10 Ways to Boost Male Fertility and Increase Sperm Count
Medically reviewed by Jillian Kubala, MS, RD, Nutrition — By Atli Arnarson BSc, PhD on May 18, 2020
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If you and your partner are experiencing fertility issues, know that you’re not alone. Infertility is more common than you might think.
It affects about one in every six couples, and researchers estimate about one in every three cases is due to fertility problems in the male partner alone (1, 2).
While infertility is not always treatable, there are some things you can do to boost your chances of conceiving. Fertility can sometimes be improved with a healthy diet, supplements, and other lifestyle strategies.
This article lists some of the main lifestyle factors, foods, nutrients, and supplements that have been associated with improved fertility in men.
Fertility refers to people’s ability to reproduce without medical assistance.
Male infertility is when a man has a poor chance of making his female partner pregnant. It usually depends on the quality of his sperm cells.
Sometimes infertility is linked to sexual function, and other times it could be linked to semen quality. Here are some examples of each:
Libido. Otherwise known as sex drive, libido describes a person’s desire to have sex. Foods or supplements that claim to increase libido are called aphrodisiacs.
Erectile dysfunction. Also known as impotence, erectile dysfunction is when a man is unable to develop or maintain an erection.
Sperm count. An important aspect of semen quality is the number or concentration of sperm cells in a given amount of semen.
Sperm motility. An essential function of healthy sperm cells is their ability to swim. Sperm motility is measured as the percentage of moving sperm cells in a sample of semen.
Testosterone levels. Low levels of testosterone, the male sex hormone, may be responsible for infertility in some men.
Infertility can have multiple causes and may depend on genetics, general health, fitness, diseases, and dietary contaminants.
Additionally, a healthy lifestyle and diet are important. Some foods and nutrients are associated with greater fertility benefits than others.
Here are 10 science-backed ways to boost sperm count and increase fertility in men.
D-aspartic acid (D-AA) is a form of aspartic acid, a type of amino acid that’s sold as a dietary supplement.
It should not be confused with L-aspartic acid, which makes up the structure of many proteins and is far more common than D-AA.
D-AA is mainly present in certain glands, such as the testicles, as well as in semen and sperm cells.
Researchers believe that D-AA is implicated in male fertility. In fact, D-AA levels are significantly lower in infertile men than fertile men (3).
This is supported by studies showing that D-AA supplements may increase levels of testosterone, the male sex hormone that plays an essential role in male fertility.
For example, a study in infertile men suggested that taking 2.7 grams of D-AA for 3 months increased their testosterone levels by 30–60% and sperm count and motility by 60–100%.
The number of pregnancies also increased among their partners (4).
Another controlled study in healthy men showed that taking 3 grams of D-AA supplements daily for 2 weeks increased testosterone levels by 42% (5).
However, the evidence is not consistent. Studies in athletes or strength-trained men with normal to high testosterone levels found that D-AA didn’t increase its levels further and even reduced them at high doses (6, 7).
The current evidence indicates that D-AA supplements may improve fertility in men with low testosterone levels, while they don’t consistently provide additional benefits in men with normal to high levels.
More research is needed to investigate the potential long-term risks and benefits of D-AA supplements in humans.
Shop for D-aspartic acid supplements online.
Besides being good for your general health, exercising regularly can boost testosterone levels and improve fertility.
Studies show that men who exercise regularly have higher testosterone levels and better semen quality than inactive men (8, 9, 10).
However, you should avoid too much exercise, as it may have the opposite effect and potentially reduce testosterone levels. Getting the right amount of zinc can minimize this risk (11, 12, 13).
If you rarely exercise but want to improve your fertility, make becoming physically active one of your top priorities.
You’re probably familiar with vitamin C’s ability to boost the immune system.
Some evidence indicates that taking antioxidant supplements, such as vitamin C, may improve fertility.
Oxidative stress is when levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) reach harmful levels in the body.
It happens when the body’s own antioxidant defenses are overwhelmed because of disease, old age, an unhealthy lifestyle, or environmental pollutants (14, 15, 16).
ROS are constantly being produced in the body, but their levels are kept in check in healthy people. High levels of ROS may promote tissue injury and inflammation, increasing the risk of chronic disease (17).
There’s also some evidence that oxidative stress and excessively high levels of ROS may lead to infertility in men (18, 19).
Taking in enough antioxidants, such as vitamin C, may help counteract some of these harmful effects. There’s also some evidence that vitamin C supplements may improve semen quality.
A study in infertile men showed that taking 1,000-mg vitamin C supplements twice a day for up to 2 months increased sperm motility by 92% and sperm count by more than 100%. It also reduced the proportion of deformed sperm cells by 55% (20).
Another observational study in Indian industrial workers suggested that taking 1,000 mg of vitamin C five times a week for 3 months may protect against DNA damage caused by ROS in sperm cells.
Vitamin C supplements also significantly improved sperm count and motility, while reducing the numbers of deformed sperm cells (21).
Taken together, these findings suggest that vitamin C may help improve fertility in infertile men with oxidative stress.
However, controlled studies are needed before any definite claims can be made.
It’s hard to get in the mood when you’re feeling stressed, but there might be more to it than not feeling up for sex. Stress may reduce your sexual satisfaction and impair your fertility (22, 23, 24).
Researchers believe the hormone cortisol may partly explain these adverse effects of stress.
Prolonged stress raises levels of cortisol, which has strong negative effects on testosterone. When cortisol goes up, testosterone levels tend to go down (25, 26).
While severe, unexplained anxiety is typically treated with medication, milder forms of stress can be reduced with relaxation techniques.
Stress management can be as simple as taking a walk in nature, meditating, exercising, or spending time with friends.
Vitamin D can be important for male and female fertility. It’s another nutrient that may boost testosterone levels.
One observational study showed that vitamin-D-deficient men were more likely to have low testosterone levels (27).
A controlled study in 65 men with low testosterone levels and vitamin D deficiency supported these findings. Taking 3,000 IU of vitamin D3 every day for 1 year increased their testosterone levels by around 25% (28).
High vitamin D levels are linked to greater sperm motility, but the evidence is inconsistent (29, 30).
Tribulus terrestris, also known as puncture vine, is a medicinal herb frequently used to enhance male fertility.
One study in men with low sperm counts showed that taking 6 grams of tribulus root twice daily for 2 months improved erectile function and libido (31).
While Tribulus terrestris does not raise testosterone levels, research indicates that it may enhance the libido-promoting effects of testosterone (32, 33, 34).
However, further studies are needed to confirm its aphrodisiac properties and evaluate the long-term risks and benefits of supplementing with it.
Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is a popular culinary and medicinal herb.
One study in 30 men who strength-trained four times a week analyzed the effects of taking 500 mg of fenugreek extract daily.
The men experienced significantly increased testosterone levels, strength, and fat loss, compared with a placebo (35).
Another study in 60 healthy men showed that taking 600 mg of Testofen, a supplement made from fenugreek seed extract and minerals, daily for 6 weeks improved libido, sexual performance, and strength (36).
These findings were confirmed by another, larger study in 120 healthy men. Taking 600 mg of Testofen every day for 3 months improved self-reported erectile function and the frequency of sexual activity.
Also, the supplement significantly increased testosterone levels (37).
Keep in mind that all of these studies examined fenugreek extracts. It’s unlikely that whole fenugreek, which is used in cooking and herbal tea, is as effective.
Zinc is an essential mineral found in high amounts in animal foods, such as meat, fish, eggs, and shellfish.
Getting enough zinc is one of the cornerstones of male fertility.
Observational studies show that low zinc status or deficiency is associated with low testosterone levels, poor sperm quality, and an increased risk of male infertility (38).
Also, taking zinc supplements increases testosterone levels and sperm count in those who are low in zinc (39, 40, 41).
Furthermore, zinc supplements may reduce the decreased testosterone levels that are associated with excessive amounts of high-intensity exercise (12, 13).
Controlled trials need to confirm these observational findings.
Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is a medicinal herb that’s been used in India since ancient times.
Studies suggest that ashwagandha may improve male fertility by boosting testosterone levels.
One study in men with low sperm cell counts showed that taking 675 mg of ashwagandha root extract per day for 3 months significantly improved fertility.
Specifically, it increased sperm counts by 167%, semen volume by 53%, and sperm motility by 57%, compared with levels at the start of the study. In comparison, minimal improvements were detected among those who got a placebo treatment (42).
Increased testosterone levels may be partly responsible for these benefits.
A study in 57 young men following a strength-training program showed that consuming 600 mg of ashwagandha root extract daily significantly increased testosterone levels, muscle mass, and strength, compared with a placebo (43).
These findings are supported by observational evidence indicating that ashwagandha supplements may improve sperm counts, sperm motility, antioxidant status, and testosterone levels (44, 45).
Taking maca root supplements may improve libido, as well as fertility and sexual performance.
Maca root is a popular plant food that originated in central Peru. Traditionally, it has been used for its ability to enhance libido and fertility.
Several studies in men showed that taking 1.5–3 grams of dried maca root for periods of up to 3 months improved self-reported sexual desire or libido (46, 47, 48).
Studies also suggest that maca root may improve sexual performance. In men with mild erectile dysfunction, taking 2.4 grams of dried maca root for 12 weeks slightly improved self-reported erectile function and sexual well-being (49).
Taking 1.75 grams of maca root powder every day for 3 months also increased sperm count and motility in healthy men (50).
These findings have been partly confirmed by reviews, but the researchers noted that the evidence is weak and more research is needed before definite claims can be made (51, 52).
Additionally, maca root doesn’t seem to affect hormone levels. Taking 1.5–3 grams of maca root per day for 3 months had no effects on testosterone or other reproductive hormones in healthy, fertile men (53).
Many things can help boost fertility, but what works for you depends on the cause of your fertility issues.
Also, keep in mind that fertility and libido usually go hand in hand with your general health.
For this reason, anything that improves your overall health is likely to boost your fertility.
Here are 8 additional tips to boost fertility and sperm count/quality:
Lead a healthy lifestyle. Unhealthy lifestyle practices impair your overall health, including fertility (54).
Lose excess weight. Carrying extra weight is associated with infertility. If your doctor suspects that weight may be linked to your infertility, discuss weight loss as one of your health goals (55, 56, 57).
Limit your alcohol intake. Avoid heavy alcohol consumption, as it may reduce testosterone levels and impair semen quality (58, 59).
Get enough folate. A few studies indicate that a low intake of folate may impair semen quality (60, 61).
Get adequate sleep. Getting adequate sleep is vital to maintaining your health. Restricted or excessive sleep has also been linked to poor semen quality (62).
Snack on walnuts. Eating a lot of antioxidant-rich foods, such as walnuts, seems to benefit fertility (63).
Consider supplements. Antioxidant supplements also seem to work. Some evidence suggests that coenzyme Q10 improves semen quality (64, 65).
Avoid eating too much soy. Soy is rich in isoflavones, which are associated with lower semen quality (66).
Infertility is fairly common and affects many men worldwide.
If you’re having fertility issues, one thing you can do is focus on improving your general health. Many of the tips mentioned above are key components of a healthy lifestyle.
There’s no guaranteed fix, but if nutrient deficiencies or low testosterone levels are contributing factors, chances are that these lifestyle tips may help.
7 Tips for Sperm Health
How to Increase Sperm Count: 7 Tips for Sperm Health
Medically reviewed by Suzanne Falck, M.D., FACP — By Chaunie Brusie on May 2, 2017
If you and your partner are trying to conceive a baby, you may be looking for information about how to increase sperm count to improve your chances of getting pregnant. A healthy sperm count is necessary for fertility.
For pregnancy to occur, only one sperm and one egg are needed, so why does sperm count matter? In short, it increases the odds for a successful pregnancy. When a man ejaculates into a woman, the chances that one sperm will reach and implant itself into an egg increases if more sperm are in the semen.
Normal semen contains 40 million to 300 million sperm per milliliter. A low sperm count is considered to be anything between 10 and 20 million sperm per milliliter. Twenty million sperm per milliliter may be adequate for pregnancy if the sperm are healthy.
Read on to learn more about sperm count plus seven things you can do to improve sperm health.
1. Lose weight
Losing weight if you’re overweight is one of the single-most effective things you can do to increase sperm count. Studies have shown that weight loss can significantly increase semen volume, concentration, and mobility, as well as the overall health of sperm. The changes in sperm count have been found to be most significant in men who have a higher body mass index, so if you have a large amount of weight to lose, even losing a small amount of weight may help.
To accomplish your weight loss goals, talk to a doctor who can help you get started. You may want to schedule an appointment with a nutritionist to change any eating habits that could be improved. Working with a trainer or other exercise program can also help.
Even if you don’t need to lose weight, staying active and leading a healthy lifestyle can help boost your sperm count. One study found that weightlifting and outdoors exercise can help sperm health more than other types of exercise. Consider incorporating these kinds of activities into your routine. Exercise can also help you maintain or lose weight, which may have additional benefits for your sperm health.
3. Take your vitamins
Some types of vitamins, including vitamins D, C, E, and CoQ10, are important for sperm health.
One study showed that taking 1,000 mg of vitamin C every day can help men’s sperm concentration and mobility. The overall sperm count won’t improve, but the sperm can become more concentrated and able to move more efficiently. That can boost your chances of conceiving successfully.
Another study noted less successful rates of pregnancy among couples where the man had low levels of vitamin D. More research is needed to understand the relationship between this vitamin and fertility, but there does seem to be a correlation.
Talk to your doctor about testing your vitamin levels. They can do this using a simple blood test.
Read more: Herbs, vitamins, and supplements for testosterone levels »
4. Avoid substance abuse
Low sperm counts and unhealthy sperm have been linked to people with a history of:
heavy drinking, which is defined as drinking two or more alcoholic drinks per day
tobacco use of any kind
illegal drug use, including cocaine and anabolic steroids
If you use any of these substances and are having trouble quitting, talk to your doctor. They can recommend programs to help manage and treat addiction.
5. Check your environment
Consider changing your clothes and showering as soon as possible if you’ve been exposed to:
non-water based glues or paints
other endocrine disruptors
Those toxins may affect sperm count. If you’re exposed to any of these things because of a hobby, consider putting your hobby on hold until after you’ve successfully conceived.
Jobs that expose you to excess heat or radiation, or even extreme sedentary work can also affect sperm count.
6. Have your bike checked
Biking might be related to low sperm count. Bicycling more than five hours per week is associated with lower sperm concentration. Having your bike checked for a proper fit can help.
7. Wear loose, cotton boxers
Keeping your sperm at an adequate temperature and allowing lots of air flow to the scrotum can help cultivate the right environment for healthy sperm. If you don’t feel comfortable wearing boxers, choose cotton briefs instead of synthetic ones. That will still help control air flow and temperature.
Sperm count isn’t the only thing that matters when trying to conceive. You also want to have overall healthy sperm.
A male’s reproductive health is defined by three aspects of sperm:
the health of the individual sperm
the amount or concentration of sperm
the volume of the overall sperm
Some findings suggest that men’s sperm quality is declining. Doctors aren’t completely sure why that is happening, but lifestyle and nutrition may play a role.
Does sperm count affect IVF success?
Sperm count affects the use of reproductive technology, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), as well. Your success in using IVF with a low sperm count will depend on the health of your sperm and what factors are causing the low sperm count. The sperm can now be injected directly into the egg through a process called intracytoplasmic sperm injection as an alternative if the man has a very low sperm count.
No matter how you are hoping to conceive, improving your sperm count can help improve your chances of a successful pregnancy.
Learn more: Fertility treatment options for women and men »
When to see a doctor
The common advice given to couples trying to conceive is to see a doctor after one year of unprotected sex that does not result in pregnancy. If the female partner is over 35, see a doctor after six months of unprotected sex that does not result in a pregnancy.
If you have a known occupation, hobby, or medical condition that is linked to a lower sperm count, you should talk to a doctor as soon as possible before you begin trying to conceive. They can do tests to ensure that you’re healthy and conception is recommended.
Read more: How long does it take to get pregnant? »
If you’re having trouble conceiving, a fertility specialist will usually perform tests on both the man and woman. A woman will have her eggs, ovaries, and uterus tested. A man will provide a semen sample for a semen analysis and sperm count. The doctor will check the number of sperm per sample to determine if the sperm count is too low. An ultrasound may also be performed to look for problems in the scrotum, or ducts and tubes where the semen travels.
The success rate of achieving pregnancy with a low sperm count will vary based on your and your partner’s individual health. If you decide you want to have a family, there are many options available to you, such as pursuing adoption, exploring IVF, or making lifestyle changes to try to conceive. Your first step is talking with a doctor who can help assess sperm count and other fertility factors before making a plan for your future.
Q&A: Ejaculation frequency and sperm count
What conditions can affect sperm count?
There are many things that can affect a person’s sperm count, including congenital disorder-like hormonal changes. Other acquired diseases, such as mumps, can also have an effect. Illicit drugs, alcohol, certain toxins, smoking, and exposure to heavy metals like lead and mercury can all affect sperm production. Trauma or illnesses such as liver disease and kidney disease are factors as well. Fertility can be affected if there are problems with delivering the sperm from the testes. Problems anywhere along the tract from the testicles, including the epididymis, vas deferens, and prostate, can affect fertility. Retrograde ejaculation — when the ejaculate goes in the wrong direction — can decrease fertility, though not necessarily sperm count.
Suzanne Falck MD
Answers represent the opinions of our medical experts. All content is strictly informational and should not be considered medical advice.
Last medically reviewed on May 2, 2017
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Healthline has strict sourcing guidelines and relies on peer-reviewed studies, academic research institutions, and medical associations. We avoid using tertiary references. You can learn more about how we ensure our content is accurate and current by reading our editorial policy.
Ahmadi, S., Bashiri, R., Ghadiri-Anari, A., & Nadjarzadeh, A. (2016, December). Antioxidant supplements and semen parameters: An evidence based review. International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine, 14(12), 729-736 ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5203687/
Alcohol, tobacco, illicit substances. (2014, September 3) cdc.gov/preconception/careformen/exposures.html
Centola, G. M, Blanchard, A., Demick, J., Li, S., & Eisenberg, M. L. (2016, March). Decline in sperm count and motility in young adult men from 2003 to 2013: Observations from a U.S. sperm bank [Abstract]. Andrology, 4(2), 270-276 ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26789272
Gaskins, A. J., Afeiche, M. C., Hauser, R., Williams, P. L., Gillman, M. W., Tanrikut, C., … Chavarro, J. E. (2014, November). Paternal physical and sedentary activities in relation to semen quality and reproductive outcomes among couples from a fertility center. 29(11), 2575-2582 Human Reproduction,https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4191451/
Rafiee, B., Morowvat, M. H., & Rahimi-Ghalati, N. (2016, April 16). Comparing the effectiveness of dietary vitamin C and exercise interventions on fertility parameters in normal obese men [Abstract]. Urology Journal,13(2), 2635-2639 ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27085565
Tartagni, M., Matteo, M., Baldini, D., Tartagni, M. V., Alrasheed, H., De Salvia, M. A., … Montagnani, M. (2015, November 21). Males with low serum levels of vitamin D have lower pregnancy rates when ovulation induction and timed intercourse are used as a treatment for infertile couples: Results from a pilot study. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, 13, 127 ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4654914/
The semen analysis. (n.d.) resolve.org/about-infertility/male-workup/the-semen-analysis.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/
Wise, L. A., Cramer, D. W., Hornstein, M. D., Ashby, R. K., & Missmer, S. A. (2011, March). Physcial activity and semen quality among men attending an infertility clinic [Abstract]. Fertility and Sterility, 95(3), 1025-1030 sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0015028210027767
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May 2, 2017
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Suzanne Falck, MD
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Medically reviewed by Suzanne Falck, M.D., FACP — By Chaunie Brusie on May 2, 2017
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Preparing a man for conception - clinic "Family Doctor".
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Preparing a man for conception
Preparation for conception is necessary for both a woman and a man. This is because the child receives 50% of the genetic material from each parent. So, for the birth of a healthy child, his parents must be healthy.
Many factors can affect the male reproductive system. First of all, bad habits should be mentioned, which include smoking and alcohol abuse, as well as constant stress and chronic lack of sleep. It is also the presence of sexually transmitted infections, exacerbation of chronic prostatitis, hormonal disorders, taking certain medications and steroids, a sedentary lifestyle, obesity, overheating of the groin and perineum, etc.
When planning a conception, a man needs to exclude the impact of all of the above factors in three months and cure diseases and infections, because. the full cycle of sperm renewal takes three months.
What can you do to improve the quality of your sperm = the genetic material of your unborn child?
1. Remember that sperm do not like overheating. Therefore, it is advisable to cancel visits to baths and saunas, to keep the seat heating in the car turned on for too long. 2. Reduce weight if you are obese. For men, a waist circumference in centimeters (at the level of the navel) over 94 cm = obese. In adipose tissue, testosterone is converted to estrogens, many inflammatory factors are produced, and this can also lead to type 2 diabetes, etc. Which, as you understand, are not the best companions for easily injured sperm! 3. Exclude sugary carbonated drinks, dyes, trans fats, confectionery from the diet. 4. Do not abuse alcohol. Alcohol, in addition to a direct toxic effect on spermatozoa, reduces the body's ability to absorb zinc, which is necessary for normal spermatogenesis. 5. Stop smoking. According to numerous studies, up to 50% of couples suffering from idiopathic infertility, after stopping smoking, find a long-awaited baby. 6. Try to be less nervous and sleep more. 7. Do not take medicines without a doctor's prescription (many drugs can significantly impair sperm quality). From here follows the rule: treat your chronic diseases before the moment of pregnancy planning.
In order to understand how fertile you are, you need to come to a consultation with a urologist-andrologist. It is advisable to have at least a spermogram with you. The rest of the list of examinations will be consulted by a doctor of the aforementioned specialty. It is better for a married couple to undergo an examination in parallel so that the treatment does not work out late, because. after the age of 35, a woman loses the ability to bear children faster than a man, and many couples miss the moment just because the man does not want to visit medical institutions.
To make an appointment with a specialist, call the single contact center in Moscow +7 (495) 775 75 66, fill out the online appointment form or contact the receptionist of the Family Doctor clinic.
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12 recommendations for future fathers
In order to have a child in a family, the efforts of both spouses are required. Usually, women pay more attention to preparing for pregnancy, but problems with conception can also affect men's health. Many factors (from genetics to environmental influences) can affect male fertility (fertility), so it is sometimes difficult to identify the cause of infertility, said Jared Robins, a specialist in reproductive endocrinology and infertility.
In 40% of cases, the reason for the impossibility of conceiving a child lies in problems with the reproductive health of a man. Scientists have developed 12 recommendations for future fathers, following which can contribute to the successful conception of a child.
Weight control. According to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, USA, excess body weight affects sperm quality, leads to a decrease in the number of spermatozoa and a decrease in their motility, and is also associated with an increase in genetic damage. Scientists suggest that excess fat can lead to a decrease in testosterone and other sex hormones.
Chronic disease control. Effective management of chronic diseases such as hypertension and diabetes improves the chances of successful conception. Some drugs to lower blood pressure, reduce the severity of depression and pain can adversely affect sperm production, the scientists noted.
Healthy eating. The role of any foods in male infertility has not been studied, but scientists still recommend that men eat a healthy diet. Fruits and vegetables are an important source of antioxidants that are beneficial for the production of quality sperm. There is little evidence that caffeine is associated with infertility in men, so it should be avoided if possible.
Regular physical activity reduces stress, improves well-being and overall health. But excessive loads and a busy training schedule can adversely affect reproductive ability.
Vitamins. Scientists recommend that men take vitamin complexes, as this most likely will not cause harm, but may provide health benefits. Vitamins C and E may protect sperm from the harmful effects of free radicals, experts suggest.
Environment. Exposure to certain chemicals, pesticides, and heavy metals can impair fertility in men. There is speculation that carrying a mobile phone in the front pockets of your pants and placing a laptop on your lap may impair a man's ability to conceive. But scientific studies of these issues have not been conducted.
Underwear. It is widely believed that underwear affects men's health. In 2016, a study of this problem was conducted with the participation of 500 men. It turned out that the type of underwear does not affect the ability of a couple to conceive a child. Scientists recommend that men wear underwear that they feel comfortable in.
Heat. Frequent visits and long stays in a hot bath and sauna or steam bath can lead to an increase in scrotal temperature and a decrease in the quality and quantity of spermatozoa. Since this effect is temporary, sperm quality resumes a few months after the cessation of such procedures.