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How to get started on adopting a child
Getting started - AdoptUSKids
Educating yourself, contacting an agency, and attending an orientation meeting are the first steps toward adopting and/or fostering
Although it costs little (if anything) to adopt from foster care, the process of becoming an adoptive or foster parent can be time consuming and requires persistence. On average, it takes from six to twelve months to complete the steps necessary to be licensed to adopt or foster—including submitting an application, undergoing a home study, and attending training.
While some of the steps may seem overly involved or invasive, it is important to keep in mind that everyone is working toward the same goal—ensuring the safety and well-being of children.
Our website is a good place to start your journey to becoming an adoptive or foster parent. Our introduction to adoption from foster care and the information we provide about the children in care and the resources available to families give families a solid understanding of the process and the children.
Child Welfare Information Gateway has a great list of resources of things to consider before adoption, including how to preparing yourself emotionally and considering openness in adoption.
Many families tell us that one of the best sources of information about adopting or being a foster parent is other families.
Find real stories about adoption and foster care on our blog and our YouTube channel.
Connect with a community of more than 200,000 families sharing questions, advice, and experiences on our Facebook page.
Use our state adoption and foster care information pages to find local parent support groups and other resources in your state.
Parents who have fostered and adopted share their motivations, doubts, and lessons learned in this AdoptUSKids video.
Contacting a local agency
To get started or find out more about adopting in your particular state or territory, contact your local public agency and/or one or more private agencies:
Public agency services are usually free or very low cost—and often reimbursable. Public agencies may suggest or require becoming licensed to foster before adopting and will explain to you the reasoning behind this. In short, even if you only intend to adopt, which is permanent, and are not interested in providing temporary foster care, being approved to both foster and adopt can expedite the placement of a child with you for the purposes of adoption. Find out more about foster parenting and the cost of adoption from foster care (usually nothing when done directly through a public agency).
Private adoption agencies guide you through the adoption process in much the same way that public agencies do. Their services may include helping you complete a home study, providing training, helping you find and secure a placement, and identifying or providing support services after adoption. They usually charge for these services up front. Some or all of the fees may be reimbursable.
You can search for local agencies in your state or contact us. Our adoption specialists can help you find contact information for your local public agency and also provide contact information for private adoption agencies in your area that will work with public agencies.
Read the article on our blog, “Five Questions to Ask When Interviewing Agencies” to learn more about selecting an agency to work with.
Attending an orientation meeting
When you contact a local adoption and foster care agency, you will most likely be invited to attend an orientation meeting where you will find out more about:
Children in foster care
Roles and responsibilities of adoptive and foster parents
The process you will need to go through to adopt or foster
Next steps to take on the journey to adoption or becoming a foster parent
If you attend an orientation meeting, all you need to do is:
Show up with an open heart and mind.
Ask questions and listen carefully to what the presenters say.
Take notes on things such as what you have to do next, who your important contacts are, and when the next meeting will happen.
During orientation, you may hear for the first time the real challenges involved with being a foster parent and adopting a child from foster care. It’s natural to become conflicted as your emotions rise to the surface. You don’t have to make any major decisions at this point. The only thing you need to do is decide whether you want to continue to explore becoming a foster or adoptive parent.
Things to do next:
Request to be contacted by an adoption professional in your state.
Meet the children. Learn about the 400,000 children in foster care.
Read real families’ stories and advice from parents who adopted from foster care on our blog.
Getting approved - AdoptUSKids
The processes of getting approved to foster and adopt are very similar. Many states require that families applying to adopt also become licensed to foster
States are increasingly moving toward what is referred to as a “dual licensing” process, meaning that parents are approved to both foster and adopt. There are several good reasons for this trend. Dual licensing acknowledges the need for foster parents, streamlines procedures, avoids delays, and recognizes that the majority of children adopted from child welfare are adopted by their foster parents. It also benefits parents and children in many ways. Parents gain experience parenting, especially parenting children who have experienced trauma, children make fewer moves, and the family begins to bond.
In general, there are four steps to getting approved:
Locate an agency in your state. Find state foster care and adoption information on our website or contact us to be referred to your state agency: 888-200-4005 or [email protected]
Complete an application with the agency you have chosen to work with. This may take place concurrent with the next step, pre-service training.
Attend training. These sessions, usually lasting between four and ten weeks, provide an opportunity to learn about children in care, meet other families, and prepare to integrate a child or children into your family.
Complete a home study. All adoptive families, and some foster families, must complete a home study.
Completing an application
This is where the official paperwork begins and where you will meet the caseworker who will help you through the application process.
In child welfare, generally there are two types of caseworkers—family workers who work with families and child workers who work with the children in care. To make the application process as smooth as possible:
Be open and honest both on the application and in the personal interviews with your caseworker.
Supply the necessary information completely, accurately, and timely.
Ask for help if you don’t understand something.
Agree to maintain confidentiality about children in care and their birth families.
Cooperate with the home inspection and required criminal background and protective service checks (for more information on required checks, see Child Welfare Information Gateway’s summary of state laws on criminal background checks for prospective foster and adoptive parents).
If you have concerns about something specific that might disqualify you from fostering or adopting, talk with your caseworker about it. Some agencies may be able to work with your family, depending on the specifics of the incident and its resolution. If your caseworker finds you to be deceptive or dishonest, or if documents collected during the home study process expose inconsistencies, the agency may not approve your application.
As part of completing an application, you will need to be prepared to provide or consent to:
Letters of reference from your employer and those who know you.
A criminal record check at local, state, and federal levels.
Proof of meeting the minimum age requirement in your state.
Verification of income to meet your expenses. (Please note that you don’t have to be rich to foster or adopt and that most adoptions from foster care are free and any minimal fees associated with it are often reimbursable.)
Participating in preservice training and obtaining a home study
The process of training to become a foster parent or adopt from foster care is generally referred to as “pre-service training” or “pre-adoption training.”
While requirements vary from state to state—and in some cases, from county to county—pre-service training programs are almost always required and usually happen right before or at the same time you’re completing your application to adopt. These trainings help you understand what your new foster or adoptive child has been through and how to best integrate them into your family.
Read more about the training required to be a foster parent and adopt.
After you have completed your application and required training, you and your caseworker will need to complete a home study if you are adopting. In some states, a home study is also required to foster.
A home study is conducted to help you and your agency decide if adoption or foster care is right for you and identify the type of child or children who will be the best match for your family. The process—which includes interviews, home visits, documentation of key information, and reference checks with people who know you well and can speak to your capacity to adopt —concludes with a home study report written by your caseworker. This report will often include the age range and number of children recommended for your family. When adopting, the report will also include the conditions and characteristics of the children that you want and that the caseworker concurs you can successfully integrate into your family.
The home study report is often used to introduce your family to other agencies to help them match your family with a child. If you aren’t given a copy of your home study, ask to see it so you can look it over and correct any inaccuracies.
Find out more about completing a home study.
Hear parents talk about the process and cost of training to be a foster and adoptive parent and undergoing a home study.
Things to do next:
Find information about requirements to foster and adopt in your state.
Learn about the process of being matched with a child.
Read about other ways to help children in foster care.
How to start the adoption procedure
Adoption is a lengthy procedure. It will take not only time, but also patience. And yet, the adoption of a child does not begin with a pile of necessary documents, or a trip to an orphanage. Adoption begins with your decision to do so.
No matter where and when you decide that you want to take on the responsibility of raising a foster child. Maybe you watched a program or public service announcement on TV. Maybe they followed the example of your friends, or dreamed about it since childhood. The important thing is that you think about it. Take your time. Consider the situation. Do not rush to run to the orphanage and look for a child that you like. You have to make one of the most serious actions in your life. Ask yourself why are you doing this? The child should not be a tool for solving your personal problems. If you are lonely, or you have recently lost your own child and are trying to replace him with another, do not make hasty decisions.
You must understand that it is impossible to fence yourself off from the outside world. Discuss your idea with all the family and friends whose opinion matters to you. Prepare yourself and them for the possibility of many difficulties. After all, a child may not be like you and your relatives, not only in appearance, but also in character. There may be health and educational problems. And you and your family will have to deal with them, and not someone else. Soberly assess your financial capabilities. Do you have enough money to provide a child with a decent life? Is there enough space in the apartment for a new family member to feel free? Live with the idea of adoption for a few months. If you are still firm in your decision, you should take the first step towards global changes in your life.
The first step towards adoption
First you need to decide how the relationship between you and the child will be legally fixed.
A child can be adopted. Adoption is when a child becomes your relative, with all the rights and responsibilities. Adoption can be issued for both one person and spouses. In Russia, the secrecy of adoption is provided, so, if necessary, you can hide this fact from others.
Custody and trusteeship is the adoption of a child into a home on the rights of a foster child for the purpose of his maintenance, upbringing and education, as well as for the protection of his rights and interests. Guardianship is established over children under 14 years of age, and guardianship is established over children from 14 to 18 years of age. The requirements for a guardian and trustee are softer than for an adoptive parent. Only one person can be a guardian.
There is also such a thing as a foster family. An agreement is concluded between the adoptive parents and the guardianship authorities. In fact, instead of an orphanage, the child is in the family. The rights and obligations that adoptive parents have are minimal.
And, finally, patronage. The patronage was invented as a tool for the socialization of the child, getting them the necessary experience of living in a family. There is already a tripartite agreement. Between the body of guardianship and guardianship, an institution for orphans and a foster caregiver.
Try to figure out the pros and cons of each form of adoption before talking to child welfare professionals. The more information you have, the more important and necessary questions you can ask professionals.
When this preparatory work is completed, find the telephone number of the local guardianship and guardianship authorities and sign up for a consultation.
Documents required for any form of adoption
In the guardianship and guardianship authorities at the place of residence, you will be asked to write an application for a conclusion on the possibility of being adoptive parents. You must attach to this application:
a certificate from the place of work indicating the position and salary or a copy of the declaration of income;
a document confirming the availability of housing;
certificate of the internal affairs bodies on the absence of a criminal record for an intentional crime against the life or health of citizens;
medical report of a state or municipal medical institution on the state of health of a person wishing to adopt a child, issued in the manner established by the Ministry of Health and Social Development of the Russian Federation;
a copy of the marriage certificate.
Take your original passports with you and pay attention to the validity period of the attached documents. For example, a medical opinion is valid for only 3 months.
The final stage of collecting documents
After checking all the documents, employees of the social protection authorities will come to your home to assess your living conditions. With a positive outcome of the case, you will be given an official conclusion on the possibility of being an adoptive parent. This procedure takes 15-20 days.
When you and social services are in no doubt that you can accept a child into your family, you can look for him. Before you go to one or another orphanage offered to you by a consultant from the guardianship authorities, you need to call there, warn about the visit. Do not forget that you are obliged to personally familiarize yourself with the documents of the child whom you would like to take into the family, including the medical report on the state of his health. Experts also recommend using the right to contact a medical institution for an independent examination of the child.
If you have chosen guardianship or a foster family as a form of adoption, you will be able to take a child into your family very soon. If you decide to become adoptive parents, you have to file an application with the court and wait for its appeal. After that, depending on the decision of the court, the child will be entered in your passport, live and be brought up in your family.
Collecting the necessary documents is not as difficult as it seems. In addition, as soon as you enroll in the School of Adoptive Parents, lawyers will work with you, who will individually help you solve all the problems that arise. But all these steps are just preparation for another life, life next to a child, whose happiness and well-being will now depend only on you.
procedure and legal consequences of adoption, what is needed, conditions, documents, consent of the child, rights and obligations of adoptive parents
creates a benefit for the family
year, 37 thousand children were brought up in Russian orphanages.
In the understanding of many people, "to adopt a child" means to take an orphan from an orphanage. However, from a legal point of view, everything is not so simple. Today in Russia there are several forms of family placement for children, and they are regulated differently by law.
I worked in the guardianship and guardianship authorities for 17 years, 14 of them as a supervisor. In the article I will tell you who and under what conditions has the right to take a child into a family, what documents are required for adoption and how the procedure takes place.
What is adoption of a child
In Russia, there are several forms of placement of orphans and children left without parental care. Federal legislation establishes three main ones: adoption, guardianship and guardianship, foster family. At the regional level, others may be provided, but so far this is only patronage. Briefly describe how they differ from each other.
Custody and guardianship. The most common form of placement for children: often used as an intermediate step on the path to adoption.
Guardianship is established over children under 14 years of age, and guardianship over minors from 14 to 18 years of age. Guardians and trustees have all the rights and obligations of a legal representative in matters of upbringing, education, maintenance of the child and responsibility for him.
Unlike the guardian, the guardian is liable for harm caused by the ward. He is also obliged to make all transactions on behalf of the ward, except for those that the child can conclude personally: for example, these are donation transactions when a minor receives some thing or money as a gift.
Art. 1073, paragraph 2 of Art. 26 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation
The trustee usually must give consent to the transactions of the ward, with a few exceptions: for example, minors aged 14 to 18 years have the right to independently manage their income or make small household transactions.
Art. 12.1 of the Federal Law on state benefits to citizens with children
p. 3 art. 38.1 of the Social Code of the Belgorod Region
Monthly allowance is paid to the guardian and trustee for the maintenance of an orphan child. Its size depends on the region: for example, in the Belgorod region, where I live, in 2022 the allowance is 10,310 R.
In addition, guardians are entitled to a one-time payment from the federal budget - 22,472.77 RUR. This amount is set for all guardians from the Russian Federation, regardless of place of residence.
Lump-sum allowance when a child is brought up to a family
If a child is brought up by a guardian or guardian, the biological parents are not released from the obligation to support him and must monthly transfer alimony to his personal account: the amount of alimony is determined by the court.
st. 148, paragraph 2 of Art. 71 SK RF
At the same time, the guardian decides whether the biological parents will be able to communicate with the child, but if the child is 10 years old, then his opinion will also be taken into account.
Art. 148.1 SK RF
Foster family. This form of arrangement is similar to guardianship, but in addition to child support and a lump sum payment, foster parents also receive remuneration for their work.
Art. 152 SK RF
The amount depends on the region of residence. For example, in 2022 in Moscow it is 18,150 R, and if a family accepts a child with a disability, then the amount of the payment will be higher - 30,885 R.
Clause 2.5.1 of Appendix 1 to the Decree of the Government of Moscow on establishing the amount of social benefits for 2022
In the Belgorod Region, foster parents are paid 8288 R per month for the first child taken in by the family, and for each subsequent adopted child the amount is increased by 20%. If a family accepts up to four children, the remuneration is paid to one of the parents, five or more children to both. In rural areas, there is still a monthly supplement of 25% of the remuneration due to foster parents. Foster parents have more privileges than guardians: they are provided with a 50% discount on utility bills, fuel, gas, telephone.
paragraph 5 art. 148.1 RF IC
Law of the Belgorod Region on Foster Family
Law of the Belgorod Region on Amendments to Article 2 of the Law of the Belgorod Region “On Foster Family”
The seniority can be accrued to both one parent and both - it all depends on who has concluded a civil law contract with guardianship.
Art. 7 Federal Law on compulsory pension insurance
The foster child and biological parents can communicate. Foster parents have the right to prevent this only if communication does not meet the interests of the child.
paragraph 5 of art. 148.1 SK RF
Patronage . Foster care is a relatively new form of family structure, in which the rights and obligations to protect the rights of children are delimited between the foster caregiver and the guardianship and guardianship authority. Laws supporting patronage have been adopted in 42 constituent entities of the Russian Federation, for example, in Moscow, Vladimir, Kaluga, Ivanovo and Kaliningrad regions.
Laws and regulations on patronage of Moscow, Vladimir, Kaluga, Ivanovo, Kaliningrad regions shelter.
The child is transferred to foster care under a fixed-term contract. The period of stay in the family is set individually: it can be a short period - up to six months or a long one - over six months. The maximum term is until the minor reaches the age of eighteen.
For a long term, a child is placed in a foster family only if, for some reason, it is impossible to transfer the child to a guardian, trustee or foster family. In this case, the foster family receives a monthly allowance from the state for the maintenance of the child. The amount is similar to that allocated for guardianship and guardianship. But the right to receive a one-time allowance when a child is adopted into a family does not apply to foster parents.
Foster care gives the child the opportunity to prepare for an independent adult life - this is difficult to do in an orphanage. But this form of arrangement has one big drawback - children often become attached to new families and parting with it causes them stress. With all this, the child does not lose touch with the blood family: he can maintain relations with his parents, if they are not deprived of parental rights and do not pose a danger to him, brothers, sisters and other people significant to him.
9 uncomfortable questions about orphans
Adoption. The Family Code of the Russian Federation considers this form of placement of children a priority: only it allows you to most effectively ensure both the interests of the child and the interests of foster parents.
Adoptive parents completely replace the child's parents. Here there is no such temporary nature of upbringing as in guardianship, guardianship or when transferring a child to a foster family. The state does not provide adoptive parents with any special assistance, with the exception of social support measures established in each subject separately, as well as measures that are provided to all families with children on a general basis.
Adoptive parents can change the child's first and last name. For children under one year old, even the date of birth can be changed, but not more than three months from the actual one. This happens in order to ensure the secrecy of the adoption, as well as for other reasons, if the court considers them valid. In my practice, there was such a case: the spouses raised an adopted boy born on September 8, 2007, and then adopted a girl born on July 25, 2007. The adoptive parents asked the court to change the boy's date of birth to July 25, 2007, so that the children could be considered twins. The court granted the request.
Art. 139 SK RF
art. 155 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation
In many regions, adoptive parents receive benefits for an adopted child. To apply for it, you must apply to the guardianship authorities at the place of residence. For example, in the Belgorod region, the amount of the allowance depends on how much money was allocated for the monthly maintenance of a child in an orphanage in the current year, the adoptive parent is entitled to 50% of this amount. And in the Stavropol Territory, a monthly allowance for adoptive parents is not provided, but a lump sum payment is made - 150,000 R.
cl. 1 art. 60 of the social code of the Belgorod region
art. 2 of the Law of the Stavropol Territory on the amount and procedure for assigning a lump-sum allowance to adoptive parents
In Moscow, the monthly compensation payment to persons who have adopted or adopted an orphan child or a child left without parental care in the city of Moscow is:
18 937 R for each child from 0 to 12 years old who is not a disabled child;
25 249Р for each child from 12 to 18 years old who is not a child with a disability;
R 31,561 for each disabled child.
Clause 2.9 of Appendix 1 to the Decree of the Government of Moscow on setting the amount of social benefits for 2022
Also, adoptive parents are entitled to a lump sum allowance, which is issued for all forms of family placement. From February 1, 2022, this is 20,472.77 R. But in the case of the adoption of a disabled child, a child over seven years old, as well as children who are brothers or sisters, the allowance will be higher - 156,428.66 R. To receive a payment, you need to apply to the Pension Fund at the place of residence.
Lump-sum allowance for the transfer of a child to a family
What is the difference between the forms of placement of a child in a family
Who is considered the child's parents
What rights do carers have
What are the duties of caregivers
How the government supports child caregivers
The rights of adoptive parents are identical to those of natural parents
Obligations of adoptive parents are identical to those of consanguineous parents
Adoptive parents receive payments provided by the regional authorities. Also, adoptive parents receive the right to use maternity capital, if it was not used by the birth mother, and all child benefits in accordance with age. A child who at the time of adoption has the right to a pension and benefits due to the death of his parents retains this right after adoption
The guardian or custodian has the right to raise the child and act as his legal representative
Guardians and trustees are obliged to take care of the maintenance of the wards, to provide them with care and treatment, to protect their rights and interests. At the same time, biological parents are not released from the obligation to pay alimony
Guardians and custodians receive a one-time allowance upon adoption of a child into a family, allowance for the maintenance of a ward, alimony payments, survivor's pension, if it is due to the child
Similar rights as under guardianship
Similar duties as under guardianship and guardianship
The foster family receives a one-time allowance when the child is adopted into the family, a monthly remuneration to the foster parent for the performance of duties and an allowance for the maintenance of the child in the family of the guardian, depending on the legislation of the region, benefits for utilities. The period while the child is in the family is counted towards the foster parents in the insurance period
Determine the daily routine of the pupil, resolve the current issues of the pupil's life in accordance with the plan for the protection of the rights of the child and the concluded agreement
Raise a child, protect his rights and legitimate interests, take care of his health and development
The amount of payment for a foster caregiver is determined by a fixed-term employment contract of the region. The monthly payment to foster care providers for the maintenance of an orphan child or a child left without parental care is established by each region separately
Who is considered the parents of the child
What rights arise in persons to care for the child
Rights of adoptive parents are identical to blood parents
What are the obligations to ensure care of child
The obligations of adoptive parents are identical to those of birth parents
How the state supports persons providing care for a child
Adoptive parents receive benefits provided by the regional authorities. Also, adoptive parents receive the right to use maternity capital, if it was not used by the birth mother, and all child benefits in accordance with age. A child who at the time of adoption is entitled to a pension and benefits due to the death of his parents retains this right after adoption
Custody and guardianship
Who is considered the child's parents
What rights do caregivers have?
What obligations do persons who provide care for a child have? At the same time, biological parents are not released from the obligation to pay alimony
How the state supports caregivers
Guardians and caregivers receive a one-time allowance for the adoption of a child into a family, support for the maintenance of a ward, alimony payments, survivor's pension, if the child is entitled to it
3 Who is considered the child's parents
What rights do caregivers have
Similar rights as in guardianship and guardianship
What are the obligations of persons providing care for a child
Similar obligations as in guardianship and guardianship
How the state supports persons providing care for a child for the performance of duties and allowance for the maintenance of a child in the family of the guardian, depending on the legislation of the region, benefits for utilities. The period while the child is in the family is counted towards the foster parents in the insurance period
Who are considered the child’s parents
What rights do caregivers have
Determine the child’s daily routine, resolve current issues of the child’s life in accordance with the contract and child protection plan
What are the duties of persons providing care for a child
Raising a child, protecting his rights and legitimate interests, taking care of his health and development
How the state supports child caregivers
The amount of payment for a foster caregiver is determined by the region's fixed-term employment contract. Monthly payment to foster care for the maintenance of an orphan or a child left without parental care is established by each region separately
Who can adopt a child
Married couples or single adults can adopt a child: if citizens are not married to each other, they cannot jointly adopt the same child.
Art. 128 SK RF
Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation on the approval of the rules for the transfer of children for adoption
Another important condition is that a man or woman must reach the age of majority, and the age difference between the adopter and the child must be at least 16 years. But if the adoptive parents are a married couple, and the age difference is less than the established norm with only one of them, then the guardianship department may, as an exception, give consent.
Other requirements for an adopter:
Legal capacity: own and spouse, if any.
Absence of a conviction for a grave and especially grave crime.
A health condition that allows you to fulfill parental responsibilities: for example, a child will not be allowed to be adopted by patients with tuberculosis or people with disabilities of the first group.
Home ownership or rental.
Substitute parents have a school leaving certificate.
Lack of information about deprivation or restriction of parental rights, cancellation of adoption, removal from the duties of a guardian.
If there are several people who want to adopt a child, his relatives will have the priority right, but taking into account the interests of the adoptee: they are expressed in trusting relationships, attachment to relatives, long-term cohabitation.
How is the secrecy of adoption protected in Russia?
Next, I will tell you what documents future parents will need to collect and how the adoption procedure goes.
Get to know the guardianship authorities at your place of residence
As a rule, there is an adoption specialist in each district municipality. He can work both at the education department and at the department of social protection of the population: this needs to be clarified in the social protection or education authorities at the place of residence.
In some cities, for example, in St. Petersburg, Vladimir, Krasnoyarsk, special adoption and guardianship centers have been created, where future adoptive parents are assisted in paperwork, passing medical examinations, and selecting children. Such an integrated approach greatly simplifies and speeds up the entire procedure.
Center for Family and Children Assistance, St. Petersburg
Center for the Development of Family Forms of Education, Krasnoyarsk
Center for Psychological, Pedagogical, Medical and Social Assistance, Vladimir
At the first visit, candidates for adoptive parents should simply talk with an employee of the guardianship authority is, in fact, an acquaintance. The task of a specialist is to listen to you, to find out the motive for adoption, to understand how fully you understand the responsibility of such a step, whether your housing, family and material conditions meet the requirements of the law.
The guardian must explain your future rights and obligations in relation to the adopted child, the procedure for the adoption procedure, answer your questions, and issue the necessary forms, referrals and a list of documents. Here it is:
A copy of the adoptive parent's marriage certificate, if he is not married, then a copy of the birth certificate: sometimes the court asks him to see if the adoptive parent's surname has changed.
Original and copy of the medical certificate for each of the adoptive parents.
Certificate of criminal record or non-conviction.
When a child is adopted by one of the spouses, the consent of the other spouse or a document confirming that the spouses have terminated family relations and have not lived together for more than a year.
Certificate from the place of work on the position held and salary, or a copy of the income statement or other document confirming the income of the adoptive parent or family of adoptive parents.
Documents confirming the right to use the residential premises or the ownership of the residential premises.
Certificate of completion of training for persons wishing to adopt a child left without parental care into their family.
Curriculum vitae (needed only for the guardianship authority).
The main part of the documents is required to obtain an opinion from the guardianship authorities on the possibility of being an adoptive parent. Later, they will also be needed to apply for adoption to the court. Documents for the child will be prepared by guardianship officials.
Obtain a certificate of no criminal record
I recommend that you start collecting documents from this certificate. Since the request is sent to the Main Information Center of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, a response will have to wait from a week to a month.
An application for issuing a certificate can be filled out at the MFC or independently on the public services portal.
Why do you need a certificate of non-conviction
To order a certificate through the public services portal, you need to go to your personal account and select the public service: "Obtaining a certificate of the presence (absence) of a criminal record. " Source: gosuslugi.ru This is what a certificate of no criminal record looks like
Pass a medical examination
People without serious health problems can take a child from an orphanage.
The list of diseases preventing adoption includes:
Tuberculosis - patients of the 2nd and 3rd dispensary groups.
Drug and alcohol addiction, substance abuse.
Grade 3 and 4 malignancies.
The first group of disability.
List of diseases that make it impossible to adopt a child
A referral form for a medical examination is issued by the guardianship and guardianship authorities along with a list of documents for adoption.
It will not be possible to pass an examination in private clinics: according to the law, only state medical institutions are engaged in this, and free of charge. The medical report will be valid for six months from the date of its approval by the chief physician or the head of the polyclinic.
Medical examination procedure and conclusion form
What is included in the medical examination - public services website
To avoid misunderstandings, immediately after issuing the completed form, you must carefully check whether everything is in order with the execution. In particular, the conclusion of each doctor must be certified by the round official seal of the institution.
A list of examinations and examinations that you will definitely need to pass. Source: gosuslugi.ru Conclusion form, which is issued to future adoptive parents
Obtain a certificate of income and position
Applicants for adoptive parents must prove to the specialists of guardianship authorities the ability to financially support the child.
To do this, you will need to provide a certificate from the place of work on salary and position or copies of the income declaration certified by the tax office. The certificate is prepared in free form indicating the salary and other payments for 12 months.
What rights do guardians have
Write a CV
CV is only for guardianship. It should reflect the main points of the life path: education, marriages and divorces, labor activity. Based on this information, the specialist judges the stability of the financial and family situation of the candidate for adoptive parents, as well as his experience of communicating with children. An autobiography should not be too voluminous: one or two A4 pages is enough. The document can be either written by hand or printed on a computer.
CV must include:
Personal information. Surname, name, patronymic; date and place of birth; information about parents or persons replacing them; information about sisters, brothers, if any; place of permanent registration and address of actual residence, if it differs from the address of registration.
Education. Basic education - years of study, school number and city where one is located. Higher education (if any) - years of study, name of the university, specialty.
Professional activity. Beginning of work experience - place of work and profession; listing periods of work and the name of employers, positions. The last place of employment is included with an indication of the position and salary; awards or events that positively characterize the candidate.
Marital status. Family composition: spouse, children (last name, first name, patronymic, date of birth, occupation). Data on previous marriages and divorces (if any): information about spouses and children born in these marriages; the facts of changing the surname (if any) indicating the reason and the previous surname.
Personal hobbies and additional information. Creative, sports, achievements in them; participation in public organizations, volunteer movement, awards and promotions; experience working with children or helping elderly relatives.
It is also necessary to briefly explain the reason for contacting the guardianship department.
Curriculum vitae example
Complete a course or foster parent training school
The list of required documents for adoption includes a certificate of completion of a psychological, pedagogical and legal training program or a school for future parents.
Art. 127 SK RF
Only close relatives of the child, namely grandparents, older full and half brothers and sisters, stepfathers and stepmothers, as well as those who are already a guardian, trustee or adoptive parent, can not be trained.
At school, prospective adoptive parents are helped to understand whether they are ready for this serious step, and to figure out what form of guardianship will suit them; introduce the legislation, talk about the psychological difficulties that children and adults face both during the period of adaptation and after.
The length of study varies from school to school: a course can last from 56 to 80 academic hours. At the end, a final certification is carried out: after it, future adoptive parents will be issued a certificate of completion of training.
I took three children from the orphanage
You can study for free at any school, regardless of the place of registration.
Foster Parent School Certificate Form
Get an act of checking housing conditions
When all the documents on the list are collected and transferred to the guardianship authorities, the adoptive parents will be assigned an inspection check of living conditions.
The guardian must inspect the housing and assess whether the child can live there. If other people live in an apartment or house in addition to the adoptive parents, guardianship workers will take an interest in their state of health and the relationship that connects them with the candidates for adoptive parents.
For verification, potential adoptive parents provide:
An extract from the USRN confirming the ownership of housing or a contract of social or commercial employment.
Information on the number of residents registered in the housing.
How to get an extract from the USRN
Adoptive parents are not required to provide any other documents other than the above. The conclusion on the possibility of being a candidate for adoptive parents and registration takes place within ten days after checking the housing conditions.
What should be the place of residence of the adoptive parent. The place of residence of a person wishing to adopt a child does not have to coincide with the place of his registration. But it is necessary to have a permanent registration. If the candidate is renting an apartment, he must provide a lease for more than one year. If living with relatives - a written agreement between them for the right to use.
A room in a hostel or apartment cannot be considered a permanent place of residence, no matter how comfortable it may be.
What should be the living conditions. In order for the child to live safely for his health and development, the living space of the adoptive parent must comply with sanitary standards. The main criterion is the availability of communal amenities: water supply, sewerage, central heating, gas supply, and so on.
Guardianship authorities can evaluate this without involving SES, BTI and other third-party organizations.
There are no federal restrictions on the size of housing for adoptive parents - the issue is at the mercy of the regions. For example, in Moscow, there should be at least 18 m² per person. But even when this rule is not observed, the final decision remains with the court: if the adoption is in the interests of the child, permission can be given to families with a smaller apartment area.
Art. 50 ZhK RF
Law on amendments to the RF IC
Find a child for adoption
To select a child, candidates can apply, at their choice, to any municipality in whose territory the orphanage is located, to a regional operator that is in each subject of the Russian Federation or in the Federal Data Bank on orphans and children left without parental care. But the law does not prohibit the independent search for a child in orphanages. You can also search for a child before the candidate receives a conclusion on the possibility of being an adoptive parent, but they will not give a referral to view the child until that moment.
Federal Child Data Bank
When and which child can be adopted. A child who has the status of an orphan, or a child left without parental care, can be adopted at least a day before his or her majority.
Requirements for adoptive parents do not depend on the age of the child they want to adopt. But if the case concerns a baby, whom the mother abandoned in the maternity hospital, then from her, as a legal representative, an additional statement of consent to adoption will be required.
Is it possible to adopt an adult?
This is how the statement of consent to adoption looks like, which the biological mother writes in the maternity hospital
What are the health groups of children during adoption. Health groups is a scale that determines the state of the body and the development of the child. This information is provided to adoptive parents by the regional operator of the database of orphans.
There are five health groups:
The child is absolutely healthy.
Practically healthy children without chronic diseases, but with some functional disorders. For example, children who have had severe and moderate infectious diseases, children with a general delay in physical development without endocrine pathology - short stature, low or overweight. The same group includes frequently ill children and children with noticeable consequences of injuries or operations.
Children with mild treatable pathologies and chronic diseases with rare exacerbations, who are in remission at the time of the examination.
Children with chronic diseases, injuries or operations that limit the child's life or require supportive care.
Children with disabilities.
Pathologies in children are not an obstacle to adoption. However, before you take a child with a complex diagnosis, you need to soberly assess the strengths and capabilities. It is better to consult with specialists in advance on how to organize the process of education. You can also discuss this topic with foster parents whose families have children with similar diagnoses.
In reality, completely healthy orphans are rare. Children of the 1st-2nd health group, as a rule, are babies, who are abandoned in the maternity hospital by very young mothers. Basically, children of the 3rd group are taken to families, and orphans of groups 4-5 more often remain in children's homes.
How I became a foster mother to three girls
How is the meeting with the child. After the child is found, prospective adoptive parents go to the guardianship to which the specific institution belongs, or to the operator of the regional data bank through which the information was received, clarify the details and request a referral for a face-to-face visit.
The referral is valid for 10 days, during this time, future parents can see the child one or more times, talk with his caregivers, pediatrician, psychologist. A conversation with the institution's specialists takes place before meeting the child. If, after this conversation, the failed parents turn around and leave, the child will not be traumatized by failure.
The number of referrals issued is not limited by law, that is, the search continues until the future adopter finds "his" child. A child who is ten years old will also have to express his opinion: agree in writing to a family placement or refuse it.
Art. 132 SK RF
At the end of the ten-day period, the candidate for adoptive parents will have to write on the direction one of the words that can radically change their future life: “I refuse” or “I agree”. If it was possible to find contact with the child and the consent in the guardianship authorities was recorded, the next step is to file an application with the court.
Apply for adoption to the court
This is a rather formal process: you need to come to the court during office hours, submit the documents according to the list, get their list in your hands and wait for the notice of acceptance of the case for proceedings, appointment of the court date. You don't need to pay state duty.
sign. 14 p.1 art. 333.36 TC RF
By law, the period for consideration of an application should not exceed two months from the date of its acceptance in the office. But the judges, as a rule, schedule a hearing for the next possible day.
How is the court session. Adoption cases are handled in a special manner. The adoptive parent, the representative of guardianship, the prosecutor and the child, if he is over 14 years old, must necessarily participate in the process.
Rights of children under 18 years of age
Usually, a court decision enters into force 10 days after it is issued: only from this time do mutual rights and obligations arise between the adoptive parent and the child. If there are special circumstances and there are no objections on the merits of the case from all the participants, the judge may decide on the immediate execution of the decision: for example, if something threatens the life and health of the child and he needs urgent hospitalization.
An adopted baby can be taken home immediately after a positive adoption decision has been made by the court. At the same time, the maternity hospital must issue a postpartum sick leave from the date the decision enters into force when the baby reaches the age of 70 days, and when adopting two or more children - 110 days. A sick leave is needed to apply for maternity leave at the work of one of the adoptive parents.
Art. 157 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation
Obtain an adoption registration certificate
To do this, you need to contact the registry office: they will issue an adoption certificate and a new birth certificate of the child.
ch. V Federal Law on acts of civil status
The child is registered at the place of residence of the adoptive parents.
When an adoption can be canceled and parental rights can be terminated
Most often, cancellation occurs due to the guilty behavior of the adoptive parents. For example, if they shirk parental responsibilities, abuse their rights, abuse a child, abuse alcohol or take drugs.
A claim for the annulment of an adoption may be filed by the adoptive parents themselves, the guardianship and guardianship authorities, the prosecutor and the child if he has reached the age of 14.
Art. 142 SK RF
However, the court has the right to cancel the adoption even if there are no violations on the part of the parents.
Such cases include the identification of hereditary developmental abnormalities in a child that make it difficult or impossible to bring up. As a rule, when receiving an expert medical opinion on an adoptee, the future adopter confirms in writing his consent to familiarize himself with the diagnosis of the child and the history of the mother. If the violation was not listed in the document and appeared later, or the adopter for some reason was not notified under the signature about the presence of a pathology in the child, the adoption may be canceled.
Why they can deprive of parental rights
But in practice, I came across the fact that adoptive parents became attached to children and even when a serious illness was detected, they left them in the family.
Adoption in brief
Before adopting a child, you need to analyze your motives, weigh the pros and cons.
When visiting guardianship authorities and other authorities, be sure to ask and write down the last name, first name, patronymic of the specialist, as well as his position. You are required to provide this information. This way you will show that you are competent in matters of communication with officials and are able to appeal against illegal actions.