increasing. The child becomes apathetic, withdrawn, irritable, lethargic or, conversely, excited. A high fever is another typical symptom of the flu. In the first hours, the temperature rises to 38 ° C and above) . In common respiratory tract infections, the temperature rarely exceeds 38. 5 ° C, while with influenza it can reach 39-40°С. In uncomplicated cases, fever lasts three to four days, gradually returning to normal. If the fever persists for longer, this is an occasion to urgently consult a doctor to rule out pneumonia and other complications.
As we have already indicated, severe intoxication is expressed with influenza. It is manifested not only by fever, but also by weakness, headaches, muscle pains. Headache is sometimes accompanied by photophobia and discomfort when moving the eyes.
Influenza in young children
Due to the age characteristics of the immune system in children under three years of age, all diseases, including influenza, develop differently than in adults. The onset of the disease is not so abrupt, and the symptoms are usually mild. The baby becomes restless, then lethargic, his appetite worsens. There is no severe fever: the temperature only rises slightly (up to 37.5 ° C) or remains normal at all. Signs of inflammation of the respiratory tract are expressed slightly. Sometimes parents notice a slight cough, sneezing. The skin of the child turns pale, a marble pattern appears on it. Babies often vomit when they have the flu. Toxic damage to the nervous system can also manifest itself in the form of seizures.
Although the symptoms are subtle, the disease in young children is severe and fraught with dangerous consequences. A viral infection is often complicated by a bacterial one; pneumonia can develop against the background of the flu . Therefore, sick children should be under the vigilant attention of parents and pediatricians. If the doctor suspects that the child has the flu, it is likely that he will suggest hospitalization.
This is important
Clinical manifestations of influenza also depend on the form of the disease. Most often it is mild or moderate. But sometimes the disease is severe. In this case, all the symptoms are more pronounced. Rarely, but there are fulminant forms of influenza. The disease develops rapidly and quickly leads to complications that pose a serious threat to life.
The first question that parents ask themselves when their child is sick with the flu is how to treat it? The most correct answer will be given by the doctor. But attentive parents carefully check the appointments of even experienced and respected specialists. Therefore, clinical recommendations for the treatment of influenza in children will be given below.
Following them does not mean resorting to self-treatment. All measures must be agreed with the pediatrician. This is especially true for the use of medications. Not everyone knows what medicines to treat influenza in young children: many of the drugs can harm an already weak body. For example, sometimes parents give their child antibiotics “just in case” for symptoms such as fever and cough. This is a gross mistake: drugs in this group fight bacteria, not viruses. They do not affect the cause of the disease in any way and, moreover, can do harm. And the danger lies not only in side effects. Microbial resistance develops when antibiotics are not administered properly. In other words, drugs stop helping when they are really needed. Treatment of influenza with antibiotics in children and adults is permissible only when the bacterial flora is added (when the fight is no longer with the disease itself, but with complications).
Influenza has long been developed etiotropic, that is, aimed at the cause, therapy. But the number of drugs approved for use in children under three years of age is limited. Below we will tell you what you can give a child with the flu to help a fragile immune system defeat the virus. But first, a little about non-drug methods.
When treating influenza in children, it is very important that they stay in bed. This will help ease the baby's well-being, bring recovery closer and avoid complications.
It is also necessary to provide suitable conditions in the room. Influenza viruses multiply faster in dry and warm air, so you should ventilate the room more often and carry out wet cleaning. It is better to dress the child warmer, but create coolness in the room (18–20 ° C).
It is worth giving your baby as much liquid as possible to remove toxins from the body. The optimal drinking temperature for a child corresponds to the temperature of his body. In addition, children should not be force-fed if they have no appetite.
Pediatricians recommend rinsing your child's nose with saline solutions in case of influenza. They moisturize the mucous membrane, which helps to increase local immunity. Sore throats can be relieved by gargling (use warm herbal infusions).
The main treatment of influenza in children is aimed at eliminating the cause of the disease, that is, at the destruction of viruses. The sooner you can start antiviral therapy, the better. Ideally, it should be started within a day after the first signs of the disease appear, since it is during this period that the pathogens are most active. After 72 hours, antiviral therapy is usually ineffective.
Influenza remedies for children, depending on the principle of therapeutic action, are divided into several groups. Below is a brief description of each of them.
Direct acting antivirals. They directly affect pathogens, inhibiting their activity. This group includes rimantadine, oseltamivir and umifenovir .
Rimantadine-based anti-influenza preparations for children are produced in the form of syrups. Babies under the age of one year are not allowed to give them. According to the instructions, this agent is active against strains of the influenza A virus. Rimantadine and its analogues were widely used in the past during the epidemic season, but it is now confirmed that influenza viruses often show resistance to them .
Oseltamivir is now considered effective against all known strains of influenza A and B viruses. According to the principle of action, it is a blocker of neuraminidase, one of the surface proteins in the structure of the pathogen. Oseltamivir-based agents are active against all influenza viruses (in particular, rare and endemic strains), but are not effective against other acute respiratory viral infections. In Russia, oseltamivir is not available in forms intended specifically for children. Babies over one year old can be given a suspension prepared by dissolving the contents of the capsules.
Umifenovir is another direct antiviral anti-influenza drug. It works with the flu, and with some other types of SARS. Preparations based on umifenovir are available in the form of a powder for suspension preparation (can be used in children from two years old), in the form of tablets (from three years old), in the form of capsules (from six or 12 years old, depending on the dosage). Children under two years of age should not be given.
Homeopathic remedies . Proponents of this method of alternative medicine claim that preparations made from natural active ingredients in microscopic doses treat "like with like". But official science does not recognize homeopathy, and WHO experts categorically do not recommend using such remedies for the treatment of infectious diseases instead of really effective therapy.
Active release drugs . The action of the widely known on the Russian market "Anaferon for children" (number in the GRLS - LP-N (000019) - (RG-RU) and "Ergoferon" (LP-N (000031) - (RG-RU)) is based on the release of new properties when
This is important
There is a lot of debate in scientific circles about the effectiveness of release-active drugs. raises doubts among some scientists.The high degree of dilution of the active substance makes these remedies similar to homeopathic ones.Nevertheless, a number of studies have shown that taking Ergoferon for influenza can speed up recovery.0125
Interferon inducers and immunomodulators . Drugs in this category affect the immune system, enhancing its protective properties, stimulate the production of its own interferon. Alpha-glutamyl-tryptophan in the form of a nasal spray is prescribed for children from the age of one. Other means: meglumine acridone acetate, azoxymer bromide, inosine pranobex - do not have proven effectiveness. Their appointment is allowed only to children older than three years.
Interferon preparations . They contain ready-made natural, or recombinant, interferon, a protein produced by cells in response to the penetration of viruses. These are the only drugs with proven efficacy approved for use in newborns. Interferon preparations for the smallest are produced in the form of rectal suppositories - "Genferon® light" (LSR-005614/09), Viferon® (P N000017/01), Kipferon® (P N000126/01), nasal drops and spray - "Genferon® light" (LP-002309, LSR-009046/10), Grippferon® (R N000089/01, LP-001503), gel - Viferon® (P N001142/02).
When choosing a drug against influenza for children, not only the effectiveness of its impact is important, but also the presence/absence of age restrictions, as well as the convenience of using dosage forms.