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How do i know if my child has the flu
Influenza (Flu) in Children | Johns Hopkins Medicine
What is the flu in children?
Influenza (flu) is a very contagious viral infection that affects the air passages of the lungs. It causes a high fever, body aches, a cough, and other symptoms. It's one of the most severe and common viral illnesses of the winter season. Most children are ill with the flu for less than a week. But some children have a more serious illness and may need to be treated in the hospital. The flu may also lead to lung infection (pneumonia) or death.
Because of COVID-19, the CDC says getting a flu vaccine is more important than ever to protect yourself and the people around you from flu. Flu vaccines and COVID-19 vaccines can be given at the same time. Talk with your healthcare provider about vaccines.
What causes the flu in a child?
The flu is caused by flu viruses. Flu viruses are divided into 3 types:
Influenza types A and B. These 2 types of viruses cause widespread illness (epidemics) almost every winter. They often lead to more people needing to go to the hospital, and more people dying from the flu. Public health officials focus on stopping the spread of types A and B. One of the reasons the flu remains a problem is because the viruses change (mutate) often. This means that people are exposed to new types of the viruses each year.
Influenza type C. This type of virus causes a very mild respiratory illness or no symptoms at all. It does not cause epidemics. It does not have the severe public health impact that influenza types A and B do.
A flu virus is often passed from child to child through sneezing or coughing. The virus can also live for a short time on surfaces. This includes doorknobs, toys, pens or pencils, keyboards, phones and tablets, and countertops. It can also be passed through shared eating utensils and drinking. Your child can get a flu virus by touching something that was touched by an infected person, and then touching their mouth, nose, or eyes.
People are most contagious with the flu 24 hours before symptoms start, and while symptoms are most active. The risk of infecting others often ends about day 5 to 7 of the illness. Because the flu can be spread before symptoms start, it’s easy to pick up a flu virus. This is true especially with children, who often touch many surfaces and then their mouth, nose, or eyes.
Which children are at risk for the flu?
A child is more at risk for the flu if they:
Are around people infected with the flu
Have not had the flu vaccine
Do not wash their hands after touching infected surfaces
Young children and children with certain underlying health conditions are at increased risk for a hospital stay or severe or complicated influenza infection.
What are the symptoms of the flu in a child?
The flu is a respiratory disease, but it can affect the whole body. A child can become suddenly ill with any or all of these symptoms:
Fever, which may be as high as 103°F (39. 4°C) to 105°F (40.5°C)
Body aches, which may be severe
Cough that gets worse
Runny or stuffy nose
In some cases, your child may also have symptoms such as:
Most children recover from the flu within a week. But they may still feel very tired for as long as 3 to 4 weeks.
It’s important to note that a cold and the flu have different symptoms:
Low or no fever
Sometimes a headache
Headache in most cases
Stuffy, runny nose
Clear nose, or stuffy nose in some cases
Sneezing in some cases
Mild, hacking cough
Cough, often turning severe
Mild body aches
Severe body aches
Extreme tiredness that can last weeks
Sore throat in some cases
A cold is usually mild and often goes away after a few days. The flu can cause severe symptoms and lead to problems such as pneumonia and even death. Many flu symptoms may be caused by other health problems. Make sure your child sees their healthcare provider for a diagnosis.
How is the flu diagnosed in a child?
The healthcare provider will ask about your child’s symptoms and health history. They will give your child a physical exam. The symptoms are often enough to diagnose the flu. Other tests may be done such as a nose or throat swab. This depends on your child’s symptoms and overall health.
How is the flu treated in a child?
Treatment will depend on your child’s symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is. The goal of treatment is to help prevent or ease symptoms.
Treatment may include medicines such as:
Acetaminophen. This is to help lessen body aches and fever. Don't give aspirin to a child with a fever.
Antiviral medicine. This may help to ease symptoms, and shorten the length of illness. The medicine can lessen the chance of developing an ear infection from the flu. It may also be able to decrease other complications including the need for hospitalization. The medicine is most useful if started within 2 days after symptoms start. But it may be started later if the child is having complications or is at high risk for them.
Antibiotics aren’t effective against viral infections, so they are not prescribed. They may be used, though, if your child has developed bacterial pneumonia. Otherwise, treatment focuses on helping ease your child’s symptoms until the illness passes.
Talk with your healthcare providers about the risks, benefits, and possible side effects of all medicines.
Also make sure your child:
What are possible complications of the flu in a child?
The flu can cause severe breathing problems. A child with severe symptoms may need to stay in the hospital. The flu can lead to a lung infection called pneumonia. In some cases, the flu can lead to death.
Children who have other health conditions that affect breathing, such as asthma, are at greater risk for flu complications. Their asthma or other lung condition can also be triggered by the flu.
Children with the flu are also more likely to develop ear infections.
How can I help prevent the flu in my child?
The best way to prevent flu is to have the yearly flu vaccine. Each year, a new flu vaccine is available before the flu season starts. Flu shots and nasal spray are available. Talk with your healthcare provider if you have questions about how vaccines work and how well they prevent flu.
The flu vaccine is most often given as a shot into the muscle. For babies and young children, it's given as a shot in the thigh muscle. In older children, it's given as a shot in the upper arm muscle. It's also available as a nasal spray for healthy children over the age of 2, including teens who are not pregnant. Check with your child’s healthcare provider to see which is the best choice for your child.
The first time a child between the ages of 6 months and 8 years gets a flu vaccine, they will need a second flu vaccine 1 month later. This is to build up protection against the flu. Get your child’s first dose as soon as the vaccine is available. This allows the second dose to be given by the end of October. This will give your child the best protection for the flu season. After the first flu season, your child will need only 1 dose.
The vaccine is advised for all children 6 months and older. But for some children, it’s more critical for them to get a flu shot because they are more likely to have complications from the flu. The flu shot should be given to any child who has any of these:
A long-term heart or lung condition
An endocrine disorder such as diabetes
A kidney or liver disorder
Weak immune system from HIV/AIDS, long-term steroids, or other immune-suppressing medicines
A blood disorder such as sickle cell disease
A flu shot should also be given to:
A child who has a family member with a chronic health condition
A child or teen taking aspirin as long-term therapy
A child with parents or caregivers at high risk of complications from the flu
Some side effects of the vaccine can seem like mild flu symptoms. But the vaccine doesn't cause the flu. Side effects can be prevented by taking over-the-counter medicines such as acetaminophen. Never give your child aspirin without talking to your child's healthcare provider first. Possible side effects of the flu vaccine include:
Soreness in the arm where the shot was given
Short-term symptoms such as mild headache or a low-grade fever for about 1 day after the shot
In rare cases, an allergic reaction in a child who has a severe allergy to eggs. Vaccines are available for those with an egg allergy.
In addition to the flu vaccine, you can do other things to help reduce your child’s risk of getting the flu. You can also:
And you can help prevent your child spreading the flu to others if you:
Have your child cover their nose and mouth when coughing or sneezing. Use a tissue or cough or sneeze in the crook of the arm.
Wash your hands before and after caring for your child.
Clean surfaces in the home that others may touch.
When should I call my child's healthcare provider?
Call the healthcare provider if your child has:
Key points about the flu in children
Influenza (flu) is a very contagious viral infection of the respiratory system.
It causes a high fever, body aches, a cough, and other symptoms.
Most children are ill with the flu for less than a week. But some children have a more serious illness and may need to be treated in the hospital. The flu may also lead to lung infection (pneumonia) or death.
The flu may be treated with acetaminophen, cough medicine, and antiviral medicine. Your child will also need lots of rest and plenty of fluids.
The best way to prevent flu is to have the yearly flu vaccine. The vaccine is advised for all children 6 months and older.
Because of COVID-19, getting a flu vaccine is more important than ever to protect yourself and the people around you from flu.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your child’s healthcare provider:
Know the reason for the visit and what you want to happen.
Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you for your child.
Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed and how it will help your child. Also know what the side effects are.
Ask if your child’s condition can be treated in other ways.
Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
Know what to expect if your child does not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
If your child has a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
Know how you can contact your child’s provider after office hours. This is important if your child becomes ill and you have questions or need advice.
Flu Symptoms: When To Bring Your Child Into The Emergency Center
COVID-19 Updates: Get the latest on vaccine information, in-person appointments, video visits and more. Learn More >>
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We are in the midst of one of the most severe flu seasons in a decade. Texas Children’s alongside hospitals across the nation have seen a major jump in flu-related emergency center visits over the past several weeks. It’s important for parents to understand when they should or shouldn’t bring their child into an emergency center with flu-like symptoms. The flu can cause a variety of symptoms and effects, ranging from mild to severe. Most healthy people, including children, can recover from the flu without complications, and don't need to go to the emergency center or seek hospitalization. Symptoms of the flu can include:
Fever or chills
Runny or stuffy nose
A child with these regular flu-like symptoms can usually be cared for at home with fever-reducing medication, like Tylenol or Ibuprofen, clear fluids and bed rest. If diagnosed early enough, some children might benefit from Tamiflu, a medication that requires a prescription from your pediatrician. To ensure your child has fully recovered from the flu, he/she should stay home for at least 24 hours after the fever is gone. If your child's flu-like symptoms return and worsen, or if your child is at high risk for developing flu-related complications (he/she is younger than 2 years old or has a chronic condition like asthma, epilepsy, lung disease, heart disease, sickle cell disease, cancer, etc.), call your child’s pediatrician to seek evaluation.
Click here to schedule an appointment online.
You should seek immediate medical care in an emergency center if your child exhibits any of these core warning signs:
Return of flu-like symptoms with worsened fever, cough
Fast or troubled breathing
Cyanosis, a bluish discoloration of the skin
Dehydration, a lack of fluid consumption (no tears with crying, dry lips and mouth, no urination in more than eight hours)
In adults, core warning signs signaling a need for urgent medical attention include:
Return of flu-like symptoms with worsened fever, cough
Difficulty breathing, or shortness of breath
Pain or pressure in the chest or abdomen
Confusion or altered mental state
Severe or persistent vomiting
Just remember:Although most flu-related illnesses can be treated at home, please seek immediate medical care if you're especially concerned about your child’s health, or if your child exhibits any of the core warning signs. The flu vaccine is the best way to protect yourself and your family from flu infection. It isn't too late to get your flu shot!
Why I give my kids the flu shot
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10 common myths regarding the influenza (flu) vaccine
Katherine Leaming-Van Zandt, MD
Influenza in children
Children get the flu 4-5 times more often than adults. This is because their immune system is imperfect. Children of the first 3 years of age have the most severe course and a high risk of complications at any time from the onset of the disease. Children of large cities attending children's organized groups (kindergartens, schools, sports clubs) are at particular risk. In children living in big cities, immunity can be reduced due to polluted air and malnutrition.
Influenza is an acute, highly contagious infectious disease that affects the upper and lower respiratory tract and is caused by a virus.
The influenza virus is transmitted by airborne droplets through coughing, sneezing and talking and is highly contagious. It is very easily transmitted when children are in the same room for a long time.
The incubation period (the period from the moment of infection to the onset of the first symptoms) is from 1 to 5 days.
Flu symptoms :
The disease develops rapidly, acutely with the onset of chills and fever from 38.5 to 40 gr. during the first day
In children of the first year of life at the peak of fever, convulsions may occur
Pain and pain in the eyeballs
Pain in the joints, muscles
In young children
marbling of the skin, pallor
May present with catarrhal symptoms such as runny nose, sore throat, dry cough
Breastfeeding, restlessness, sleep and wake disturbances may occur in infants.
Children of the neonatal period
Children of the first six months of life
Children attending preschool institutions
From 6 months to 5 years the course of the disease can be very severe with the development of encephalitis.
Most often influenza is complicated by inflammation of the lungs (pneumonia), bronchitis, and damage to the nervous system. Otitis, sinusitis, inflammation of the heart muscle (myocarditis). In the worst case, inflammation of the brain and its membranes may develop.
It is not uncommon for children to develop laryngotracheitis, which can lead to false croup (an attack of suffocation that causes the airways to close). False croup can be fatal.
Joint complications such as rheumatoid arthritis are also possible, which leads to limited mobility and deformity of the joints.
Treatment of influenza in children
If a child is ill, the first thing to do is to see a doctor. During treatment for influenza, the following guidelines should be followed:
Follow your doctor's instructions
Stay in bed
Drink plenty of water (liquid speeds up the elimination of toxins that are formed during the vital activity of viruses)
Don't force your child to eat if he doesn't want to. Appetite decreases during the flu. It is necessary to follow a diet (light meals in small portions)
Do not wrap the child
It is necessary to ventilate the children's room as often as possible.
Most often, influenza is treated at home, but sometimes it becomes necessary to hospitalize the child in a hospital in case of a severe course of the disease or the development of a complication.
Prevention of influenza in children:
The main type of influenza prevention in children is vaccination. It is indicated for children attending preschool institutions, children who often suffer from colds, children with chronic diseases of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Vaccination is carried out from the beginning of autumn. Vaccination helps to develop immunity against the influenza virus. Even if a vaccinated child becomes ill, he will have a mild illness, and the chance of complications in such children is small. Vaccination can be used in children from 6 months. Vaccination should be done annually.
In addition to vaccination, there are other methods of prevention aimed at improving immunity, such as walking in the fresh air. Physical development, hardening.
Before visiting schools, kindergartens, polyclinics, it is recommended to lubricate the nose with oxolin ointment.
It is recommended to avoid crowded places.
Hands should be washed frequently and thoroughly. Do not touch your face with dirty hands, there may be virus particles on your hands.
If there is a sick person in the house, it is necessary:
Isolate the patient with influenza in a separate room
Regularly ventilate the room where the patient is located
When caring for the sick, use a medical mask
Wash hands with soap after each contact
Perform wet cleaning daily.
Dear parents, watch your child's health! At the slightest sign of a viral infection - consult a doctor!
PIG FLU - "Guryev Dental Clinic"
What is h2N1 (swine flu)?
h2N1 (commonly known as "swine flu") is a new influenza virus that causes illness in humans. This new virus was first detected in humans in the United States in April 2009. Other countries, including Mexico and Canada, are also reporting human cases of the new virus. This virus spreads from one person to another, probably in much the same way as regular seasonal flu.
Why is the new h2N1 virus sometimes called "swine flu"?
This virus was originally called "swine flu" because it was found in laboratory studies that many of the pathogens in this new virus were very similar to influenza viruses commonly seen in pigs in North America. However, further studies have shown that the detected virus differs in many ways from that which is spreading among North American pigs. It contains two genes from influenza viruses commonly found in pigs in Europe and Asia, as well as bird genes. Scientists call this virus the "quadruple reassortant."
How did the new h2N1 flu spread in people in the US?
The first confirmed cases of human infection with the h2N1 influenza virus in the United States were in Southern California and near Guadalupe County, Texas. Since then, the virus has spread rapidly, with infections being reported from a growing number of states. An updated number of cases of confirmed h2N1 influenza infections in the United States is continuously posted on the Internet at http://www.cdc.gov/h2n1flu/investigation.htm. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is working with local and state health agencies to investigate the situation.
Is this new h2N1 virus contagious?
The CDC has determined that the new h2N1 virus is contagious and spreads from one person to another. However, at the moment there is no information on how easily this virus spreads between people.
The symptoms of the new h2N1 influenza virus are similar to those of the seasonal flu. These include high fever, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, body aches, headache, chills, and feeling tired.
Many of the infected patients also complained of diarrhea and vomiting. In addition, as with seasonal influenza, serious and even fatal cases have been recorded as a result of the disease caused by this virus.
How serious is the disease associated with the new h2N1 virus?
It is currently unknown how dangerous this virus will become for the general population. CDC staff review the medical records of patients infected with the virus to determine if there are any groups of people who are at particular risk of infection, serious illness, or hospitalization associated with the virus. During seasonal flu, there are certain populations that are at greater risk for serious complications. Among them are people over the age of 65, children under five, pregnant women, as well as people of any age suffering from chronic diseases. At present, it remains unclear whether certain groups of people are at serious risk of developing complications due to infection with the new virus. The CDC is also conducting laboratory tests to determine if any people have natural immunity to this virus based on their age.
How is the new h2N1 virus transmitted?
The transmission of the new h2N1 virus is believed to be identical to that of seasonal influenza. Influenza viruses are mainly transmitted from person to person during coughs or sneezes of sick people. Some people can get sick by touching objects that contain flu viruses and then touching their own mouth or nose.
How long does it take for this virus to spread from an infected person to other people?
The CDC currently believes that this virus has the same spreading properties as seasonal influenza viruses. Studies of seasonal influenza have shown that a person can be contagious 1 day before symptoms appear and 7 days after the onset of the disease. Children, especially younger children, may be potential carriers of the virus for a longer period of time.
Can you get sick with the new h2N1 virus if you eat or cook pork?
No. h2N1 viruses are not foodborne. Infection with the new HIN1 virus through pork or pork products is not possible. Properly processed and cooked pork products are completely safe to consume.
Is there a risk of disease through drinking water?
Tap water treated with existing disinfection methods does not pose a particular risk of transmitting influenza viruses, while providing a high degree of protection against viruses. The susceptibility of the new h2N1 influenza virus to accepted drinking water treatment processes has not been studied. However, recent studies have shown that the level of free chlorine commonly used to purify drinking water is sufficient to inactivate the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza. It is likely that other influenza viruses, such as the new h2N1, will also be inactivated by chlorine treatment. To date, there have been no documented cases of influenza caused by contaminated drinking water.
Can the new h2N1 influenza virus be spread through water in swimming pools, spas, water parks, fountains and other treated water sources used for bathing and swimming?
Influenza viruses infect the human upper respiratory tract. There are no documented cases of influenza virus infection associated with water use. The susceptibility of the h2N1 influenza virus to chlorine and other disinfectants used in swimming pools, spas, water parks, fountains, and other treated water sources used for bathing and swimming has not been studied. However, recent studies have shown that CDC-recommended levels of free chlorine (1–3 ppm [mg/L] for swimming pools and 2–5 ppm for spas) are sufficient to disinfect avian virus. influenza A (H5N1). It is likely that other influenza viruses, such as the new h2N1, will also be disinfected with chlorine.
Can the h2N1 influenza virus be transmitted in and out of bathing and swimming water?
Yes, pools of water used for bathing and swimming are no different from other public places. The modes of transmission of the new h2N1 virus are believed to be identical to those of the seasonal flu. Influenza viruses are mainly transmitted from one person to another during the coughing or sneezing of sick people. Some people can get sick by first touching objects that contain flu viruses and then touching their own mouth or nose.
How can I protect myself from infection?
There is currently no vaccine to protect against infection with the new
h2N1 virus. To prevent the spread of respiratory illnesses such as the flu, normal daily hygiene practices should be followed.
To protect your health, use the following measures:
Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw away the used tissue in the trash.
Wash hands thoroughly and often with soap and water, especially after coughing or sneezing. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers are also effective.
Do not touch eyes, nose or mouth. The infection is transmitted in this way.
Avoid close contact with sick people.
If you are ill, stay home for 7 days after symptoms develop or until symptoms develop within 24 hours, whichever is longer. This is necessary to prevent infecting others and further spread of the virus.
Other important things you can do include:
Follow public health guidelines for school closures, social distancing, and other flu isolation measures.
Be prepared to stay at home for about a week if you become ill; some stock of over-the-counter medications, alcohol-based hand rubs, tissues, and other related items may come in handy to help eliminate the need to go out in public while you are sick and
a carrier of the infection.
What is the best way to avoid spreading the virus through coughing or sneezing?
If you are sick, limit contact with other people as much as possible. If you become ill, stay home for 7 days after symptoms develop or until symptoms develop within 24 hours, whichever is longer. Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw used tissues in the trash can. Afterward, wash your hands after every bout of coughing or sneezing.
What is the best way to wash your hands to avoid getting the flu?
Washing your hands frequently will protect you from germs. Use soap or an alcohol-based hand rub to wash your hands. It is recommended to wash your hands - with soap and warm water - for at least 15-20 seconds. If soap and water are not available, disposable wipes soaked in alcohol-based hand rub or disinfectant gels can be used. They can be found in most supermarkets and pharmacies. When using the gel, rub it into your hands until completely dry. The gel does not require water to act; the alcohol it contains will kill the germs on your hands.
What to do if you get sick?
If you have flu-like symptoms, including fever, body aches, runny or stuffy nose, sore throat, nausea, vomiting or diarrhea, stay at home and avoid contact with other people unless you need to seek medical attention. If you are seriously ill or especially susceptible to complications from the flu, contact your healthcare provider or seek medical attention. The health facility will determine if flu testing is needed or if treatment is needed right away.
If you become ill and have any of the following signs that your condition is getting worse, call your doctor right away.
In children, symptoms that may require urgent medical attention may include the following:
Rapid or difficult breathing
Blueness of the skin
Failure to drink enough
Severe or persistent vomiting
Non-awakening or no response
So excited that the child resists being picked up
Some relief from influenza symptoms, which then returned with fever and increased cough
In adults, among the signs that require urgent medical attention
may be the following:
Shortness of breath or shortness of breath
Pain or pressure in the chest or abdomen
Severe or persistent vomiting
Some relief from influenza symptoms, which then returned with fever and increased cough
Are there medicines to treat the new flu?
Yes. The CDC recommends the use of oseltamivir or zanamivir to treat and/or prevent infection with the novel h2N1 influenza virus. Antiviral drugs are prescription drugs (tablets, solutions, or inhalers) that are designed to treat the flu and stop viruses from multiplying in your body. If you get sick, antiviral medicines can slow down the progression of the illness and help you feel better sooner. In addition, they can prevent serious complications caused by the flu. During the current epidemic, the use of anti-influenza antiviral drugs for the treatment of serious influenza is a priority.
How long does the influenza virus remain active on objects (eg books and doorknobs)?
Studies have shown that the influenza virus is able to survive on surrounding objects with the possibility of infecting a person within 2-8 hours from the moment it hits the surface.
What kills the influenza virus?
Influenza virus is destroyed by high temperature (75-100°C). In addition, some chemical germicides, including chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, detergents (soap), iodophors (iodine-based antiseptics), and alcohol solutions, are effective against human influenza viruses when used at the appropriate concentration for a sufficient period of time. For example, alcohol-based hand rubs and gels can be used to clean hands. Gels must be rubbed into the hands until completely dry.
Which surfaces are more likely to be contaminated?
Viruses can spread when a person touches objects they are on and then touches their eyes, nose or mouth. Viruses are airborne when an infected person sneezes or coughs.
How should household waste be handled to prevent the spread of influenza?
To prevent the spread of the influenza virus, it is recommended that tissues and other disposable items used by an infected person be thrown into the bin.
Wash hands with soap and water after using wipes.
How do I clean my home to prevent the spread of the flu virus?
To prevent the spread of the influenza virus, it is important to keep surfaces (especially bedside tables, bathrooms, kitchens, and children's toys) clean by wiping them down with household disinfectants according to label directions.
How should linen, cutlery and dishes used by people infected with the influenza virus be handled?
It is not necessary to wash linen and cutlery and dishes belonging to the patient separately, but it is important to remember that these items should not be used by others without careful pretreatment. Linens (such as sheets and towels) should be washed using regular laundry soap and dried in a hot dryer. Do not carry dirty linen "in an armful" to the place of washing in order to prevent your own infection. After carrying dirty laundry, wash your hands with soap and water or wipe them with an alcohol-based hand rub. Feedback and Research
What epidemiological studies are being carried out in response to
the current influenza outbreak?
Daily monitoring of the epidemic situation in the world on influenza h2N1. At airports, monitoring (with thermometry) is carried out over the health of citizens entering Russia from countries that are unfavorable for h2N1 influenza. When identifying persons with signs of the disease, they are hospitalized and laboratory examination is carried out to clarify the diagnosis.
What to do if you get sick: 2009 (h2N1) and seasonal flu September 18, 2009 How do I know if I have the flu? Flu is more likely if some or all of these symptoms are present: • high fever* • cough • sore throat • runny or stuffy nose • body aches • headache • chills • feeling tired • occasional diarrhea and vomiting *It is important to note that not everyone with the flu will have a fever. What should I do if I get sick? If you get sick with flu-like symptoms during flu season, you should stay at home and avoid contact with other people while waiting for medical care. Most people with 2009 (h2N1) flu have mild illness and do not need medical attention or antiviral drugs, as with seasonal flu. However, people who are more prone to flu complications should consult with their healthcare provider about testing if they have flu symptoms during that season. These categories of people include: • Children under 5 years old, but especially children under 2 years old • People aged 65 and over • Pregnant women People who have: o Cancer o Blood disorders (including abnormal red blood cell disease) ) o Chronic lung disease [including asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)] o Diabetes o Heart disease o Renal disorders o Liver disorders o Neurological disorders (including nervous system, brain or spinal cord) o Neuromuscular disorders (including muscular dystrophy and complex sclerosis) o Weakened immune system (including people with AIDS) It is also possible for otherwise healthy people to develop severe illness due to the flu, so anyone who is concerned about their health should consult their doctor. Here are the warning signs for which anyone should seek immediate medical attention. What are the warning signs? In children • Rapid or labored breathing • Gray or bluish skin • Not drinking enough • Severe or persistent vomiting • Reluctance to wake up or inactivity • An agitated state in which the child resists being pick up • Some relief from flu symptoms that come back later with fever and increased cough
In adults • Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath • Chest or abdominal pain or pressure • Sudden dizziness • Confusion • Severe or persistent vomiting • Some relief from flu symptoms that come back later with fever and increased cough Is there any medicine for flu (h2N1)2009? Yes. There are antiviral medications that a doctor can prescribe for both seasonal flu and 2009 (h2N1) flu. These drugs can get you back on your feet quickly and can also prevent serious complications. During this influenza season, antivirals are used primarily to treat people with severe illness, including those requiring hospitalization; and also to treat people who are most at risk of getting serious complications from the flu. Your healthcare provider will decide if antiviral drugs are needed to treat your condition. So far, most people with (h2N1)2009 influenza, showed a mild form of the disease, and they did not need medical attention and antiviral drugs, as is the case with seasonal influenza. How long do I have to stay at home if I am ill? The CDC recommends that you stay home for at least 24 hours after your fever has gone, unless you seek medical attention. Your high fever should pass without the use of an antipyretic. You must stay at home and not go to work, school, travel, shop, social events or public gatherings. What should I do when I'm sick? Stay as far away from others as possible to avoid infecting them. If you need to leave the house, for example to get medical care, wear a face mask if you have one, or cover your coughs or sneezes with a tissue. Also, wash your hands frequently to prevent spreading the flu to others. The CDC has posted "Caring for Sick People in Your Home" on its website at http://www.cdc.gov/h2n1flu/guidance_homecare.htm
h2N1 influenza (swine flu): information for parents and guardians (CDC document)
Influenza, caused by a new type of h2N1 virus, is a respiratory disease transmitted from person to person primarily through the air . Most people in the United States infected with the virus have had a moderate illness, but there have been cases of severe illness, including death. Young children, pregnant women, and people with chronic conditions such as asthma, diabetes, or heart disease are at greater risk of complications from the infection. What are the symptoms of the disease? In most children, h2N1 flu symptoms are similar to those of normal flu. These include: • Fever • Cough • Sore throat • Body aches • Headache • Chills and fatigue • Rare vomiting and diarrhea Young children may not show typical symptoms, but they have shortness of breath and weak activity. Children under 5 years of age are more likely to develop a serious illness, including pneumonia, than older children. There is a tendency for more severe influenza in children with chronic illnesses. How to protect yourself from infection? Influenza viruses are mainly spread from person to person through the cough or sneeze of an infected person. The influenza virus can enter the body (in the eyes, nose, or mouth) through the hands when it comes into contact with an infected surface. There is currently no vaccine for h2N1 flu, but with some good practice, including personal hygiene, you can prevent the spread of germs that cause respiratory illnesses like h2N1 influenza: • Teach your children to wash their hands frequently with soap and water for 20 seconds. Parents should also follow this procedure, which will serve as a good example for children. • Teach children to cough and sneeze into a tissue or hand. Parents should also follow this procedure, which will serve as a good example for children. • Teach the children not to come closer than one and a half to two meters from the sick. • Children who are sick should stay at home (out of preschools and schools) and keep their distance from other people until their condition improves. • Refrain from visiting shops, cinemas, or other crowded places in areas where h2N1 flu has been reported. What to do if a child gets sick? • Leave a sick child at home unless they need medical attention. Do not send him to school or preschool. • Give your child plenty of fluids (juice, water, etc.). • Make your sick child comfortable. Rest is extremely important. • If your child has a fever, sore throat, and body aches, you can give him antipyretic medicines that the doctor prescribes according to the patient's age. • If anyone in your home is sick, keep them away from healthy people. • Keep tissues and a tissue basket within reach of the patient. If your child has been exposed to someone with h2N1 flu, ask your doctor if you need antiviral medication to prevent h2N1 flu.